Lajur, Amphipolis

Lajur, Amphipolis


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Ketetapan Ketenteraan Amphipolis

The Ketetapan Ketenteraan Amphipolis (c. 200 SM) adalah prasasti Yunani Macedonia dari dua blok marmar, yang pada asalnya berisi sekurang-kurangnya tiga lajur teks. Ini menyimpan daftar peraturan yang mengatur perilaku dan disiplin tentera Macedonia di kem.

τοὺς μὴ φέροντας τι τῶν διδκόχρωμα αὐτοῖς ὅπλων ασφαλείαςιούτωσαν απο τα γεγραμμένα · κοτθύβου ὀβολοὺς δια, κώνου τὸ ἴσον, σαρίσης ὀβολοὺς τρεῖς, μαχαίρας τὸ ἴσον, κνημίδων ὀβολοὺς λου, μήσπ. Ἑπὶ δὲ τῶν ἡγεμόνων τῶν τε δεδηλωμένων ὅπλων τὸ διπλοῦν καὶ θώρακος δραχμὰς,, θμιθωρακίου δραχμήν. Λαμβανέτωσαν δὲ τὴν χωρίαν οἱ γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ ἀρχυ [πηρέτ] αι, παραδείξαντες τῶι βασιλεῖ τοὺς ἠθετηκότας

mereka yang tidak mempunyai senjata yang sesuai akan dikenakan denda mengikut peraturan: untuk kotthybos, dua obol, jumlah yang sama untuk kono, tiga obol untuk sarissa, sama untuk makhaira, untuk lutut dua obol, untuk aspis drakma. Dalam kes hegemon (pegawai), dua kali lipat untuk lengan yang disebutkan, dua drachma untuk toraks, drakma untuk hemithorakion. Setiausaha (tatabahasadan ketua pembantu (archyperetai) akan menjatuhkan hukuman, setelah menunjukkan pelanggar kepada Raja (basileus)

Istilah ketenteraan lain yang disebut adalah: efodos (rondaan pemeriksaan), ekkoisi ("di luar tempat tidur", LSJ: jam malam), stegnopoiia (membina berek), skenopoiia (pembuatan khemah), frasa (pagar masuk), diastasis, phylax (penjaga), hypaspists, parembole, stratopedon (kem), ketua negara (komandan speira), tetrarch, dan strategioi.

  • Amphipolis - c. 200 SM Meletemata 22, Epig. Aplikasi. 12 SEG 40.524
  • Yunani kuno dan klasik Oleh Michael Hewson Crawford, David Whitehead Halaman 596 ISBN0-19-284202-1
  • Zaman Hellenistik dari pertempuran Ipsos hingga kematian Kleopatra VII Oleh Stanley Mayer Burstein Halaman 88 0-521-28158-X
  • Pahlawan Macedonia Elite Infantryman Oleh Waldemar Heckel, Ryan Jones, Christa Hook Halaman 24 1-84176-950-9

Artikel berkaitan Yunani Kuno ini adalah rintisan. Anda boleh membantu Wikipedia dengan mengembangkannya.

Artikel ini mengenai sejarah ketenteraan adalah tunggul. Anda boleh membantu Wikipedia dengan mengembangkannya.


Penggalian Amphipolis

Urutan penggalian telah menemui dinding perimeter, yang dikenal sebagai peribolos, panjangnya melebihi setengah kilometer dan dibina dari marmar terbaik. Kehadiran kubur cist di bawah lantai ruang terakhir dan penggalian jenazah manusia di dalam paritnya yang terganggu pada zaman dahulu membuktikan dengan jelas status gundukan sebagai monumen pengebumian. Keluasan monumen ini dan kualiti hiasannya yang luar biasa memaksa seseorang untuk mempercayai bahawa penghuni kubur adalah seorang yang sangat penting. Banyak bukti membuktikan tarikh pengebumian hingga suku terakhir abad keempat SM sesudah kematian Alexander sendiri pada 323 SM.


Kandungan

Nama Macedonia berasal dari bahasa Yunani: Μακεδονία ( Makedonia ), [15] [16] sebuah kerajaan (kemudian, wilayah) dinamai orang-orang Macedonia kuno, yang merupakan keturunan suku Yunani Zaman Gangsa. [17] Nama mereka, Μακεδόνες (Makedónes), berkaitan dengan kata sifat Yunani Kuno μᾰκεδνός (makednós), bermaksud 'tinggi, langsing'. [16] Secara tradisional ia berasal dari akar Indo-Eropah * meh₂ḱ-, yang bermaksud 'panjang' atau 'langsing'. Ahli bahasa Robert S. P. Beekes menyokong idea bahawa kedua-dua istilah tersebut berasal dari substrat Pra-Yunani dan tidak dapat dijelaskan dari segi morfologi Indo-Eropah. [18] Namun, pandangan Beekes tidak utama dan De Decker berpendapat bahawa hujahnya tidak mencukupi. [19] Wilayah ini secara historis juga dikenal sebagai Македония (Makedonija) dalam bahasa Bulgaria dan dialek Slavia Selatan tempatan, Makedonya dalam Bahasa Turki, dan Machedonia Bahasa Aromanian. Machedonia juga nama untuk wilayah di Megleno-Romania.

Suntingan Prasejarah

Macedonia terletak di persimpangan pembangunan manusia antara Aegean dan Balkan. Tanda-tanda awal tempat tinggal manusia bermula dari zaman palaolitik, terutamanya dengan gua Petralona di mana terdapat humanoid Eropah yang tertua namun diketahui, Archanthropus europaeus petraloniensis. Pada zaman Neolitik Akhir (sekitar 4500 hingga 3500 SM), perdagangan terjadi dengan wilayah yang cukup jauh, yang menunjukkan perubahan sosio-ekonomi yang pesat. Salah satu inovasi yang paling penting adalah permulaan kerja tembaga.

