Perang Tujuh Tahun (1756-1763)

Perang Tujuh Tahun (1756-1763)


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Perang Tujuh Tahun (1756-1763)

Perang Tujuh Tahun adalah konflik global pertama. Ia mempunyai dua bahagian depan. Yang pertama, di Eropah, adalah permusuhan antara Prusia dan Austria, masih meriah setelah Perang Penggantian Austria, yang berkembang melalui pakatan untuk merangkumi seluruh Eropah. Yang kedua adalah persaingan kolonial antara Britain, Perancis dan Sepanyol, yang dikenal di Amerika sebagai Perang Perancis dan India, yang dimulai pada tahun 1754 dengan konflik penguasaan lembah Ohio. Perang Tujuh Tahun bermula dalam kesibukan aktiviti diplomatik yang mengakibatkan revolusi diplomatik dan pembalikan pakatan Perang Penggantian Austria. Pertama Britain dan Prusia membentuk perikatan (Januari 1756), diikuti oleh Perancis dan Austria, yang merupakan musuh tradisional. Pertempuran dimulakan dengan Frederick II dari pencerobohan dan kekalahan Prussia di Saxony (Ogos-Oktober 1756), walaupun konflik utama tidak bermula hingga tahun berikutnya.

Pada Januari 1757, Kerajaan Rom Suci, yang dipimpin oleh Maria Theresa dari Habsburg,

permaisuri Austria (walaupun suaminya Francis I adalah Kaisar Rom Suci), mengisytiharkan perang terhadap Prusia, yang kini mendapati dirinya dikelilingi oleh musuh, dengan populasi dan sumber daya yang jauh lebih besar. Tanggapan Frederick adalah menyerang Bohemia, di mana dia mengalahkan orang Austria pada Pertempuran Prague (6 Mei 1757), walaupun dia sendiri dikalahkan di Kolin (18 Jun 1757) dan terpaksa menarik diri, walaupun dia kemudian mengalahkan tentera Perancis dan Austria di Saxony pada Pertempuran Rossbach (5 November 1757), dan tentera Austria menyerang Silesia pada pertempuran Leuthen (5 Disember 1757. Pada tahun yang sama menyaksikan Clive of India mengalahkan Perancis di India pada Pertempuran Plassey (23 Jun), dan Perancis menduduki Hanover, setelah mengalahkan duke Cumberland di Hastenbeck, memaksanya untuk menandatangani Konvensyen Kloster-Zeven

Penjajahan Perancis di Hanover tidak lama, dan tentera gabungan Britain dan Hanover mengalahkan pasukan Franco-Austria di Crefeld (Jun 1758), diikuti dua bulan kemudian oleh kemenangan Frederick ke atas Rusia di Zorndorg (Ogos 1758), menghentikan kemajuan mereka. Orang Austria dapat membuat kekalahan yang jarang berlaku pada Frederick di Hochkirck (Oktober 1758), tetapi gagal memanfaatkannya

1759 melihat Prusia di kaki belakang, tetapi Britain menang. Frederick dikalahkan oleh orang Rusia di Kunersdorf (Ogos) dan orang Austria di Maxen (November). Sebaliknya, Britain menang di darat, di laut, dan di tanah jajahan. Ogos menyaksikan Pertempuran Minden (1 Ogos), di mana pasukan gabungan Inggeris dan Hanoveria mengalahkan serangan Perancis baru, dan Pertempuran Lagos tentera laut (7-18 Ogos 1759, di luar Portugal), di mana armada Perancis bertujuan untuk menyerang England dikalahkan. September menyaksikan penangkapan Quebec dari Perancis, dan 20 November pertempuran laut di Teluk Quiberon (Brittany), kekalahan armada Perancis yang bertujuan untuk menyerang Skotlandia.

Kejayaan Inggeris berterusan pada tahun 1760, dengan kemenangan ke atas Perancis di India pada Pertempuran Wandiwash (Madras, 22 Januari), yang mengakhiri harapan Perancis untuk kemenangan di India. Ini juga menyaksikan beberapa kejayaan bagi Frederick II, walaupun pendudukan Berlin yang singkat oleh Rusia pada bulan Oktober. Dia mengalahkan orang Austria di Torgau (3 November), walaupun kerugian berat di kedua-dua belah pihak. 1761 berlanjutan dalam keadaan yang sama, dengan Inggeris berjaya di Pondicherry (Januari), dan Jerman mengalahkan Perancis di Villinghause (15 Julai). Pada ketika ini, sifat perang diubah oleh kematian dua raja. Pertama adalah kematian George II, dan penggabungan George III, yang mengakhiri bantuan Inggeris kepada Prusia. Tepat ketika Prusia ditakdirkan, Tsar Peter III berjaya ke Takhta Rusia (Januari 1762). Tsar baru adalah pengagum Frederick II, dan dengan cepat bergerak untuk mengakhiri perang antara Prusia dan Rusia (Perjanjian St. Petersburg, 5 Mei 1762). Perang kini beralih secara tegas ke arah Britain dan Prussia. Frederick II mengalahkan orang Austria di Burkersdorf (21 Julai 1762) dan Reichenbach (16 Ogos), mendapatkan kembali semua wilayahnya yang hilang, sementara Inggeris menawan Havana dan Manila dari Sepanyol. Perdamaian antara Britain dan Perancis dipulihkan oleh Perjanjian Fontainebleau (3 November 1763) dan Paris (10 Februari 1763), di mana Britain mengembalikan Kuba dan Filipina ke Sepanyol, sementara mempertahankan penaklukannya dari Perancis di Kanada, Amerika dan India . Lima hari kemudian Perjanjian Hubertusberg (15 Februari 1763) menyaksikan perdamaian antara Austria, Prusia dan Saxony, mengesahkan Silesia sebagai wilayah Prusia.

Perang Tujuh Tahun menyaksikan Britain ditubuhkan sebagai kuasa penjajah terbesar, dengan penguasaan ke atas India dan Amerika Utara nampaknya aman, sementara Prusia muncul sebagai kekuatan terbesar di Benua, dan kekuatan dominan di dalam Jerman, yang masih mengurangkan kekuatan Rom Suci Empayar dan Habsburg Austria. Frederick II dari Prussia (The Great) muncul sebagai pemimpin perang yang paling luar biasa. Prussia adalah yang terkecil dari pasukan tempur utama, namun Frederick bertahan tahun demi tahun berkempen, dan walaupun hampir kalah, dia muncul sebagai pemenang.

Buku mengenai Perang Tujuh Tahun | Indeks Subjek: Perang Tujuh Tahun


Perang Perancis dan India

The Perang Perancis dan India (1754–1763) menentang jajahan Amerika Inggeris terhadap New France, masing-masing pihak disokong oleh unit ketenteraan dari negara induk dan oleh sekutu Asli Amerika. Pada awal perang, jajahan Perancis mempunyai populasi kira-kira 60,000 orang peneroka, berbanding dengan 2 juta di jajahan Inggeris. [4] Orang Perancis yang terlalu banyak bergantung pada penduduk asli.

  • Great Britain
    • Amerika Britain
    • Kerajaan Perancis
    • Perancis Baru

    Negara-negara Eropah mengisytiharkan perang yang lebih luas antara satu sama lain di luar negeri pada tahun 1756, dua tahun ke dalam Perang Perancis dan India, dan banyak yang menganggap Perang Perancis dan India hanya sebagai teater Amerika di seluruh dunia Perang Tujuh Tahun namun pada tahun 1756–63, Perang Perancis dan India dilihat di Amerika Syarikat sebagai konflik tunggal yang tidak berkaitan dengan perang Eropah. [5] Orang Kanada Perancis menyebutnya Guerre de la Conquête ('Perang Penaklukan'). [6] [7]

    Penjajah Inggeris disokong pada berbagai masa oleh suku Iroquois, Catawba, dan Cherokee, dan penjajah Perancis disokong oleh suku anggota Gabungan Wabanaki Abenaki dan Mi'kmaq, dan suku Algonquin, Lenape, Ojibwa, Ottawa, Shawnee, dan Wyandot . [8] Pertempuran berlaku terutama di sepanjang perbatasan antara New France dan koloni Inggeris, dari Province of Virginia di selatan hingga Newfoundland di utara. Ia bermula dengan perselisihan mengenai kawalan pertemuan Sungai Allegheny dan Sungai Monongahela yang disebut Forks of Ohio, dan lokasi Fort Duquesne Perancis di lokasi yang kemudian menjadi Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Perselisihan itu meletus dalam keganasan dalam Pertempuran Jumonville Glen pada Mei 1754, di mana anggota tentera Virginia di bawah komando George Washington yang berusia 22 tahun menyerang sebuah rondaan Perancis. [9]