Sejarah kuno Sunting

Menurut Herodotus, sejarah Macedonia dimulai dengan suku Makednoi, antara yang pertama menggunakan nama itu, berhijrah ke wilayah tersebut dari Histiaeotis di selatan. Di sana mereka tinggal di dekat suku Thracian seperti Bryges yang kemudiannya akan meninggalkan Macedonia ke Asia Kecil dan dikenali sebagai Phrygians. Macedonia dinamakan sempena Makednoi. Akaun toponim lain seperti Emathia dibuktikan telah digunakan sebelum itu. Herodotus mendakwa bahawa cabang Macedonia menyerang Yunani Selatan menjelang akhir milenium kedua SM. Setelah sampai di Peloponnese, penyerang-penceroboh itu diganti menjadi Dorian, memicu catatan pencerobohan Dorian. Selama berabad-abad suku-suku Macedonia disusun dalam kerajaan-kerajaan yang merdeka, di wilayah yang sekarang menjadi Makedonia Tengah, dan peranan mereka dalam politik Hellenic dalaman adalah minimum, bahkan sebelum kebangkitan Athens. Orang Macedonia mengaku sebagai orang Yunani Dorian (Argive Greeks) dan terdapat banyak orang Ion di kawasan pesisir. Kawasan selebihnya dihuni oleh pelbagai suku Thracian dan Illyrian serta sebahagian besar jajahan pesisir dari negara-negara Yunani lain seperti Amphipolis, Olynthos, Potidea, Stageira dan banyak lagi, dan di utara suku lain tinggal, yang disebut Paeonians. Pada akhir abad ke-6 dan awal abad ke-5 SM, wilayah ini berada di bawah pemerintahan Parsi hingga kehancuran Xerxes di Plataea. Semasa Perang Peloponnesia, Macedonia menjadi teater banyak aksi ketenteraan oleh Liga Peloponnesia dan orang Athena, dan menyaksikan serangan Thracian dan Illyria, seperti yang dibuktikan oleh Thucydides. Banyak bandar Macedonia bersekutu dengan orang Spartan (baik orang Sparta dan orang Macedonia adalah Dorian, sementara orang Athena adalah orang Ionia), tetapi Athens mengekalkan koloni Amphipolis di bawah kawalannya selama bertahun-tahun. Kerajaan Macedon, disusun semula oleh Philip II dan mencapai penyatuan negara-negara Yunani dengan membentuk Liga Korintus. Setelah pembunuhannya, puteranya Alexander berjaya menjadi takhta Macedon dan membawa gelaran Hegemon League of Corinth memulakan kempen panjangnya ke arah timur. Selepas kematian Alexander Agung dan Perang Diadochi, Macedonia adalah negara Yunani Hellenistik yang kuat.

Zaman Rom dan zaman Bizantium awal Sunting

Macedonia tetap menjadi kerajaan yang penting dan kuat hingga Pertempuran Pydna (22 Jun 168 SM), di mana jeneral Rom Aemilius Paulus mengalahkan Raja Perseus dari Macedon, mengakhiri pemerintahan dinasti Antigonid ke atas Macedonia. Untuk tempoh yang singkat sebuah republik Macedonia yang disebut "Koinon Macedonia" telah ditubuhkan. Ia dibahagikan kepada empat daerah pentadbiran oleh orang Rom dengan harapan ini akan menjadikan pemberontakan lebih sukar, tetapi manuver ini gagal. Kemudian pada tahun 148 SM, Macedonia dianeksasi sepenuhnya oleh orang Rom. [20] Sempadan utara pada masa itu berakhir di Danau Ohrid dan Bylazora, sebuah kota Paeonian berhampiran bandar moden Veles. Strabo, menulis pada abad pertama Masehi meletakkan sempadan Macedonia di bahagian itu di Lychnidos, [21] Byzantine Achris dan sekarang Ochrid. Oleh itu, Macedonia kuno tidak jauh melampaui sempadannya sekarang (di Yunani). Di sebelah timur, Macedonia berakhir menurut Strabo di sungai Strymon, walaupun dia menyebutkan bahawa penulis lain meletakkan perbatasan Macedonia dengan Thrace di sungai Nestos, [22] yang juga merupakan sempadan geografi antara dua daerah pentadbiran Yunani.

Kisah Para Rasul (Kisah 16: 9–10) mencatatkan penglihatan di mana rasul Paulus dikatakan telah melihat seorang 'orang Makedonia' memohon kepadanya, dengan mengatakan, "Datanglah ke Makedonia dan bantu kami". Petikan tersebut melaporkan bahawa Paul dan rakan-rakannya segera menjawab undangan itu.

Selanjutnya provinsi-provinsi Epirus dan Thessaly serta wilayah-wilayah lain di utara digabungkan menjadi Macedonia Provincia yang baru, tetapi pada tahun 297 Masihi di bawah reformasi Diocletianic banyak wilayah ini dihapus dan dua provinsi baru dibentuk: Macedonia Prima dan Macedonia Salutaris ( dari tahun 479 hingga 482 AD Macedonia Secunda). Macedonia Prima bertepatan dengan definisi Strabo tentang Macedonia dan dengan daerah pentadbiran moden Yunani [20] dan menjadikan Thessaloniki sebagai ibu kotanya, sementara Macedonia Salutaris menjadikan kota Paeonian Stobi (dekat Gradsko) sebagai ibu kotanya. Subdivisi ini disebutkan dalam Hierocles 'Synecdemon (527-528) dan tetap melalui pemerintahan maharaja Justinian.

Pencerobohan Slavia, Avar, Bulgaria, dan Magyar pada abad ke-6-7 menghancurkan kedua-dua wilayah [23] dengan hanya sebahagian wilayah Macedonia Prima di kawasan pesisir dan Thrace yang dekat tinggal di tangan Bizantium, sementara sebahagian besar kawasan pedalaman dipertikaikan antara Byzantium dan Bulgaria. Kawasan Macedonia di bawah kawalan Bizantium melewati turma Macedonia ke wilayah Thrace.

Sejarah abad pertengahan Edit

Sistem pemerintahan baru berlaku pada tahun 789-802 Masihi, setelah pemulihan kerajaan Byzantium dari pencerobohan ini. Sistem baru ini berdasarkan kepada bahagian pentadbiran yang disebut Themata. Wilayah Macedonia Prima (wilayah wilayah administrasi Yunani moden Macedonia) terbagi antara Thema Thessaloniki dan Thema of Strymon, sehingga hanya wilayah wilayah dari Nestos di sebelah timur yang terus membawa nama Macedonia, disebut sebagai Thema Macedonia atau Thema "Macedonia di Thrace". Thema Macedonia di Thrace mempunyai ibu kota di Adrianople. [24] [25] [26]

Keakraban dengan unsur Slavia di daerah itu menyebabkan dua saudara lelaki dari Thessaloniki, Saints Cyril dan Methodius, dipilih untuk menukar orang Slavia menjadi Kristian. Setelah kempen Basil II, seluruh Macedonia kembali ke negara Bizantium. Setelah Perang Salib Keempat 1203-1204, sebuah kerajaan Salib berumur pendek, Kerajaan Tesalonika, didirikan di wilayah ini. Ini ditaklukkan oleh pengasas bersama Despotate Yunani Epirus, Theodore Komnenos Doukas pada tahun 1224, ketika Macedonia Yunani dan kota Thessaloniki berada di tengah-tengah Empayar Tesalonika yang berumur pendek. Kembali ke Empayar Bizantium yang dipulihkan tidak lama kemudian, Macedonia Yunani tetap berada di tangan Bizantium hingga tahun 1340-an, ketika seluruh Macedonia (kecuali Thessaloniki, dan mungkin Veria) ditaklukkan oleh penguasa Serbia Stefan Dušan. [27] Setelah Pertempuran Maritsa (1371), pemerintahan Bizantium didirikan kembali di wilayah timur, termasuk Serres. Selama tahun 1380-an, wilayah ini secara beransur-ansur ditakluki oleh Uthmaniyyah yang maju, dengan Serres bertahan hingga 1383, dan Thessaloniki hingga 1387. Setelah selang Bizantium singkat pada tahun 1403–1430 (selama tujuh tahun terakhir di mana kota ini diserahkan kepada Venesia), Thessaloniki dan kawasan sekitarnya kembali ke Uthmaniyyah. [28]

Pemerintahan Uthmaniyyah Sunting

Penangkapan Thessaloniki pada tahun 1430 melemparkan dunia Bizantium dalam kekhawatiran, yang dianggap dengan betul sebagai awal dari kejatuhan Konstantinopel itu sendiri. Ingatan mengenai peristiwa itu dapat bertahan melalui tradisi rakyat yang mengandungi fakta dan mitos. Apostolos Vacalopoulos mencatat tradisi Turki berikut yang berkaitan dengan penangkapan Thessaloniki: [30]

"Ketika Murad sedang tidur di istananya di Yenitsa, kisahnya mengatakan bahawa, Tuhan menampakkan diri kepadanya dalam mimpi dan memberinya mawar yang indah untuk dicium, penuh dengan minyak wangi. Sultan begitu kagum dengan keindahannya sehingga dia memohon kepada Tuhan berikan kepadanya. Tuhan menjawab, "Mawar ini, Murad, adalah Tesalonika. Ketahuilah bahawa itu adalah milik anda yang diberikan oleh syurga untuk menikmatinya. Jangan buang masa dan ambil ". Mematuhi nasihat dari Tuhan ini, Murad berjalan menentang Tesalonika dan, seperti yang telah ditulis, menangkapnya."

Thessaloniki menjadi pusat pentadbiran Uthmaniyyah di Balkan. Walaupun sebahagian besar Macedonia diperintah oleh Uthmaniyyah, di Gunung Athos komuniti monastik terus wujud dalam keadaan otonomi. Selebihnya semenanjung Chalkidiki juga menikmati status autonomi: "Koinon of Mademochoria" ditadbir oleh dewan yang dilantik oleh tempatan kerana hak istimewa yang diperoleh kerana kekayaannya, berasal dari lombong emas dan perak di daerah itu.

Edit sejarah moden

Terdapat beberapa pemberontakan di Macedonia semasa pemerintahan Uthmaniyyah, termasuk pemberontakan setelah Pertempuran Lepanto yang berakhir dengan pembunuhan beramai-ramai penduduk Yunani, pemberontakan di Naousa armatolos Zisis Karademos pada tahun 1705, pemberontakan di wilayah Grevena oleh Klepht yang disebut Ziakas (1730-1810). Pengisytiharan Kemerdekaan Yunani di Macedonia oleh Emmanuel Pappas pada tahun 1821, semasa Perang Kemerdekaan Yunani. Pemberontakan itu merebak dari Makedonia Tengah ke Barat. Pada musim luruh tahun 1821, Nikolaos Kasomoulis dihantar ke selatan Yunani sebagai "wakil Makedonia Tenggara", dan bertemu Demetrius Ypsilantis. Pada awal tahun 1822, Anastasios Karatasos dan Aggelis Gatsos mengatur pertemuan dengan yang lain armatoloi dan memutuskan bahawa pemberontakan itu harus berdasarkan tiga kota: Naoussa, Kastania, dan Siatista. [31] Pada tahun 1854 Theodoros Ziakas, putera dari klepht Ziakas, bersama dengan Dimitrios Karatasos, yang pernah menjadi antara kapten di pengepungan Naousa pada tahun 1821, memimpin pemberontakan lain di Makedonia Barat yang telah diperingati dalam lagu rakyat Yunani.

Untuk mengukuhkan usaha Yunani untuk Macedonia, Jawatankuasa Macedonia Macedonia dibentuk pada tahun 1903, di bawah pimpinan Dimitrios Kalapothakis anggotanya termasuk Ion Dragoumis dan Pavlos Melas. [32] Pejuangnya dikenali sebagai Makedonomachoi ("Pejuang Macedonia"). [33] Yunani menolong orang-orang Macedonia untuk menentang kedua-dua pasukan Uthmaniyyah dan Bulgaria, dengan menghantar pegawai tentera yang membentuk kumpulan yang terdiri daripada orang-orang Macedonia dan sukarelawan Yunani yang lain, sesuatu yang mengakibatkan Perjuangan Macedonia dari 1904–1908, yang berakhir dengan Revolusi Young Turk . [34] [35] Orang Macedonia bertempur bersama tentera Yunani biasa semasa perjuangan untuk Macedonia. Terdapat monumen di Macedonia memperingati Makedonomachi, pejuang Macedonia tempatan dan Yunani lain, yang mengambil bahagian dalam perang dan mati untuk membebaskan Macedonia dari pemerintahan Uthmaniyyah, secara rasmi diingati sebagai pahlawan. [36] [37]

Yunani memperoleh bahagian selatan wilayah (dengan Thessaloniki), yang sesuai dengan wilayah Macedonia kuno yang dianggap sebagai sebahagian dari sejarah Yunani dan mempunyai kehadiran Yunani yang kuat, [34] dari Empayar Uthmaniyyah setelah Perang Balkan Pertama, dan memperluas bahagiannya dalam Perang Balkan Kedua menentang Bulgaria. Batasan Macedonia Yunani dimuktamadkan dalam Perjanjian Bucharest. Dalam Perang Dunia I, Macedonia menjadi medan perang. Perdana Menteri Yunani, Eleftherios Venizelos, lebih suka memasuki perang di sisi Entente, sementara Raja Constantine Germanophile saya memilih untuk berkecuali. Diundang oleh Venizelos, pada musim gugur 1915, sekutu mendarat di Thessaloniki untuk membantu Serbia dalam perang melawan Austria-Hungaria dan Bulgaria, tetapi campur tangan mereka terlambat untuk mencegah kejatuhan orang Serbia. Front Macedonia ditubuhkan, dengan pusat bandar Thessaloniki, sementara pada musim panas 1916 orang Bulgaria mengambil alih Macedonia timur Yunani tanpa tentangan. Ini memicu pemberontakan tentera di kalangan perwira pro-Venizelist di Thessaloniki, yang mengakibatkan terbentuknya "Pemerintahan Sementara Pertahanan Nasional" di kota itu, yang diketuai oleh Venizelos, yang memasuki perang bersama dengan Sekutu. Setelah rundingan diplomatik yang sengit dan konfrontasi bersenjata di Athena antara Entente dan pasukan royalis Raja melepaskannya, dan putera keduanya Alexander menggantikannya. Venizelos kembali ke Athens pada bulan Jun 1917 dan Yunani, yang kini disatukan, secara rasmi menyertai perang di pihak Sekutu.