    Pada tahun 1755, enam gabenor kolonial bertemu dengan Jeneral Edward Braddock, komandan Tentera Inggeris yang baru tiba, dan merancang serangan empat arah ke atas Perancis. Tidak ada yang berjaya, dan usaha utama Braddock membuktikan malapetaka dia kalah dalam Pertempuran Monongahela pada 9 Julai 1755, dan meninggal beberapa hari kemudian. Operasi Inggeris gagal di kawasan perbatasan di Provinsi Pennsylvania dan Provinsi New York pada tahun 1755–57 kerana gabungan pengurusan yang lemah, perpecahan dalaman, pengakap Kanada yang berkesan, pasukan tetap Perancis, dan sekutu pejuang Asli. Pada tahun 1755, Inggeris menawan Fort Beauséjour di sempadan yang memisahkan Nova Scotia dari Acadia, dan mereka memerintahkan pengusiran orang-orang Acadia (1755–64) tidak lama kemudian. Perintah untuk dihantar pulang oleh Panglima Besar William Shirley tanpa arahan dari Great Britain. Orang-orang Acadia diusir, baik yang ditangkap dan mereka yang telah mengangkat sumpah setia kepada Raja. Orang asli juga dihalau dari tanah untuk memberi laluan kepada peneroka dari New England. [10]

    Pemerintahan kolonial Inggeris jatuh di wilayah Nova Scotia setelah beberapa kempen bencana pada tahun 1757, termasuk ekspedisi yang gagal terhadap Louisbourg dan Pengepungan Benteng William Henry yang terakhir ini diikuti oleh Orang Asli yang menyiksa dan membantai mangsa penjajah mereka. William Pitt berkuasa dan secara signifikan meningkatkan sumber daya ketenteraan Britain di koloni pada masa ketika Perancis tidak bersedia mengambil risiko konvoi besar untuk membantu pasukan terhad yang mereka miliki di New France, lebih memilih untuk menumpukan kekuatan mereka terhadap Prusia dan sekutunya yang kini terlibat dalam Perang Tujuh Tahun di Eropah. Konflik di Ohio berakhir pada tahun 1758 dengan kemenangan Inggeris-Amerika di Negara Ohio. Antara tahun 1758 dan 1760, tentera Inggeris melancarkan kempen untuk menangkap Kanada Perancis. Mereka berjaya merebut wilayah di jajahan sekitar dan akhirnya bandar Quebec (1759). Pada tahun berikutnya, British berjaya dalam Kempen Montreal di mana Perancis menyerahkan Kanada sesuai dengan Perjanjian Paris (1763).

    Perancis juga menyerahkan wilayahnya di sebelah timur Mississippi ke Great Britain, serta Louisiana Perancis di sebelah barat Sungai Mississippi kepada sekutunya Sepanyol sebagai ganti rugi atas kehilangan Sepanyol kepada Britain dari Florida Sepanyol. (Sepanyol telah menyerahkan Florida ke Britain sebagai pertukaran untuk kembalinya Havana, Cuba.) Kehadiran kolonial Perancis di utara Caribbean dikurangkan ke pulau-pulau Saint Pierre dan Miquelon, yang mengesahkan kedudukan Britain sebagai kuasa penjajah yang dominan di Amerika utara.


    Об этой игре

    MEMIMPIN BANGSA ANDA MELALUI PERCUBAAN PERANG DUNIA PERTAMA DALAM SEJARAH DAN MENYEDIAKAN YAYASAN UNTUK PESANAN DUNIA BARU!

    Pada pertengahan abad ke-18 tentera yang kuat dari empayar Eropah yang hebat dibawa ke perang dunia global pertama, Perang Tujuh Tahun. Sementara Prussia berjuang untuk wujud menentang pakatan unggul di Eropah, perjuangan untuk menjajah antara Britain dan Perancis muncul untuk mengumpulkan dominasi di benua Amerika Utara.

    • Mainkan 20 kempen masa nyata bermula dari tahun 1750 hingga 1762, masing-masing dengan tujuan individu
    • Liputan teater Eropah dan Amerika Utara yang lengkap dengan lebih daripada 110 bandar dan wilayah termasuk 13 negara
    • Bangun ekonomi yang besar dengan rantai produk yang kompleks untuk menyediakan tenaga, tentera dan armada anda
    • Kembangkan bandar dan wilayah anda untuk memperoleh kekayaan dan merekrut dan menguruskan faktor ekonomi seperti kadar pengangguran dan kekayaan rakyat
    • Menjalin perdagangan lebih dari 20 barang dengan pasaran tempatan, negara asing dan berjuang untuk mengawal sumber peta yang sempit
    • Gunakan pelbagai langkah diplomatik seperti pertukaran tahanan atau tindakan ketenteraan bersama
    • Bangun tentera anda dari rejimen bernama tunggal ke hierarki bahagian yang kompleks dan peruntukkan sejumlah besar senjata
    • Berdagang dengan orang asli seperti negara Huron atau Irok dan ambil pengaruh untuk mendapatkan sekutu atau unit asli yang berharga
    • Uruskan pasukan pegawai anda dengan kepakaran individu bergantung pada jenis senjata dan pengalaman pertempuran
    • Tetapkan 10 politik berbeza untuk mengubah arah ekonomi anda mulai dari liberalisasi perdagangan hingga makanan
    • Teliti lebih dari 90 teknologi untuk meningkatkan kecekapan pengeluaran anda atau mendapatkan akses ke bangunan dan unit baru
    • Kendalikan laluan tentera laut untuk mendapatkan akses ke barang mewah atau memotong bekalan ke jajahan musuh anda
    • Mainkan pengepungan kota atau kubu dengan menggali parit dan kubu artileri
    • Mengeluarkan pinjaman perang atau membuat pembayaran koin untuk memperbaiki kewangan anda
    • Pimpin tentera anda ke pertempuran masa nyata yang epik dengan ribuan tentera dan lebih daripada 100 jenis unit individu
    • Gunakan kelebihan daratan seperti peningkatan jarak tembakan di bukit atau pengurangan daya berkuda di hutan
    • Menakluk matlamat strategik seperti bukit, jambatan, bandar dan bangunan untuk memperoleh mata kemenangan
    • Menggantikan jeneral terkenal dalam pertempuran bersejarah yang besar seperti Pertempuran Kolin atau Leuthen


    Perang Tujuh Tahun (1756-1763) - Sejarah

    Perang Perancis dan India, atau Perang Tujuh Tahun, merupakan titik tolak yang menentukan dalam hubungan Inggeris-kolonial. Perjanjian Paris pada tahun 1763 mengesahkan penguasaan perdagangan laut dan pelayaran Britain yang tidak dipertikaikan, serta kedaulatannya ke atas banyak benua Amerika Utara di sebelah timur Sungai Mississippi (termasuk Kanada Perancis).

    Tetapi harga yang tinggi menemani buah kemenangan. Kerajaan Inggeris telah banyak meminjam dari bank-bank Inggeris dan Belanda untuk membiayai perang, dan sebagai akibatnya hutang negara hampir dua kali ganda dari 75 juta pada tahun 1754 menjadi 133 juta pada tahun 1763. Untuk mengatasi tanggungjawab yang berat ini, para pegawai Britain beralih kepada duti import yang lebih besar pada barang yang dihitung seperti gula dan tembakau, bersama dengan serangkaian cukai eksais (penjualan) yang tinggi terhadap barang seperti garam, bir, dan minuman keras. Strategi percukaian ini cenderung membebankan pengguna secara tidak seimbang. Sebagai tambahan, birokrasi pemerintah berkembang untuk mengumpulkan hasil yang diperlukan. Oleh kerana jumlah pegawai kerajaan meningkat dua kali lipat, Parlimen menyerahkan kuasa perundangan dan pentadbiran baru kepada mereka. Oleh itu, walaupun orang-orang Britain memuji kedudukan mereka yang unggul di dunia, mereka membebani hutang yang semakin meningkat dan mengetatkan kawalan pemerintah.

    Memandangkan usaha Britain di benua Amerika Utara demi keamanan kolonial, kedua menteri dan anggota Parlimen memutuskan bahawa koloni diwajibkan untuk membiayai kos kerajaan. Tetapi perang mendedahkan kelemahan kawalan pentadbiran British di jajahan di pelbagai bidang. Usaha berikutnya dari pihak pegawai kerajaan untuk memperbaiki kekurangan ini dan mengumpulkan jumlah pendapatan yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya melanggar apa yang difahami oleh banyak penjajah Amerika sebagai preseden yang jelas dari lebih dari satu abad hubungan kolonial-imperialis. Institusi pemerintahan sendiri dan perdagangan dunia baru, setelah matang pada usia pengabaian, akan menentang dan akhirnya memberontak terhadap pencerobohan Inggeris yang dirasakan. Dasar percukaian menjadi pusat pertikaian, kerana cenderung mengancam kesejahteraan dan otonomi masyarakat kolonial.