Dalam Perang Dunia II Macedonia diduduki oleh Paksi (1941–44), dengan Jerman mengambil Macedonia barat dan tengah dengan Thessaloniki dan Bulgaria menduduki dan mencaplok Macedonia timur.

Pada awal abad ke-19, petani Slavia mengidentifikasi diri berdasarkan kepunyaan keluarga, kampung, atau wilayah mereka, atau sebagai "Rum Millet", iaitu anggota komuniti Kristian Ortodoks yang dikuasai oleh Yunani. Slavia Macedonia pada umumnya menyebut diri mereka dan dikenali sebagai "Bulgaria". Pada pertengahan abad ke-19, komuniti petani Macedonia mengalami pembentukan perpecahan yang mendalam dengan kebangkitan nasionalisme di Empayar Uthmaniyyah. Sejak itu, masyarakat berbahasa Slavia dari utara Yunani berpecah menjadi dua kumpulan yang bermusuhan dan menentang dengan dua identiti kebangsaan yang berbeza - Yunani dan Bulgaria. [38] Menjelang Perang Dunia Kedua dan berikutan kekalahan Bulgaria, berlaku lagi perpecahan lain antara kumpulan Slavia. Konservatif berlepas dengan Bulgaria Tentera ke Bulgaria. Kaum kiri yang dikenali sebagai orang Macedonia (Slavia), bergabung dengan tentera Demokratik pemberontak yang dikuasai komunis Yunani. Pada akhir Perang Saudara Yunani (1946-49), kebanyakan orang Macedonia dari latar belakang Slavia diasingkan oleh Parti Komunis Yunani dan dipaksa melarikan diri ke Republik Sosialis Makedonia Yugoslavia dan negara-negara lain di Eropah Timur dan Tengah. [39] Ada juga yang berhijrah ke Kanada, Australia, dan Amerika Syarikat. [40] Undang-undang Yunani semasa masih melarang masuk semula dan pengembalian harta benda oleh orang Macedonia yang bukan "asal Yunani". [41]

Macedonia adalah wilayah Yunani terbesar dan kedua paling ramai penduduknya. Lanskap dicirikan oleh pelbagai, kerana Macedonia Barat dan Timur bergunung kecuali beberapa lembah yang subur, sedangkan dataran Thessaloniki-Giannitsa, yang terbesar di Yunani, terletak di Macedonia Tengah. Gunung Olympus, gunung tertinggi di Yunani, terletak di Pegunungan Olympus di sempadan antara Thessaly dan Macedonia, antara unit wilayah Pieria dan Larissa, sekitar 80 km (50 mi) barat daya dari Thessaloniki. Beberapa kawasan pergunungan lain adalah Vermio Mountains, Pierian Mountains, Voras Mountains. Pulau-pulau Macedonia adalah Thasos, di seberang pantai Macedonia Timur dan pelabuhan Kavala, dan Ammouliani, di seberang pantai Macedonia Tengah, di Chalkidiki. Haliacmon, yang mengalir melalui unit wilayah Kastoria, Grevena, Kozani, Imathia dan Pieria, adalah sungai terpanjang di Yunani. Beberapa sungai lain adalah Axios (Vardar), Strymonas, Loudias.

Sejak tahun 1987 Macedonia telah dibahagikan kepada tiga wilayah (bahasa Yunani: περιεςες). Ini adalah Macedonia Barat, Macedonia Tengah, dan Macedonia Timur, yang merupakan sebahagian dari wilayah Macedonia Timur dan Thrace. Ketiga-tiga wilayah ini dibahagikan kepada 14 unit wilayah. Mereka diawasi oleh Kementerian Dalam Negeri, sementara Wakil Menteri Macedonia dan Thrace bertanggung jawab atas penyelarasan dan penerapan kebijakan pemerintah di ketiga wilayah Macedonia. [42] Sebelum tahun 1987 Macedonia adalah satu unit pentadbiran dan geografi.

Ketua-ketua pelbagai unit pentadbiran dipilih. Pilihan raya tempatan Yunani yang terakhir adalah pada tahun 2014, dan menyaksikan Apostolos Tzitzikostas terpilih sebagai gabenor wilayah Macedonia Tengah, Giorgos Pavlidis di Macedonia Timur dan Thrace, dan Theodoros Karypidis di Macedonia Barat. Tzitzikostas dan Pavlidis adalah anggota parti Demokrasi Baru kanan-tengah, sementara Karypidis bebas. Pilihan raya berlaku dalam sistem dua pusingan, di mana kedua-dua calon dengan undi terbanyak saling berhadapan pada pusingan kedua jika tidak ada yang berjaya memperoleh majoriti lebih daripada 50% undi pada pusingan pertama. Majlis daerah, walikota, dan pegawai lain juga dipilih dengan cara ini. Pilihan raya tempatan berikutnya akan berlangsung pada tahun 2019. Wakil Menteri Macedonia dan Thrace bukan jawatan terpilih, dan sebaliknya dilantik atas kesenangan Perdana Menteri Yunani. Timbalan Menteri semasa dalam Kabinet Kyriakos Mitsotakis adalah Stavros Kalafatis [el] dari Demokrasi Baru. Pelbagai wilayah di Yunani juga merupakan konstituen untuk Parlimen Hellenic, dan Macedonia diwakili melalui 66 Anggota Parlimennya. [43] Thessaloniki dibahagikan kepada dua konstituen, Thessaloniki A dan Thessaloniki B, sementara Grevena adalah konstituen terkecil dengan hanya 1 kerusi. [43] Thessaloniki A adalah kawasan pilihan raya kedua terbesar di Yunani dengan 16 anggota Parlimen. [43]

Macedonia bersempadan dengan wilayah Yunani yang berdekatan dengan Thessaly di selatan, Thrace (bahagian Macedonia Timur dan Thrace) di timur, dan Epirus di sebelah barat. Ini juga termasuk negara monastik otonom Gunung Athos, yang telah wujud sebagai tempat perlindungan agama sejak Zaman Pertengahan. Gunung Athos berada di bawah bidang kuasa spiritual Patriarkat Ekumenikal Konstantinopel dan tidak dapat diakses oleh wanita, dihukum dengan hukuman penjara sehingga dua belas bulan. [44] Perkara ini telah dikritik oleh Parlimen Eropah. [44] Wilayah Gunung Athos adalah wilayah yang memerintah sendiri di Yunani, dan kekuasaan negara dilaksanakan melalui gubernur yang dilantik oleh Kementerian Luar Negeri. Kesatuan Eropah mengambil kira status istimewa ini, terutama dalam hal pengecualian cukai dan hak pemasangan. [45] Macedonia bersempadan dengan negara-negara berdaulat Albania di utara-barat, Makedonia Utara di utara, dan Bulgaria di timur laut. Jadual di bawah adalah senarai ringkas dari pelbagai bahagian di Macedonia:

Peta Macedonia Pembahagian mulai 2011 [kemas kini] Modal Kawasan Penduduk [46]
Macedonia Barat Kozani 9,451 km 2 283,689
1. Kastoria Kastoria 1,720 km 2 50,322
2. Florina Florina 1,924 km 2 51,414
3. Kozani Kozani 3,516 km 2 150,196
4. Grevena Grevena 2,291 km 2 31,757
Macedonia Tengah Thessaloniki 18,811 km 2 1,882,108
5. Pella Edessa 2,506 km 2 139,680
6. Imathia Veria 1,701 km 2 140,611
7. Pieria Katerini 1,516 km 2 126,698
8. Kilkis Kilkis 2,519 km 2 80,419
9. Thessaloniki Thessaloniki 3,683 km 2 1,110,551
10. Chalkidiki Poligir 2,918 km 2 105,908
11. Serres Serres 3.968 km 2 176,430
Macedonia Timur
(Bahagian Macedonia Timur dan Thrace)
Kavala 5,579 km 2 238,785
12. Drama Drama 3,468 km 2 98,287
13. Kavala Kavala 1,728 km 2 124,917
14. Thasos Thasos 379 km 2 13,770
15. Gunung Athos (autonomi) Karyes 336 km 2 1,811
Macedonia (jumlahnya) Thessaloniki 34,177 km 2 2,406,393

Produk Domestik Kasar Makedonia mencapai € 41,99 bilion ($ 47,44 bilion) dalam nilai nominal dan € 46,87 bilion ($ 52,95 bilion) dalam pariti daya beli tepat sebelum Kemelesetan Besar pada tahun 2008 [4] sejak itu ia menguncup ke titik terendah di 2015, semasa krisis hutang kerajaan Yunani, menjadi € 30.85 bilion ($ 34.85 bilion) dan € 38.17 bilion ($ 43.12 bilion) [4] penurunan sebanyak 26.5%. Greece keluar dari kemelesetannya, yang bermula pada tahun 2009, pada tahun 2016 tetapi data dari tahun tersebut dan seterusnya tidak tersedia untuk seluruh Macedonia Macedonia Tengah meningkat sebanyak 0.57% secara nyata pada tahun itu menjadi € 23.85 bilion ($ 26.94 bilion), sementara Macedonia Barat menguncup sebanyak 10.6% hingga € 3.85 bilion ($ 4.35 bilion). [4] Hampir separuh ekonomi, 49%, berpusat di unit wilayah Thessaloniki, [4] yang kekal dalam kemelesetan pada tahun 2015, menurun sebanyak 0,4%. [4]

Kemelesetan memberi kesan kepada pendapatan per kapita wilayah, terutama jika dibandingkan dengan rata-rata Kesatuan Eropah. Macedonia Barat, wilayah dengan pendapatan per kapita tertinggi, menyaksikan penurunan dari 83% rata-rata EU pada tahun 2008 menjadi 59% pada tahun 2016. [4] Pendapatan per kapita Macedonia pada tahun 2015 adalah € 12,900 dalam nominal dan € 15,900 dalam pembelian syarat kuasa. [4] [47] Ekonomi Macedonia terutamanya berdasarkan perkhidmatan, dengan perkhidmatan menyumbang € 16.46 bilion (60.4%) dari nilai tambah kasar wilayah ini pada tahun 2015. [48] Sektor industri dan pertanian menyumbang € 9.06 bilion (33.3%) dan € 1.72 bilion (6.3%) masing-masing. [48] ​​Tenaga buruh serantau juga sebagian besar menggunakan jasa (60,4%), dengan industri dan pertanian membentuk 25,6% dan 14,0% dari tenaga kerja. [49]

Macedonia adalah rumah bagi tanah pertanian terkaya di Yunani, [2] dan wilayah ini berjumlah 9,859 kilometer persegi (3,807 mi persegi) kawasan pertanian negara (30% dari jumlah keseluruhan). [50] Pengeluaran pertanian Macedonia secara historis didominasi oleh tembakau, dengan tanaman tunai ditanam dalam jumlah besar kerana nilainya. Macedonia Tengah dan Barat masih menghasilkan 41% daripada jumlah tembakau Yunani, tetapi hanya mewakili 1.4% dari nilai pengeluaran pertanian wilayah ini. [51] Pada masa ini ekonomi pertanian daerah berpusat pada tanaman bijirin, buah, dan industri. Keseluruhan Macedonia Tengah dan Barat menyumbang 25% daripada nilai hasil pertanian Yunani (termasuk 41% buah dan 43% bijirin). [51] Identiti jenama untuk produk yang dibuat di Macedonia, yang disebut "Macedonia the GReat", dilancarkan pada tahun 2019 oleh pemerintah Yunani. [52]

Kesatuan Eropah menganggap sebahagian besar Macedonia sebagai wilayah Kesatuan yang kurang maju untuk kitaran pendanaan 2014-2020, [53] dan wilayah ini dalam beberapa tahun kebelakangan ini mendapat manfaat daripada sejumlah projek besar yang dibiayai oleh kerajaan Yunani dan EU. Ini termasuk jalan raya Egnatia Odos (€ 5,93 miliar) [54] dan Metro Thessaloniki (€ 1,85 miliar) [55] sementara rangkaian kereta api juga telah dijana elektrik, memungkinkan Thessaloniki dihubungkan dengan Athens dalam 3,5 jam melalui kelajuan tinggi kereta api. [56] Keretapi Pinggir Kota Thessaloniki menghubungkan ibu kota wilayah dengan Florina, di Macedonia Barat, dan Larissa, di Thessaly. Lapangan Terbang Thessaloniki adalah yang ketiga tersibuk di negara ini, [57] dan laluan udara Athens – Thessaloniki adalah kesibukan kesepuluh EU pada tahun 2016. [58] Tiga lapangan terbang Macedonia yang lain adalah Lapangan Terbang Kavala, Lapangan Terbang Kozani, dan Lapangan Terbang Kastoria dua lapangan terbang paling sibuk , Thessaloniki dan Kavala, dikendalikan oleh Fraport. [59] Pelabuhan Thessaloniki adalah pengangkutan terbesar kedua di Yunani dan pengangkutan keempat terbesar di dunia dengan muatan, [60] [61] sementara Kavala adalah pelabuhan utama Macedonia yang lain.

Macedonia, sebagai wilayah sempadan negara anggota EU, mendapat manfaat daripada program EU yang mempromosikan kolaborasi ekonomi rentas sempadan baik antara anggota Kesatuan (Bulgaria), [62] dan juga Republik Makedonia Utara, [63] calon EU negara, dan Albania. [64] EU melabur € 210 juta ($ 237.24 juta) dalam tiga program ini untuk kitaran pendanaan 2014-2020. [62] [63] [64] Kereta api Egnatia bernilai € 10 bilion ($ 11.3 bilion) melintasi Macedonia dan menghubungkan Alexandroupoli di Thrace Barat dengan Igoumenitsa di Epirus telah diusulkan kepada Suruhanjaya Eropah pada tahun 2017 tetapi masih dalam perancangan dengan tarikh permulaan yang diunjurkan pada tahun 2019 [65] Sekiranya selesai, landasan kereta api sejauh 565 km (351 mi) [65] akan menjadi projek kereta api terbesar di Eropah. [66]

Macedonia Tengah adalah destinasi pelancongan paling popular di Yunani yang bukan merupakan pulau, dan keempatnya secara keseluruhan, mengungguli semua wilayah lain di daratan Yunani dengan 9.7 juta penginapan semalam pada tahun 2017. [14] Terdapat 2.1 juta penginapan lagi di Macedonia Timur dan Thrace dan 294 ribu di Macedonia Barat. [14]

Macedonia adalah wilayah yang beragam yang memungkinkannya memenuhi pelbagai jenis pelancongan. [67] Semenanjung Chalkidiki adalah destinasi pantai paling terkenal di Makedonia, menggabungkan 550 kilometer (340 mi) pantai berpasir dengan hutan lebat. [67] Terdapat 116 pantai Bendera Biru di Macedonia pada tahun 2018, 85 di antaranya berada di Chalkidiki. [68] Selain itu, wilayah ini merupakan rumah bagi tiga marin Bendera Biru dan satu pengendali pelancongan berperahu lestari. [68] Kavala adalah pusat ekonomi penting di Yunani Utara, pusat kegiatan perdagangan, pelancongan, penangkapan ikan dan minyak. Pieria menggabungkan dataran yang luas, gunung tinggi dan pantai berpasir dan keindahan wilayah ini memberikannya potensi besar untuk pengembangan pelancongan selanjutnya. Pulau Thasos, terletak dekat dengan pantai Macedonia timur, adalah destinasi pelancongan lain. Chalkidiki adalah rumah bagi Gunung Athos, yang merupakan pusat pelancongan agama yang penting. Bahagian dalam gunung membolehkan aktiviti mendaki dan sukan pengembaraan, [69] sementara pusat peranginan ski seperti Vasilitsa juga beroperasi pada bulan-bulan musim sejuk. [70] Macedonia adalah rumah bagi empat daripada 18 laman Warisan Dunia UNESCO di Yunani. Vergina terkenal sebagai tapak Aigai kuno (Αἰγαί, Aigaí, Latin: Aegae), ibu kota pertama Macedon. Aigai telah dianugerahkan status Tapak Warisan Dunia UNESCO. Pada tahun 336 SM Philip II dibunuh di teater Aigai dan puteranya, Alexander the Great, diisytiharkan sebagai raja. Penemuan yang paling penting baru-baru ini dibuat pada tahun 1977 ketika tapak perkuburan beberapa raja Macedon ditemui, termasuk makam Philip II dari Macedon. Ini juga merupakan lokasi istana kerajaan yang luas. Muzium arkeologi Vergina dibina untuk menempatkan semua artifak yang terdapat di laman web ini dan merupakan salah satu muzium terpenting di Yunani. Pella, yang menggantikan Aigai sebagai ibu kota Macedon pada abad keempat SM, juga terletak di Macedonia Tengah, serta Dion di Pieria dan Amphipolis. Philippi, yang terletak di timur Macedonia, adalah Tapak Warisan Dunia UNESCO yang lain. [71] Ini adalah tiang penting untuk pelancongan budaya. [69] Thessaloniki adalah rumah bagi banyak monumen Bizantium terkenal, termasuk monumen Paleokristian dan Bizantium Thessaloniki, Tapak Warisan Dunia UNESCO, serta beberapa struktur Yahudi Rom, Uthmaniyyah dan Sephardik. Selain menjadi pusat budaya Macedonia, Thessaloniki juga merupakan pusat pelancongan dan gastronomi bandar. [69] Macedonia juga merupakan rumah bagi pelbagai destinasi pelancongan tasik dan tanah lembap. [70]

Sunting Agama

Agama utama di wilayah Yunani Macedonia adalah agama Kristian, dengan majoriti penduduknya tergolong dalam Gereja Ortodoks Timur. Pada abad-abad awal kekristenan, pemandangan Thessaloniki menjadi keuskupan metropolitan provinsi Rom kuno Macedonia. Uskup Agung Thessaloniki juga menjadi primata gerejawi senior dari seluruh Illyricum Timur, dan pada tahun 535 bidang kuasanya dikurangkan ke wilayah administrasi Keuskupan Macedonia. Pada abad ke-8, dari Rom ia berada di bawah bidang kuasa Patriark Ekumenis Konstantinopel, dan tetap menjadi pusat gerejawi utama di wilayah bersejarah Macedonia sepanjang Abad Pertengahan, dan hingga zaman moden. [72]

Masakan Macedonia Edit

Masakan Macedonia adalah masakan wilayah Macedonia di utara Yunani. Contemporary Greek Macedonian cooking shares much with general Greek and wider Balkan and Mediterranean cuisine, including dishes from the Ottoman past. Specific influences include dishes of the Pontic, Aromanian, Armenian and Sephardi Jewish population. The mix of the different people inhabiting the region gave the name to the Macedonian salad. [73]

Macedonian music Edit

Music of Macedonia is the music of the geographic region of Macedonia in Greece, which is a part of the music of whole region of Macedonia. Notable element of the local folk music is the use of trumpets and koudounia (called chálkina in the local dialect).