    1756-1757 Perhimpunan kolonial di Massachusetts dan beberapa jajahan lain enggan menyokong perang dengan menaikkan cukai atau tentera kecuali gabenor kerajaan melepaskan kawalan atas pelantikan dan operasi ketenteraan. House of Burgesses Virginia enggan meningkatkan pendapatan perang yang diperlukan melalui cukai sama sekali, lebih memilih kaedah pembiayaan defisit yang bergantung pada mencetak lebih banyak wang kertas. Inflasi berleluasa berlaku, dan pedagang Britain enggan menerima mata wang susut nilai.

    Keseimbangan perdagangan antara Inggeris dan jajahan cenderung tegas untuk menyokong yang pertama sebagai akibat langsung dari Perang Perancis dan India. Perbelanjaan ketenteraan dan peningkatan umum permintaan barang dan perkhidmatan menyumbang kepada peningkatan kekayaan kolonial (dan harga) yang ketara. Eksport pertanian kolonial meningkat dengan pesat pada tahun 1750-an dan 1760-an. Penjajah menggunakan angin runtuh untuk mengkonsumsi barang buatan Inggeris dengan kadar yang semakin meningkat, menambah trend yang meningkat sejak pertengahan 1750-an. Walaupun dengan peningkatan eksport pertanian, penjajah menggunakan lebih banyak daripada yang mereka eksport. Pedagang Inggeris, dalam pergolakan Revolusi Perindustrian, bertindak balas dengan memberikan penghargaan kepada pelanggan Amerika mereka. Oleh itu, hutang pengguna yang berlanjutan menjadi fenomena biasa di jajahan.

    Raja George III

    1760 Raja George III menjadi Raja Inggeris.

    1762 Pada akhir 1750-an, Dewan Perdagangan menyebut perang sebagai alasan untuk menindak penyeludup dan penyalahgunaan lain dari Akta Pelayaran. Parlimen meluluskan Akta Hasil dari 1762 dalam usaha menghentikan rasuah seperti yang biasa dilakukan oleh penjajah yang melanggar Akta Molasses. Untuk melakukannya, Revenue Act mengeluarkan pegawai kastam yang tidak hadir yang, bukannya memungut tugas di lokasi, tinggal di England dan bergantung pada timbalan yang rentan terhadap korupsi. Langkah itu adalah sebahagian daripada usaha yang lebih besar untuk menyekat perdagangan kolonial dengan Kepulauan Sugar Perancis, kerana banyak penjajah tidak terpengaruh oleh perang dan meneruskan perdagangan mereka yang menguntungkan dengan harta benda Perancis. Kerajaan Britain juga mendorong tentera laut Diraja untuk menangkap dan menahan penyeludup. Pegawai kastam menjadi lebih agresif dalam menggunakan waran pencarian, yang disebut "alat bantuan" untuk mengesan barang-barang seludup. Seorang peguam muda Boston, James Otis, menyerang dengan cara yang bertentangan dengan perlembagaan Britain dan di luar Kuasa Parlimen untuk mentadbir. Pada pertengahan 1760-an, bagaimanapun, perkhidmatan kustom mengumpulkan lebih dari 30,000 setahun dalam tugas. Semasa era pengabaian gaji, jumlahnya hanya 2,000 setiap tahun.

    1763 Generasi baru menteri Britain, termasuk Charles Townshend dan William Pitt, mengambil alih kuasa. Mereka yakin bahawa pengembangan berterusan perdagangan Inggeris dan pengaruh nasional bergantung pada pembaharuan pentadbiran imperialis dan percukaian di jajahan Amerika Utara.

    Kedamaian di benua itu menghilangkan rangsangan ekonomi perang dan menyebabkan kemelesetan di jajahan. Penghutang di sektor bandar dan pertanian mengalami tekanan kredit. Keseimbangan perdagangan terus memihak kepada Britain, menjadikan ekonomi kolonial semakin bergantung pada hubungan komersial dan dasar kewangan Britain hingga tahun 1770-an. Walaupun taraf hidup kolonial meningkat, penjajah yang berhutang semakin curiga terhadap motif dan kepentingan British.

    1764 Parlimen meluluskan Akta Mata Wang, yang melarang penggunaan wang kertas sebagai tender sah di semua jajahan. Pedagang Britain telah meminta bantuan daripada mata wang yang menyusut yang disebabkan oleh pembiayaan defisit di Virginia. Tindakan itu mewakili usaha untuk merebut kawalan dasar monetari dari perhimpunan kolonial.

    Dibimbing oleh Perdana Menteri George Grenville, Parlimen menggubal Akta Gula. Langkah ini mengubah Akta Molasses pada tahun 1733, yang telah mengenakan duti import 6 sen ke atas molase asing. Sugar Act menurunkan tugas menjadi 3 pence, dalam usaha untuk menjadikan industri gula Britain berdaya saing tanpa merosakkan sepenuhnya perdagangan eksport daratan atau industri penyulingan. Dengan demikian, itu tidak pernah benar-benar dirancang sebagai tindakan pendapatan, tetapi, seperti pendahulunya, sebagai alat untuk mengatur perdagangan. Penjajah secara amnya memahami kuasa pengawalseliaan tersebut sebagai kuasa Parlimen yang sah. Akta Gula mengilhami protes kecil di negara-negara tertentu (Massachusetts, New York, dan Pennsylvania), di mana penyuling dan peniaga paling teruk dilanda. Lelaki seperti John Hancock dari Boston, yang telah membuat kekayaan mereka menyeludup molase Perancis, menekankan kesulitan kewangan lebih daripada keberatan falsafah terhadap dasar cukai.

    Akibat yang lebih luas dari Akta Gula melibatkan pemindahan kes penyeludupan dari mahkamah wilayah ke mahkamah naib. Juri tempatan yang ramah tidak membuat keputusan di mahkamah naib laksamana, hakim yang dilantik secara rawak menjatuhkan keputusan di bawah sistem yang memberikan insentif kewangan untuk mencari rasa bersalah. Perbicaraan tidak berdasarkan hukum umum, tetapi diputuskan sepenuhnya berdasarkan perundangan Parlimen. Akta Gula juga mengalihkan beban bukti kepada peniaga yang dituduh, yang harus menunjukkan kesahihan perdagangan mereka di bawah Akta Navigasi.

    1765 Dibimbing oleh Perdana Menteri Untuk melindungi kira-kira 60,000 dari 200,000 yang diperlukan untuk menempatkan tentera di jajahan, George Grenville meyakinkan Parlimen untuk meluluskan Akta Setem serupa dengan yang digubal dan berjaya ditadbir di England pada tahun 1694.

    Di bawah Undang-Undang tersebut, penjajah akan diminta untuk membeli setem dari pengumpul kerajaan dan melekatkannya pada berbagai jenis bahan cetak, termasuk dokumen sah, kad permainan, surat khabar, dan hak milik tanah. Setem mesti dibeli dengan mata wang sterling, bukan mata wang kertas tempatan, dan mahkamah wakil laksamana sekali lagi diharapkan dapat menegakkan undang-undang tersebut sebagai ganti juri undang-undang umum wilayah.

    Tidak seperti Akta Molasses atau Sugar, Stamp Act mengenakan cukai langsung ke atas tanah jajahan yang dirancang untuk meningkatkan pendapatan daripada mengatur perdagangan. Penjajah menganggap tindakan tersebut tidak berperlembagaan (bertentangan dengan preseden atau kebiasaan undang-undang umum). Sejak dulu lagi, badan perundangan kolonial telah menggunakan wewenang eksklusif untuk memungut cukai pendapatan langsung di Amerika Utara, kedaulatan mereka berasal langsung dari orang yang mereka wakili. Sebaliknya, tidak ada wakil kolonial yang duduk di Dewan Rakyat. Semasa perbahasan mengenai Stamp Act di England, Benjamin Franklin memaklumkan kepada pegawai Britain bahawa, sekurang-kurangnya, tanah jajahan perlu diwakili di Parlimen sekiranya cukai tersebut dikenakan.

    Bagi British, tuntutan seperti itu tidak masuk akal. Perwakilan langsung tidak diperlukan setiap anggota Parlimen "bukan sebagai Perwakilan dari konstituennya sendiri, tetapi sebagai salah satu Majlis Perhimpunan Ogos yang mana diwakili oleh Commons of Great Britain." Konsep perwakilan maya ini berlawanan dengan pengalaman kolonial. Arthur Lee dari Virginia bertanya secara retorik sama ada mana-mana anggota Parlimen benar-benar "mengenali kita, atau kita? Tidak... Adakah dia mempunyai tanggungjawab dan kepentingan untuk menjaga kebebasan dan harta benda kita? Tidak. Adakah dia mengetahui keadaan, situasi kita, mahu, dll? Tidak. Lalu, apa yang kita harapkan daripadanya? Tidak lain kecuali cukai tanpa akhir. "

    Pemaparan skematik obelisk yang diterangi yang didirikan di Boston Common sebagai perayaan pemansuhan Akta Cap, 1766. Ilustrasi diberikan oleh Bahagian Perpustakaan, Cetakan dan Gambar. (versi lebih besar)

    Stamp Act menggembleng masyarakat kolonial dan menimbulkan tentangan meluas. Ia juga berfungsi sebagai kekuatan penyatuan di antara jajahan individu. Buat pertama kalinya sejak tahun 1754 (dan untuk kali kedua), perwakilan kolonial memanggil sebuah badan interkolonial, Kongres Akta Setem, pada bulan Disember 1765. Kongres mengeluarkan Akta Setem Selesaikan, menyatakan: (1) cukai hanya dapat dikenakan oleh pejabat terpilih koloni (2) jarak antara Britain dan Amerika Utara menghalangi perwakilan penjajah di Parlimen, maya atau sebaliknya dan (3) kompromi perbicaraan juri mewakili pembatalan tradisional "hak dan kebebasan." Kongres masih mematuhi kedaulatan Parlimen (walaupun memahami kuasanya terbatas) dan dengan rendah hati meminta Akta Cap dicabut.

    Petisyen rendah hati disertai dengan langkah yang lebih kuat. Pemberontakan massa yang meluas di seluruh bandar pelabuhan kolonial berfungsi untuk mengganggu ejen setem British dan pemungut cukai. The Sons of Liberty, sebuah organisasi perkotaan yang terdiri terutama dari pedagang, perajin, kerani, dan pejalan kaki, sangat mahir menggunakan intimidasi dan keganasan untuk menghalang pengedaran setem yang mereka sering membakar pemungut cukai dalam patung dan menggeledah rumah pegawai Britain. Kegiatan massa seperti itu bukan sekadar kerusuhan anarkis, tetapi merupakan bentuk kegiatan politik semi-koreografer yang diterima, ungkapan kehendak "orang-orang di luar pintu."

    & quot; Pemansuhan atau Perarakan Pengebumian Miss Americ-Stamp & quot: Kartun satira yang memperingati pemansuhan Akta Setem, c. 1766. Ilustrasi milik Perpustakaan Kongres, Bahagian Cetakan dan Gambar. (versi lebih besar)

    Perwujudan organisasi seperti Sons of Liberty secara tiba-tiba mencerminkan tentangan bandar yang sangat kuat terhadap Stamp Act. Dasar-dasar Britain terkini yang termaktub dalam Akta Gula, Akta Mata Wang, dan Akta Setem menyasarkan produk, industri, perdagangan, dan aktiviti berasaskan bandar. Orang-orang perajin dan pedagang kaya juga mengalami kehelan ekonomi yang berpunca dari kemelesetan dan kemasukan barang-barang Inggeris dan buruh asing yang murah. Gabungan peraturan pemerintah Inggeris dan persaingan perniagaan telah mulai merosakkan kesetiaan kepada kerajaan.

    Oleh itu, boikot di seluruh koloni barangan buatan Britain untuk membantah pelaksanaan Stamp Act menarik minat khalayak luas. Peguambela bermaksud apa yang disebut Perjanjian Bukan Import sebagai bentuk paksaan ekonomi terhadap pedagang London (dan perwakilan mereka di Parlimen), tetapi ini juga merupakan penenang ekonomi yang menarik. Penjajah di seluruh jajahan melanggan rancangan itu dengan penuh semangat, dengan berkesan mengurangkan import Britain menjadi sedikit.

    1766-1768 Strategi Bukan Pengimportan memberikan kesan yang diinginkan. Lord Rockingham, pengganti Grenville, mendorong pedagang yang rajin dari London, Liverpool, Bristol, dan Glasgow untuk mengemukakan petisyen kepada Parlimen untuk memansuhkan Akta Cap. Tidak seperti pendahulunya, Rockingham lebih dari Walpolian Old Whig, lebih suka perdagangan luas yang didorong oleh pengabaian gaji terhadap pendapatan cukai yang disebabkan oleh dasar penjajah yang agresif. Berusaha menyeimbangkan kepentingan memaafkan pedagang dengan orang-orang di Parlimen yang ingin menghukum kekejaman kolonial, Rockingham membuat kompromi. Dia mendapat pemansuhan Akta Cap, tetapi mengeluarkan a Deklarasi Bertindak menegaskan kembali bahawa Parlimen "memiliki, memiliki, dan benar harus memiliki, kuasa dan wewenang penuh untuk membuat undang-undang dan undang-undang kekuatan dan daya hidup yang cukup untuk mengikat koloni dan rakyat Amerika ... dalam semua hal apa pun." Akibatnya, penjajah tidak dapat mengecualikan undang-undang Parlimen mana pun, yang diandaikan oleh banyak ahli politik Britain termasuk yang membenarkan percukaian.

    1767 Charles Townshend, Canselor Exchequer di bawah William Pitt, telah menjadi penyokong reformasi pentadbiran kolonial sejak menjawat jawatannya di Dewan Perdagangan pada tahun 1750-an. Setelah kejatuhan kementerian Rockingham, Townshend memandang koloni sebagai sumber pendapatan kerajaan alternatif yang membolehkannya mengurangkan Cukai Tanah British. Yang dihasilkan Townshend Bertindak mengenakan duti ke atas kaca, cat, plumbum, kertas, dan teh yang diimport ke jajahan. Townshend memperuntukkan jangkaan pendapatan untuk membiayai gaji gabenor dan pentadbir kolonial yang lain. Ini adalah usaha yang sadar untuk mengubah keseimbangan kekuasaan dalam pemerintahan kolonial dengan membebaskan para pegawai kerajaan dari ketergantungan kewangan mereka pada badan perundangan Amerika, Townshend berharap dapat menghilangkan rintangan yang paling nyata yang mencegah pelaksanaan undang-undang parlimen dan arahan kerajaan secara berkala. Townshend juga menyusun semula Perkhidmatan Kastam di bawah Akta Hasil 1767, mewujudkan Dewan Pesuruhjaya Kastam Amerika di Boston dan empat pengadilan baru untuk pengadilan di Boston, Philadelphia, Charleston dan Halifax.

    Semasa perbahasan Stamp Act, banyak pengulas kolonial, termasuk Ben Franklin, telah berusaha untuk menggambarkan bidang pengaruh antara Parlimen dan badan perundangan tempatan dengan membezakan "luaran" dengan "dalaman" percukaian. Perbezaan ini

    runtuh setelah penjajah menyedari bahawa cukai "luaran" Townshend terhadap import, dan bukannya mengatur perdagangan, berusaha untuk meningkatkan pendapatan seperti yang dimeterai oleh Akta Setem "dalaman". Kenyataan bahawa tugas yang dikenakan adalah sederhana tidak meredakan pengkritik. Sifat mereka yang kononnya tidak berbahaya, berpendapat John Dickinson dalam Letters From a Farmer di Pennsylvania, menutupi kerosakan sebenar cukai:

    "Tidak ada yang diinginkan di rumah melainkan PRECEDENT, kekuatannya akan dibentuk dengan penyerahan jajahan yang diam-diam.. JIKA Parlimen berjaya dalam percubaan ini, undang-undang lain akan mengenakan sejumlah wang ketika mereka memilih untuk mengambil, tanpa ada yang lain TERHAD daripada mereka KEBAIKAN. "

    The Sons of Liberty dan pemimpin kolonial lain sekali lagi menggunakan strategi bukan import / bukan penggunaan untuk memaksa Parlimen untuk memansuhkan Townshend Act. Walaupun dipeluk lebih cepat daripada pada tahun 1765, boikot berlaku di seluruh jajahan. Menjelang tahun 1769, eksport kolonial melebihi import melebihi 800,000.

    Kartun yang menggambarkan perlakuan kasar terhadap pelanggan tukang gunting setelah identiti Britishnya dinyatakan, 1775. Artis: Philip Dawe (?). Ilustrasi dari Perpustakaan Kongres, Bahagian Cetakan dan Gambar. (versi lebih besar)

    Beban hutang merdeka di banyak wilayah, terutama Chesapeake, memperkuat keraguan ideologi mengenai kebijakan cukai imperialis. Penanam di Maryland dan Virginia berhutang berjuta-juta kepada pemiutang Britain, termasuk banyak yeoman yang, sebelum tahun 1740, jarang menggoda hutang asing. Kini, pos perdagangan yang berafiliasi dengan rumah saudagar Skotlandia memberi kredit kepada ribuan petani kecil, melampirkannya dalam sistem perdagangan transatlantik. Beban ekonomi seperti itu meningkatkan ketahanan kolonial terhadap dasar cukai British.