In 2011 the permanent population of the region stood at 2,406,393 residents, [46] a decrease from 2,422,533 in 2001. [74] As of 2017, the population of Macedonia is estimated to have further decreased to 2,382,857. [3] In the 2011 Greek census the capital city, Thessaloniki, had an urban population of 824,676, up from 794,330 in 2001, [74] while its metropolitan population increased to over a million. [46] 281,458 people in Macedonia (or 12% of the population) were born in a foreign country, compared to 11.89% for the whole of Greece. [75] 51.32% of the population was female, and 48.68% male. [76] Like the rest of Greece Macedonia is faced with an aging population the largest age group in the region is that of the over 70, at 15.59% of the population, while the 0-9 and 10-19 groups combined made up 20.25% of the population. [76] The largest urban centres in Macedonia in 2011 were:

Demographic history Edit

The inhabitants of Greek Macedonia are nowadays overwhelmingly ethnic Greeks, and most are also Greek Orthodox Christians. From the Middle Ages to the early 20th century, the ethnic composition of the region of Macedonia is characterised by uncertainty both about numbers and identification. The earliest estimation we have is from the Greek consulate of Thessaloniki in 1884, which according to it the nowadays Greek region of Macedonia had 1,073,000 Greeks (Grecophones, Slavophones, Albanophones), 565,000 Muslims, 215,000 Bulgarians and 16,000 Aromanians. [78] The 1904 Ottoman census of Hilmi Pasha people were assigned to ethnicity according which church/language they belonged, it recorded 373,227 Greeks in the vilayet of Selânik (Thessaloniki), 261,283 Greeks in the vilayet of Monastir (Bitola) and 13,452 Greeks in the villayet of Kosovo. [79] Of those 648,962 Greeks by church, 307,000 identified as Greek speakers, while about 250,000 as Slavic speakers and 99,000 as "Vlach" (Aromanian or Megleno-Romanian). [80] [81] However, these figures extend to territories both inside and outside of Greek Macedonia. Hugh Poulton, in his Who Are the Macedonians, notes that "assessing population figures is problematic" [82] for the territory of Greek Macedonia before its incorporation into the Greek state in 1913. [82] The area's remaining population was principally composed of Ottoman Turks (including non-Turkish Muslims of mainly Bulgarian and Greek Macedonian convert origin) and also a sizeable community of mainly Sephardic Jews (centred in Thessaloniki), and smaller numbers of Romani, Albanians, Aromanians and Megleno-Romanians.

When Macedonia was first incorporated in Greece in 1913, however, Greeks were a marginal plurality in the region. [83] The treaties of Neuilly (1919) and Lausanne (1923) mandated a forceful exchange of populations with Bulgaria and Turkey respectively, and some 776,000 Greek refugees (mostly from Turkey) were resettled in Macedonia, [83] displacing 300,000–400,000 non-Greeks who were forced to move as part of the population exchange. [84] The population of ethnic minorities in Macedonia dropped from 48% of the total population in 1920 to 12% in 1928, with the Great Greek Encyclopedia noting in 1934 that those minorities that remained "do not yet possess a Greek national consciousness". [85]

The population of Macedonia was greatly affected by the Second World War, as it was militarily occupied by Nazi Germany while its ally, Bulgaria, annexed eastern Macedonia. Germany administered its occupation zone by implementation of the Nuremberg Laws, [86] which saw some 43,000–49,000 of Thessaloniki's 56,000 Jews exterminated in the Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen concentration camps. [87] [88] [89] In its own zone of annexation, Bulgaria actively persecuted the local Greek population with the help of Bulgarian collaborationists. [90] Further demographic change happened in the aftermath of the Greek Civil War, when many Slavs of Macedonia who fought on the side of the Democratic Army of Greece and fought to separate Greek Macedonia from the rest of Greece under the auspices of Yugoslavia, left Greece. [90] These expatriates were the primary source of ethnic Macedonian irredentism and the appropriation of ancient Macedonian heritage. [91]

Regional identity Edit

Macedonians (Greek: Μακεδόνες , Makedónes [makeˈðones] ) is the term by which ethnic Greeks originating from the region are known. [92] [93] Macedonians came to be of particular importance prior to the Balkan Wars, during the Macedonian Struggle, when they were a minority population inside the multiethnic Ottoman Macedonia. The Macedonians now have a strong regional identity, manifested both in Greece and by emigrant groups in the Greek diaspora. [94] [95] This sense of identity has been highlighted in the context of the Macedonia naming dispute in the aftermath of the break-up of Yugoslavia, in which Greece objected to its northern neighbour calling itself the "Republic of Macedonia". This objection is the direct result of this regional identity, and a matter of heritage for northern Greeks. [96] A characteristic expression of this self-identification was manifested by Prime Minister Kostas Karamanlis at a meeting of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg in January 2007, declaring that "I myself am a Macedonian, and another two and a half million Greeks are Macedonians". [97]

In the early-to-mid 20th century Greece was invaded by Bulgaria three times with the aim of capturing portions Macedonia [98] during the Second Balkan War, during the First World War, and during the Second World War. Additionally, Nazi Germany had promised Thessaloniki to Yugoslavia as a reward for joining the Axis powers. [99] The perceived existence of a foreign danger had a particularly strong effect on the emergence of a distinct regional identity in Macedonia. [98] The representation of the Macedonian Struggle in Penelope Delta's popular 1937 teen novel Secrets of the Swamp solidified the image of the chauvinist clash between Greeks and Bulgarians in Macedonia in the minds of many Greeks. [100] Bulgaria was specifically mentioned as the enemy in Greek Macedonia's unofficial anthem, Famous Macedonia, the reference only being replaced by vague 'Barbarians' with the normalization of Greco-Bulgarian relations in the 1970s. [98] During the same period, Manolis Andronikos made major archaeological discoveries at Aigai, the first capital of ancient Macedonia, which included the tomb of Phillip II, Alexander the Great's father. [101] His discoveries were drawn upon as evidence of ethnic and cultural links between the ancient Macedonians and southern Greek city-states [101] [93] by Greeks in Macedonia.

The distinct regional identity of Greek Macedonians is also the product of the fact that it was closer to the centres of power in both the Byzantine and Ottoman period, was considered culturally, politically, and strategically more important than other parts of Greece during these two periods, and also the fact that the region had a far more ethnically and religiously diverse population in both the medieval and Ottoman periods. In the late Byzantine period Greek Macedonia had also been the centre of significant Byzantine successor states, such as the Kingdom of Thessalonica, the short-lived state established by the rival Byzantine emperor, Theodore Komnenos Doukas, and - in parts of western Macedonia - the Despotate of Epirus, all of which helped promote a distinct Greek Macedonian identity.

In the contemporary period this is reinforced by Greek Macedonia's proximity to other states in the southern Balkans, the continuing existence of ethnic and religious minorities in Eastern Macedonia and Thrace not found in southern Greece, and the fact that migrants and refugees from elsewhere in the Balkans, southern Russia, and Georgia (including Pontic Greeks and Caucasus Greeks from northeastern Anatolia and the south Caucasus) have usually gravitated to Greek Macedonia rather than southern Greece.