    Ribuan pasukan tetap Britain ditempatkan di Boston di bawah Jenderal Gage, kerana (berbeza dengan tahun 1765) Parlimen memikirkan rancangan pemaksaan ketenteraan.

    1770 Menanggapi sekali lagi kesulitan ekonomi dan petisyen pedagang, kementerian di bawah Lord North membatalkan tugas Townshend, dengan alasan bahawa ia bertentangan dengan prinsip-prinsip merantilisme bagi Britain untuk mengenakan cukai eksport pembuatannya ke Amerika. Namun, sebagai simbolik, North tetap mempunyai tugas kecil untuk minum teh. Kompromi berjaya mengurangkan ketegangan buat masa ini.

    1773 Dalam usaha menopang Syarikat India Timur yang bermasalah, Parlimen meluluskan Teh Bertindak, memberikan monopoli maya ke atas pasar teh Britain dan membenarkan akses penjualan langsung ke jajahan (pedagang kolonial terputus sepenuhnya) Akibatnya, teh Syarikat India Timur berharga paling sedikit daripada teh yang ada, asing atau domestik. Berikutan pengekalan 3 pence Townshend pada teh pada tahun 1770, penjajah secara amnya memboikot jenama British, dan sebaliknya menjadi minuman Belanda yang seludup. Dianggarkan 90 persen dari semua teh yang dikonsumsi di jajahan adalah dari jenis Belanda, jadi para patriot dapat menghirup dengan murah sambil menghindari tugas pendapatan yang dipandang rendah. Sekarang, walaupun dengan tugas Townshend ditambah, teh India Timur tetap paling murah. Oleh kerana cukai itu kelihatan "tersembunyi" dengan cara ini, penjajah memandang Akta Teh sebagai cara yang tidak wajar untuk menolak cukai, dan kuasa percukaian Parlimen, ke tanah jajahan. Lord North pada asasnya salah menghitung kesatuan dan besarnya tindak balas penjajah.

    & quot; Orang Boston yang membayar cukai eksais atau tarring & amp bulu, & quot 1774. Artis: Philip Dawe (?), Bahagian Cetakan dan Gambar, Perpustakaan Kongres. (versi lebih besar)

    Pada malam 16 Disember, Massachusetts Patriots menyamar sebagai orang India secara haram menaiki Dartmouth, sebuah kapal kargo yang menanggung 342 peti Teh India Timur bernilai kira-kira 10,000. Dengan menentang Gabenor Thomas Hutchinson dan pihak berkuasa cukai Inggris pada umumnya, para penyusup membuang seluruh kiriman ke Boston Harbor, memicu krisis yang akan membawa kepada revolusi.

    The Kongres Kontinental Pertama bertemu di Philadelphia pada bulan September. Kongres meluluskan a Pengisytiharan Hak dan Rungutan mengutuk Akta Paksaan dan menolak Akta Deklarasi tahun 1766. Pada tarikh ini, penjajah, termasuk Thomas Jefferson dari Virginia, berpendapat bahawa Akta Parlimen yang berkaitan dengan Amerika adalah tidak sah. They justified this position not on the basis of the legislation s unjust character, as had been the case in 1765, but because they had come to deny that Parliament had any right to exercise authority over the colonies at all. Sovereignty could not logically be divided in a political system, the argument ran according to John Adams, two supreme authorities could not exist in the same state, any more than two supreme

    An allegorical depiction of the Coercive Acts, specifically the closing of Boston Harbor by the British. (larger version)

    beings could exist in the same universe. British officials had cited this traditional axiom to deny that any legislative body other than Parliament could wield supreme authority in the colonies. In the 1770s, however, colonists appropriated this reasoning to their advantage, countering that supreme legislative sovereignty rested, in fact, with the individual colonial assemblies. These bodies effectively served as miniature parliaments each still technically headed by the royal authority of the king and formed a loose confederation of independent states. The king, in fact, remained the colonies only link to the British Empire.

    1776 In May, the Continental Congress encouraged individual colonies to adopt new governments and formally sever all ties to the English Crown. Subsequently, most colonies drafted constitutions severely circumscribing the power of the governor’s office, while vesting legislatures with supreme governing authority. This emasculation of magisterial stature in favor of representative bodies reflected the prominence of Whig ideology and republican ideals among leading American revolutionaries. Jefferson’s July Declaration further underscored the British monarch’s usurpation of American liberties, and formalized the movement for independence.


    British-Prussian Alliance vs. Austrian-French Alliance

    The results of the War of Austrian Succession made it clear that Britain no longer viewed Austria as powerful enough to check French power but was content to build up other states like Prussia. Therefore Britain and Prussia, in the Westminster Convention of 1756, agreed that Britain would not aid Austria in a renewed conflict for Silesia if Prussia agreed to protect Hanover (which remained in personal union with Britain) from France. Britain felt that with Prussia’s growing strength, it would be more apt to defend Hanover than Austria. Meanwhile, Austria was determined to reclaim Silesia, so the two allies found themselves with conflicting interests. Maria Theresa, recognizing the futility of renewed alliance with Britain, knew that without a powerful ally (such as France), she could never hope to reclaim Silesia from Frederick the Great.

    Maria Theresa sent her foreign policy minister, Count Wenzel Anton von Kaunitz, to France to secure an alliance to enable Austria to reclaim Silesia. Louis XV proved reluctant to agree to any treaty presented by Kaunitz. Only with renewed aggression between France and Britain was Louis convinced to align with Austria. Furthermore, Austria no longer surrounded France, so France no longer saw Austria as an immediate threat. Consequently, it entered into a defensive alliance with Austria. In response to the Westminster Convention, Louis XV’s ministers and Kaunitz concluded the First Treaty of Versailles (1756). Both sides agreed to remain neutral and provide 24,000 troops if either got into conflict with a third party.

    Maria Theresa’s diplomats, after securing French neutrality, actively began to establish an anti-Prussian coalition. Austria’s actions alerted Frederick, who decided to strike first by invading Saxony, commencing the Seven Years’ War (1756–1763). Frederick’s actions were meant to scare Russia out of supporting Austria (the two countries had previously entered into a defensive alliance in 1746). However, by invading Saxony, Frederick had inflamed his enemies. Russia, under the direction of Empress Elizabeth, sent an additional 80,000 troops to Austria. A year after the signing of the First Treaty of Versailles, France and Austria signed a new offensive alliance, the Second Treaty of Versailles (1757).

    In 1758, the Anglo-Prussian Convention between Great Britain and the Kingdom of Prussia formalized the alliance between the two powers. However, the alliance proved to be short-lived largely because Britain withdrew financial and military support for Prussia in 1762. The dissolution of the alliance and the pre-eminent rise of Britain left it with no allies by the time the American Revolutionary War broke out.


    Seven Years War (1756-1763) - History

    Prior to 1776, the land to the west of the British colonies was of high priority for settlers and politicians. In the earliest days of European settlement of the Atlantic coast, from about 1600 to 1680, the “frontier” was essentially any part of the forested interior of the continent beyond the fringe of existing settlements along the coast.

    English, French, Spanish, and Dutch patterns of expansion and settlement differed widely. Only a few thousand French migrated to Canada these habitants settled in villages along the St. Lawrence river, building communities that remained stable for long stretches they did not leapfrog west the way the British did. Although French fur traders ranged widely through the Great Lakes region, they seldom settled down and instead maintained a nomadic lifestyle. The Dutch set up fur trading posts in the Hudson River valley, followed by large grants of land to rich landowning patroons who brought in tenant farmers to create compact, permanent villages. They did not push westward.

    In contrast, the English colonies generally pursued a more systematic policy of widespread settlement of the New World for cultivation and exploitation of the land, a practice that required the application of “legal” property rights to the new conditions. (These policies were legal according to British law but largely disregarded or exploited the rights of American Indians.) The typical English settlements were quite compact and small, typically under a square mile. Conflict with American Indians quickly arose as the British expanded further into their territory.

    The French and Indian Wars of the 1760s resulted in a complete victory for the British, who took possession of the lands west to the Mississippi River, which had formerly been claimed by the French but were largely inhabited by American Indian tribes. By the early 1770s, British settler-invaders were moving across the Appalachians into western Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio.

    American Indian Land

    The Royal Proclamation of 1763 prohibited the North American colonists from establishing or maintaining settlements west of a line running down the crest of the Appalachian Mountains. There were two motivations for this policy: first, the British wished to avoid warfare with the American Indians. This aim had little to do with respect for tribal rights and was more motivated by the high expense of conflicts with American Indians and the lack of British soldiers on the continent. Some American Indians welcomed this policy, believing that the separation would allow them to resume their traditional ways of life others realized that the proclamation, at best, would only provide some breathing room before the next onslaught of invaders.

    The other intention of the proclamation was to concentrate colonial settlements on the seaboard, where they could be active participants in the British mercantile system. The first priority of British trade officials was to populate the recently secured areas of Canada and Florida, where colonists could reasonably be expected to trade with the mother country settlers living west of the Appalachians would be highly self-sufficient and have little opportunity to trade with English merchants.

    The reaction of colonial land speculators and frontiersmen to this proclamation was highly negative. From their perspective, they had risked their lives in the recent war only to be denied the lands they coveted. Most concluded that the proclamation was only a temporary measure a number ignored it entirely and moved into the prohibited area anyway. Almost from its inception, the proclamation was modified to suit the needs of influential British people with interests in the American west, including many high British officials as well as colonial leaders. Prominent American colonists joined with land speculators in Britain to lobby the government to move the line further west. As a result, the boundary line was adjusted in a series of treaties.

    The British American colonies in 1763: This map shows the status of the American colonies in 1763, after the end of the French and Indian War. Although Great Britain won control of the territory east of the Mississippi, the Proclamation Line of 1763 prohibited British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. (credit: modification of work by the National Atlas of the United States)

    Conestoga Massacre

    In December of 1763, following the end of the French and Indian War and the signing of the proclamation, a vigilante group made up of Scots-Irish frontiersmen known as the Paxton Boys attacked the local Conestoga, a Susquehannock tribe who lived on land negotiated by William Penn and their ancestors in the 1690s. In the aftermath of the French and Indian War, the frontier of Pennsylvania remained unsettled. A new wave of Scots-Irish immigrants encroached on American Indian land in the back country. These settlers claimed that American Indians often raided their homes, killing men, women, and children.

    Many Conestoga were Christian, and they had lived peacefully with their European neighbors for decades. Although there had been no American Indian attacks in the area, the Paxton Boys claimed that the Conestoga secretly provided aid and intelligence to the hostiles. On December 14, 1763, more than 50 Paxton Boys marched on the Conestoga homes near Conestoga Town, Millersville, and murdered six people and burned their cabins. The colonial government held an inquest and determined that the killings were murder. The new governor, John Penn, offered a reward for their capture. The ruthlessness of these conflicts reflected a growing divide between the British colonists and American Indians.


    The Diplomatic Revolution and the Seven Years’ War, 1756-1763 | The Old Regimes

    In Europe the dramatic shift of alliances called the Diplomatic Revolution immediately preceded the formal outbreak of the Seven Years’ War, which had already begun in the colonies. Britain, which had joined Austria against Prussia in the 1740s, now paired off with Frederick the Great. And in the most dramatic move of the Diplomatic Revolution, France, joined with its hereditary enemy, Habsburg Austria.

    In 1755, the British touched off this Diplomatic Revolution. To enlist a second power in the task of defending Hanover, they concluded a treaty with Russia, which had taken a minor part in the War of the Austrian Succession as an ally of England. The Anglo-Russian treaty alarmed Frederick the Great. In January 1756 the Prussian king concluded an alliance with Britain that detached it from Russia.

    The alliance between England and Prussia isolated France and gave the Austrian chancellor the opportunity he had been waiting for. What Austria needed to avenge itself on Frederick and regain Silesia was an ally with a large army this required an alliance with France, not Britain. The last act of the Diplomatic Revolution occurred when Russia joined the Franco-Austrian alliance.

    The new war, like its predecessor, was really two separate wars—one Continental, the other naval and colonial. In the European campaigns of the Seven Years’ War, Frederick the Great confronted the forces of Austria, France, and Russia, whose combined population was more than fifteen times larger than Prussia’s. Frederick had almost no allies except Britain, which supplied financial subsidies but little actual military assistance.

    To fill up the depleted ranks of his army, he violated international law by impressing soldiers from Prussia’s smaller neighbors, Mecklenburg and Saxony. Since British subsidies covered only a fraction of his war expenses, he seized Saxon, Polish, and Russian coins and melted them down for Prussian use.

    A final factor in saving Prussia was the shakiness of the coalition arrayed against it. Russia’s generals were unexpectedly timid, and those of France and Austria proved incompetent. Moreover, the French, the strongest of the allies, had to fight a two-front war, in Europe and overseas, without the financial resources to do both.

    The grand alliance created by the Austrian chancellor, Prince von Kaunitz (1711-1794), suffered to an unusual extent from the frictions, mistrust, and cross-purposes typical of wartime coalitions. In fact, the coalition did not last out the war. When Elizabeth of Russia (r. 1741-1762) died in January 1762, she was succeeded by Czar Peter III, a passionate admirer of Frederick the Great, who at once placed Russia’s forces at Frederick’s disposal. Although he occupied the Russian throne only until July, Peter’s reign marked a decisive turning in the Seven Years’ War. In 1763 Prussia won its war.

    Meanwhile, Frederick’s British partner was losing abroad. During the first year and a half of the fighting the British suffered setbacks on almost every front. At sea they lost the important Mediterranean base of Minorca in the Balearic Islands. In North America the British lost time and again, but the most dramatic of Britain’s misfortunes occurred in India. In June 1756, the nawab of Bengal, an ally of the French, crowded 146 British prisoners at Calcutta into a small room with only two windows. The resulting incident, as described by an officer of the English East India Company, came to be known as the Black Hole:

    It was the hottest season of the year, and the night uncommonly sultry. . . . The excessive pressure of their bodies against one another, and the intolerable heat which prevailed as soon as the door was shut, convinced the prisoners that it was impossible to live through the night in this horrible confinement and violent attempts were immediately made to force the door, but without effect for it opened inward. At two o’clock not more than fifty remained alive. But even this number were too many to partake of the saving air, the contest for which and for life continued until the morn… .

    An officer . . . came with an order to open the prison. The dead were so thronged, and the survivors had so little strength remaining, that they were employed near half an hour in removing the bodies which lay against the door before they could clear a passage to go out one at a time when of one hundred and forty-six who went in no more than twenty-three came out alive. *

    It was William Pitt (1708-1778) who turned the tide in favor of Britain. He strengthened the Anglo-Prussian alliance by sending Frederick substantial subsidies and placing English forces in Hanover under an able Prussian commander. He replaced blundering generals and admirals and took energetic measures that transformed the naval and colonial campaigns.

    After the Royal Navy defeated both the French Atlantic and Mediterranean squadrons (1759), Britain commanded the seas. Britain could thus continue trading abroad at a prosperous pace, while French overseas trade rapidly sank to one sixth of the prewar rate. Cut off from supplies and reinforcements from home and faced by generally superior British forces, the French colonies fell in quick succession.

    In Africa, Britain’s capture of the chief French slaving stations ruined the slavers of Nantes in India Clive and others avenged the Black Hole by punishing the nawab of Bengal and capturing the key French posts near Calcutta and Madras in the West Indies the French lost all their sugar islands except for Santo Domingo. In North America the sixty-five thousand French, poorly supplied and poorly led, were helpless against the million British colonists, fully supported by their mother country.

    Fort Duquesne was taken at last and was renamed after Pitt, and the British went on to other triumphs in the war that the English colonists called the French and Indian War. In Canada the English general James Wolfe (1727-1759) took Louisburg (1758) in the next year he lost his life but won immortal fame in a great victory on the Plains of Abraham above Quebec. When the remaining French stronghold, Montreal, fell in 1760, France’s American empire was over.

    Though Pitt had won the war, he did not make the peace George III (r. 1760-1820) dismissed him in 1761. In the Peace of Paris (1763) the French recovered their islands in the West Indies, highly valued as a major source of sugar. While British planters in the Caribbean were much relieved, since their markets had been flooded by sugar from captured French islands during the war, it seemed to outraged patriots as though Britain had let a grand prize slip through its fingers.

    France, however, lost all its possessions on the mainland of North America. Britain secured both Canada and the disputed territories between the Appalachians and the Mississippi. Moreover, Spain, which had joined France in 1762 when the war was already hopeless, ceded to Britain the peninsula called East Florida and the coast of the Gulf of Mexico as far as the Mississippi called West Florida.

    In compensation, France gave Spain the city of New Orleans and the vast Louisiana territories west of the Mississippi. In India, France recovered its possessions on condition that it would not fortify them. For Britain the Seven Years’ War marked the beginning of virtually complete ascendancy in India for France it marked the virtual end of its “old Empire.”


    The diplomatic revolution and the prelude to the French and Indian War

    The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), which concluded the War of the Austrian Succession, left wide grounds for discontent among the powers. It did nothing to allay the colonial rivalry between Great Britain and France, and it virtually guaranteed a subsequent conflict between Austria and Prussia by confirming the conquest of Silesia by Frederick the Great. The aggrandizement of Prussia was seen by Russia as a challenge to its designs on Poland and the Baltic, but it had no voice in the negotiations. Under the Treaty of St. Petersburg of December 9, 1747, Russia had supplied mercenary troops to the British for use against the French in the last stage of the war, and the French, in reprisal, had vetoed any representation of Russia at the peace congress.

    The War of the Austrian Succession had seen the belligerents aligned on a time-honoured basis. France’s traditional enemies, Great Britain and Austria, had coalesced just as they had done against Louis XIV. Prussia, the leading anti-Austrian state in Germany, had been supported by France. Neither group, however, found much reason to be satisfied with its partnership: British subsidies to Austria had produced nothing of much help to the British, while the British military effort had not saved Silesia for Austria. Prussia, having secured Silesia, had come to terms with Austria in disregard of French interests. Even so, France had concluded a defensive alliance with Prussia in 1747, and the maintenance of the Anglo-Austrian alignment after 1748 was deemed essential by the duke of Newcastle, British secretary of state in the ministry of his brother Henry Pelham. The collapse of that system and the aligning of France with Austria and of Great Britain with Prussia constituted what is known as the “ diplomatic revolution” or the “reversal of alliances.”


    Latar belakang

    The diplomatic change was triggered by a separation of interests between Austria, Britain, and France. The 1748 Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, after the War of the Austrian Succession, left Austria aware of the high price it paid for having Britain as an ally. Maria Theresa of Austria defended her claim to the Habsburg throne and had her husband, Francis Stephen, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1745. However, she had been forced to relinquish valuable territories in the process. Under British diplomatic pressure, Maria Theresa ceded Parma to Spain and, more importantly, the valuable state of Silesia to Prussia. The acquisition of Silesia further advanced Prussia as a great European power, which now posed an increasing threat to Austria’s German lands and to Central Europe as a whole. The growth of Prussia, dangerous to Austria, was welcomed by the British, who saw it as a means of balancing French power.


    Titik Pusing

    Before July 1758, France Was Winning

    After July 1758, England Was Winning

    1758 August 27

    French Fort Frontenac captured by British

    Nova Scotian Lt. Col. John Bradstreet of the Royal Americans captures the French Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario.  Fort Frontenac is the main French supply depot on Lake Ontario.  Bradstreet demonstrates how vulnerable Fort Duquesne's supply line is, by destroying vast quantities of provisions destined for Forts Niagara, Detroit and Duquesne, together with the boats that were to deliver them.

    The Forbes ExpeditionAutumn 1758


    Forbes' expedition against Fort Duquesne in 1758 was one of the great triumphs of the war in Pennsylvania.  At Bedford he assembled a force of 350 Royal Americans, 1,200 Highlanders, 1,600 Virginians under Washington and other commanders, and 2,700 Pennsylvanians.  General Forbes' second in command was Colonel Bouquet.  For 150 kilometres westward a road was cut over the mountains.  Most of the wagons and horses were supplied by the Pennsylvania Dutch.  Forbes himself was so ill that he had to be carried in a litter.  Four months later he died and was buried in the chancel of Christ Church, Philadelphia.
    Lebih banyak lagi

    1758 September 4

    England begins construction of Fort Ligonier

    The Fort at Loyalhanna, Pennsylvania

    In 1758, Secretary of State William Pitt and Sir John Ligonier, Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, organize their strength to drive the French from the New World by simultaneous attacks on Louisbourg, Crown Point, Niagura and Duquense.  General John Forbes is ordered to organize and lead a campaign against the French at Fort Duquesne.  British General John Forbes, assigned the task of taking Fort Duquense, decides to abandon the Braddock route and extend the path westward through the forests from the recently completed Fort Bedford.  A series of fortifications were built along the "Forbes Road" constructed across Southern Pennsylvania.  The distance to the Forks of the Ohio is too great for an army to travel without rest and reprovisioning.  Almost exactly half way from Bedford to the Forks, at Loyalhanna Creek [now Ligonier, Pennsylvania], Forbes decides to build a fortified camp to serve as the staging area for the final assault on Fort Duquesne.  Work begins on 4 September 1758 on this cap, later to be named Fort Ligonier in honor of Sir John Ligonier.  It is first called the Fort at Loyalhanna until mid-November 1758, when it first appears in Col. Bouquet's accounts as Fort Ligonier. 
    Fort Ligonier by Michael D. McCumber
    Fort Ligonier by the Fort Ligonier Association
    Fort Ligonier by Westylvania Heritage Corporation
    Construction of Fort Ligonier by Nat Youngblood
    Allegheny Land Trust

    1758 September 14

    Battle of Grant's Hill

    By September 1758, the British army under General Forbes is massed at Fort Ligonier, only fifty kilometres from Fort Duquesne. In keeping with his methodical strategy, Forbes decides to send a scouting party to Fort Duquesne. This seemingly sound military decision would lead to a significant defeat. Major James Grant of the 77th Highland Regiment was chosen to lead the scouting expedition. Under his command were 800 men. On September 9, Major Grant and his little army left the protection of Fort Ligonier and begun the march west. Five days later, a sortie from the garrison of Fort Duquesne commanded by de Ligneris surrounds the English, and many of the latter, including Grant, are taken prisoner. 273 English troops are killed, captured, or missing.

    Battle of Fort Pitt (mostly about the Battle of Grant's Hill)
    from Pittsburgh, The Story of a City by Leland D. Baldwin

    1758 October 12

    Battle of Fort Ligonier

    The French and Indian army at Loyalhanna was under command of De Vitri. He began battle almost immediately on their arrival. The firing began about eleven o'clock in the forenoon and lasted four hours. The battle was fought on or near the ground where is now the town of Ligonier. The army at Ligonier numbered twenty-five hundred on its first arrival from Bedford but nearly three hundred were lost in Grant's fiasco, leaving only about twenty-two hundred.
    Volume 1, Chapter 1, Part 2 (Fort Ligonier) History of Westmoreland County
    Westmoreland County History Project

    Consider the size of the army assembled at Ligonier.  By early November 1758, some 4,000 troops were encamped around the fort.  This made Ligonier the second-largest community in Pennsylvania, after Philadelphia, with its nearly 17,000 people.
    Lebih banyak lagi

    1758 October 12

    Proclamation issued by Governor of Nova Scotia invites New Englanders to settle there

    Charles Lawrence, Military Governor of Nova Scotia, issued a Proclamation that is published in the Boston Gazette.   It informed the people of New England that since the enemy which had formerly disturbed and harassed the province was no longer able to do so, the time had come to people and cultivate, not only the lands made vacant by the removal of the Acadians, but other parts of "this valuable province" as well.  The Proclamation concluded with the words "I shall be ready to receive any proposals that may be hereafter made to me for effectually settling the vacated, or any other lands within the said province."
    More by Peter Landry

    This proclamation created a great deal of interest and inquiry, and finally led to a considerable number of New England farmers settling in different parts of Nova Scotia, Chignecto getting a good share of them.  The first proclamation had, however, to be supplemented by a second, in which full liberty of conscience and the right to worship as they pleased was secured to Protestants of all denominations.  This guarantee was not included in Lawrence's first invitation to the New Englanders, and the descendants of the Puritans had not read in vain the history of the sacrifices made by their forefathers to worship in their own way.
    Excerpted from:
    Chignecto Isthmus: First Settlers by Howard Trueman

    1758 October 2

    Canada's oldest Legislative Assembly first meets

    Nova Scotia Provincial Parliament is established – 19 members met on 2 October 1758.  For the first hundred years, this Assembly is known as the Provincial Parliament, and an elected member is called "MPP" – Member of the Provincial Parliament.  Since Confederation in�, the name "Parliament" has been reserved for the federal assembly at Ottawa, and the Nova Scotia Assembly has been known as the "Legislature", with an elected member called "MLA"– Member of the Legislative Assembly.

    1758 October 12-13

    A French force attacks General Forbes's army at Fort Ligonier and is repulsed.  The British continue a slow but determined advance toward Fort Duquesne.

    1758 November 25

    Fort Duquesne abandoned by French forces

    The French abandon and burn Fort Duquesne.

    1758 November 26

    French Fort Duquesne becomes English Fort Pitt

    In honour of William Pitt, the demolished Fort Duquesne is renamed Pittsburgh by General Forbes.  The next day, Forbes writes a letter to Pitt, dated from "Pittsburgh".  The letter reaches Pitt in England in April 1759, a month after Forbes died.
    Lebih banyak lagi

    Forbes Arrives at Fort Duquesne by Nat Youngblood
    Allegheny Land Trust

    1758 December

    Col. George Washington resigns his commission and retires to Mount Vernon awaiting his January wedding to Martha Dandridge.

    First settlers at Chester [now in Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia].

    1759 April 18

    Five agents from New England arrived at Halifax to take a look at the land promised by Governor Lawrence.
    More by Peter Landry

    1759 July 26

    French Fort Niagara surrenders

    Fort Niagara was strategically located at the mouth of the Niagara River, where it flows into Lake Ontario.
    Final Stage of Conquest by Edward J. Dodson, University of Groningen, Netherlands
    Battle of La Belle Famille by Youngstown Business and Professional Association
    Battle of Fort Niagara by Wikipedia
    Guardhouse of the Great Lakes by the Old Fort Niagara Association
    A brief history of Old Fort Niagara by Peter A. Porter

    1759 July 26

    French Fort Carillon becomes English Fort Ticonderoga

    Fort Carillon, on Lake Champlian, is attacked again by the British under the leadership of General Jeffrey Amherst.  After their victory at Fort Carillon early in July 1758, the war had not gone well for the French.  They suffered numerous losses elsewhere in the war and the small garrison at Fort Carillon was weak.  This time, the British forces took Fort Carillon.  Amherst renamed it Fort Ticonderoga.
    More by Wikipedia
    More by James P. Millard
    More by Lee D. and Amberleigh R.

    1759 September 13

    Battle of the Plains of Abraham

    The Battle of the Plains of Abraham was a decisive battle of the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War.  It was fought on a plain just outside the walls of Quebec City in New France (Quebec province).  Combat lasted only half an hour, ending a three-month siege of Quebec City.
    More by Wikipedia

    1759 September 18

    Capitulation of Quebec

    Wolfe's capture of Quebec.
    Articles of Capitulation The Pennsylvania Gazette, 22 November 1759

    1759 October 4

    Fort LeBoeuf and Fort Presque Isle abandoned by France

    After the capture of Fort Niagara by the British, the French abandon and burn Fort LeBoeuf, and Fort Presque Isle.

    1759 November 20

    Battle of Quiberon Bay

    The naval Battle of Quiberon Bay took place on 20 November 1759 during the Seven Years' War in Quiberon Bay, off the coast of France near St. Nazaire.  British admiral Edward Hawke with 23 ships of the line caught up with a French fleet with 21 ships of the line under Marshal de Conflans.  The outnumbered Conflans decided to take refuge in the bay thinking the British would not dare follow him onto a lee shore.  He was wrong.  After hard fighting, most of the French ships were sunk, captured, or forced aground, thus giving the Royal Navy one of its greatest victories.
    The Battle of Quiberon Bay (1) by Wikipedia
    The Battle of Quiberon Bay (2) by Wikipedia
    The Battle of Quiberon Bay 1759 by the Royal Navy
    The Battle of Quiberon Bay 1759 Royal Navy History
    The Battle of Quiberon Bay Musee du Patrimonie Quiberon
    20 Nov. 1759: The Battle of Quiberon Bay (painting)
    National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, England
    21 Nov. 1759: The Day After The Battle of Quiberon Bay (painting)
    National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, England

    The Battle of Quiberon Bay, on the southwest coast of France, and not the more celebrated Battle of Quebec, was the decisive military event of 1759.
    & # 34. in the end, it was Lagos and Quiberon Bay that proved decisive at Quebec, and control of the Atlantic that settled ownership of Canada. & # 34
    — Fred Anderson, page 383 in his book "Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766"
    Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2000
    Fred Anderson's Crucible of War review by by Major Robert Bateman
    Department of History, United States Military Academy, West Point, New York

    Neither the Anglo-American seizure of Fort Duquesne in 1758 nor the conquest of Quebec in 1759 proved decisive.  What finally determined the outcome of the war in America were two nearly simultaneous, reinforcing developments in�: the Battle of Quiberon Bay (November㺔) and the Six Nations's decision to abandon the neutral stance it had maintained since� and join the Anglo-Americans in the Niagara campaign.  The battle cost the French navy its ability to operate on the Atlantic, denying Levis the reinforcements and supplies he needed to capture Quebec and resist the invading Anglo-American armies.  The absence of trade goods and weapons simultaneously prevented him from rebuilding the Indian alliances that Montcalm had destroyed, so that the Iroquois alliance with the Anglo-Americans tipped the strategic balance irrevocably against the French.
    Round Table introduction by Fred Anderson
    Associate Professor of History, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

    The Seven Years' War has been hidden in plain sight for nearly 250 years.
    The Global History of the Seven Years' War
    Round Table comments by David Armitage
    Associate Professor of History, Columbia University, New York

    Frantic graduate students and overcommitted academics may well despair when they begin Fred Anderson's new book, Crucible of War.  Length is not the problem, exactly.  The trouble is that it is long and utterly readable, compelling, and impervious to skimming.  Sadly, serious history books are not supposed to be this much fun nowadays, and readers might experience a bit of guilt for spending the extra time on such a good story.
    Narrative Syle and Indian Actors in the Seven Years' War
    Round Table comments by Brian Delay
    PhD candidate, Department of History, Harvard University, Boston

    The world war that commenced on the banks of the Ohio in 1754 has never been an easy one to name.
    Whose Great War for Empire? British America and the Problem of Imperial Agency
    Round Table comments by Eliga H. Gould
    Associate Professor of History, University of New Hampshire

    . By October 1754, the British plan for operations in North America included an advance on the French forts in the Ohio country, and the destruction of French forts on Lake Ontario, Lake Champlain, and the Nova Scotia isthmus.  In early 1755, General Braddock and two regiments of British troops arrived in Virginia.  That spring, British ships tried to intercept French reinforcements bound for Canada.  In July�, Braddock's advance into the Ohio country culminated in the Battle of the Monongahela.  This all occurred before an official declaration of war.
    The Spanish Empire and the Seven Years' War
    Round Table comments by Paul Mapp
    PhD candidate, Department of History, Harvard University, Boston

    1759 proved to be a year of stunning successes for England in North America.

    One British expedition took Niagara.  Another, led by Amherst himself, seized
    both Ticonderoga and Crown Point, thereby opening the way to Montreal.
    A third, commanded by young General James Wolfe, sailed up the St. Lawrence
    River and, after much difficulty, defeated Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham
    just outside Quebec.  The surrender of Quebec itself soon followed.

    In 1760, Amherst completed the conquest of Canada with a successful
    three-pronged offensive against Montreal.

    By the end of 1760, French resistance in North America had virtually ceased.

    More by Ronald W. McGranahan
    United States Naval Academy, Annapolis (retired)

    First settlers at Canning [now in Kings County, Nova Scotia].

    Many New England soldiers at Fort Cumberland (Beausejour) and Fort Lawrence return home after their enlistments expire.  Governor Lawrence encourages them to stay and to take up land grants – some do (Troop, Tongue, Huston, others).

    Fort Presque Isle taken over by England

    England occupies the site of Fort Presque Isle and rebuilds the fortification.

    1760 April 28

    Battle of Sainte-Foy

    After the disaster of the Plains of Abraham on 13 September 1759, the French army retreats from Quebec to Montreal and regroups under General Levis.  In April 1760, Levis returns to Quebec with an army of over seven thousand men, including Canadian militia and First Nations warriors.  He hopes to besiege Quebec and force its surrender in the spring, when he expects a French fleet to arrive.  During the battle, the British army loses over one thousand killed and wounded, and the French almost nine hundred, making the Battle of Sainte-Foy one of the bloodiest battles on Canadian soil.  However, Levis is unable to retake Quebec City.  The British force remains besieged in the city until naval reinforcements are able to arrive.  The French fleet never arrives – France's navy having been smashed at Quiberon Bay the previous autumn – and when HMS Lowestoft raises its flag as it nears Quebec, Levis abandons the siege and retreats to Montreal, where he surrenders in September 1760 to overwhelming British force.
    More by Wikipedia

    1760 September 8

    French Montreal is captured by English forces

    Surrounded on all sides by superior forces, French Governor Vaudreuil surrenders Montreal and all of New France to the English under the command of General Jeffrey Amherst.  General Levis, after burning his flags, reluctantly agrees to lay down his army's weapons. The French soldiers are paroled back to France.
    Lebih banyak lagi

    1760 October

    In North America, the fighting ends

    Although the French and Indian War does not officially end until 1763, in North America the fighting comes to an end after British General Jeffrey Amherst captures French Montreal in September�.  England and France continue the war in Europe and India.

    1760 October 9

    Charles Lawrence, Military Governor of Nova Scotia, dies suddenly at Halifax

    1760 October 25

    King George II dies.  George III becomes King of England.

    1763 February 10

    Final Treaty of Paris is signed

    Britain acquires Quebec, Florida, Minorca and large additional parts of India and the West Indies.  France keeps the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon.

    After the Seven Years War was over, Britain controlled all of North America east of the Mississippi River.

    1763 October 7

    Royal Proclamation of 1763

    This document has been called the "Magna Carta of Indian Rights" and recently has been held by the courts to have "the force of a statute which has never been repealed".  It was issued after the Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years War and was intended to organize the governments of Britain's new acquisitions on the mainland of North America.
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    Compare this timeline with
    French and Indian War timeline
    by French and Indian War 250 Inc.


    First uploaded to the WWW:   2005 June 22
    Latest content revision:   2005 October 26


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