Languages and minorities Edit

Greek is the majority language throughout Greece today, with an estimated 5% of the population speaking a language other than Greek, [102] and is the only language of administration and education in the region. Greek is spoken universally in Greek Macedonia, even in the border regions where there is a strong presence of languages other than Greek. [103] The Greek government exhibits some tolerance toward the use of minority languages, [102] though Greece is one of the countries which has not signed the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages [104] a number of court cases have been brought to the attention of the European Parliament regarding the suppression of minority linguistic rights. [102]

Apart from Standard Modern Greek, a number of other Greek dialects are spoken in Macedonia. This includes Pontic Greek, a language spoken originally on the shores of the Black Sea in northeastern Anatolia and the Caucasus, as well as an archaic Greek dialect indigenous to Greek Macedonia and other parts of Northern Greece known as Sarakatsánika (Greek: Σαρακατσάνικα ). This dialect is spoken by the Sarakatsani, a traditionally transhumant shepherd Greek community whose spoken tongue has undergone very little change through foreign influences. [105]

Macedonia is also home to an array of non-Greek languages. Slavic languages are the most prevalent minority languages in the region, while Aromanian, Arvanitic, Megleno-Romanian, Turkish, and Romani are also spoken. Judaeo-Spanish, also known as Ladino, was historically the language of the Jewish community of Thessaloniki, although the Holocaust nearly eradicated the city's previously-vibrant Jewish community of 70,000 to a mere 3,000 individuals today. [106]

The exact size of the linguistic and ethnic minority groups in Macedonia is not known with any degree of scientific accuracy, as Greece has not conducted a census on the question of mother tongue since 1951. Aromanians form a minority population throughout much of Macedonia. They largely identify as Greeks and most belong to the Greek Orthodox Church, many refusing to be called a minority group. [107] In the 1951 census they numbered 39,855 in all Greece (the number in Macedonia proper is unknown). Many Aromanian villages can be found along the slopes of the Vermion Mountains and Mount Olympus. Smaller numbers can be found in the Prespes region and near the Gramos mountains. Megleno-Romanians can be found in the Moglena region of Macedonia. The Megleno-Romanian language is traditionally spoken in the 11 Megleno-Romanian villages spread across Greece and the Republic of North Macedonia, including Archangelos, Notia, Lagkadia, and Skra. They are generally adherents to the Orthodox Church while the former majority in Notia was Muslim. Arvanite communities exist in Serres regional unit, while many can also be found in Thessaloniki. There are three Arvanite villages in the Florina regional unit (Drosopigi, Lechovo and Flampouro) with others located in Kilkis and Thessaloniki regional units. [108] Other minority groups include Armenians and Romani. Romani communities are concentrated mainly around the city of Thessaloniki. An uncertain number of them live in Macedonia from the total of about 200,000–300,000 that live scattered on all the regions of Greece. [109]

Ethnic Macedonian minority and language Edit

The Macedonian language, a member of the South Slavic languages closely related to Bulgarian, is today spoken mostly in the regional units of Florina and Pella. [102] Due to the sensitivity of the use of term 'Macedonian', the language is euphemistically referred to as dópia ( ντόπια , 'local') or nasi (Macedonian: наши or naši , 'our (language)'). [102]

The exact number of the minority is difficult to know as Greece has not collected data on languages as part of its census since 1951. The 1928 census listed 81,984 speakers of 'Slavomacedonian' in Greece, [110] but internal government documents from the 1930s put the number of Macedonian speakers in the Florina prefecture alone at 80,000 or 61% of the population. [111] A field study conducted in 1993 in these two regions under the auspices of the European Parliament found that of the 74 villages studied, Macedonian was spoken in various degrees of vitality in 49 villages and was the primary language in 15 villages. [103] To a lesser extent Macedonian is also present in the regional units of Kastoria, Imathia, Kilkis, Thessaloniki, Serres, and Drama. [102] The Greek language remains dominant in all regions, even in those where Macedonian and other minority languages are present. [103] The total number of 'slavic speakers' in Greece is estimated to range between as low as 10,000 and as high as 300,000. [112] [113] [114]

Greece has had varied policies toward the Macedonian language. In 1925 the Greek government introduced the first Macedonian alphabet book, known as the Abecedar, based on the Florina dialect of the language [111] this never entered classrooms due to opposition from Serbia and Bulgaria, as well as an outcry against it in Greece. [111] Efforts to assimilate resulted in instances of populations rejecting their Slavic language, as in the village of Atropos in 1959, where the villagers took "the oath before God" to cease speaking the local Slavic idiom and to only speak Greek. [111] The Macedonian language has survived despite efforts by Greek authorities to assimilate the population into the Greek majority. The vast number of Macedonian speakers are ethnic Greeks or possess a Greek national consciousness. [102] [115] It is difficult to ascertain the number of those with a different national consciousness, but estimates of the number of people within Greece that possess an ethnic Macedonian national identity range between 5,000–30,000. [115] [112]

Greece claims to respect the human rights of all its citizens, including the rights of individuals to self-identify, but also claims its policy of not recognising an ethnic Macedonian minority is based "on solid legal and factual grounds". [116] However, reports by organisations such as the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, and the United States Department of State have all concluded that Greek authorities are actively discriminatory against the existence of a Macedonian language, minority, or national identity, [116] [93] [117] even if the situation has improved markedly. [93] An ethnic Macedonian political party, Rainbow, has competed in Greek elections for the European Parliament since 1995. [93] In the 2019 election it received 6,364 votes or 0.11% of the national vote and came 35th in the results table, with most its support coming from Florina where it received 3.33% of the vote. [118]

Jews of Thessaloniki and other cities Edit

Northern Greece has had Jewish communities since ancient times, including the historically-significant and Greek-speaking Romaniote community. During the Ottoman era Thessaloniki became the centre of a Sephardi community which comprised more than half the city's population, as Ottoman authorities invited Jews who had been expelled from Castille in the aftermath of the Alhambra Decree of 1492 to resettle in the Ottoman Empire. The community nicknamed the city la madre de Israel (the mother of Israel) [119] and Jerusalem of the Balkans, [120] and brought with it the Judaeo-Spanish, or Ladino, language which became the mother tongue of Thessaloniki Jews. [121] By the 1680s about 300 families of Sephardi followers of Sabbatai Zevi had converted to Islam, becoming a sect known as the Dönmeh (converts), and migrated to Thessaloniki, whose population was by that time majority-Jewish. They established an active community that thrived for about 250 years. Many of their descendants later became prominent in trade. [122] Thessaloniki Jews later became pioneers of socialism and the labour movement in Greece.

Between the 15th and early 20th centuries, Thessaloniki was the only city in Europe where Jews were a majority of the population. [123] The Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917 destroyed much of the city and left 50,000 Jews homeless. [124] Many Jews emigrated to the United States, Palestine, and Paris after the loss of their livelihoods, being unable to wait for the government to create a new urban plan for rebuilding, which was eventually done. [125] The aftermath of the Greco-Turkish War and the expulsion of Greeks from Turkey saw nearly 100,000 ethnic Greeks resettled in Thessaloniki, reducing the proportion of Jews in the total community. Following the demographic shift, Jews made up about 20% of the city's population. During the interwar period, Greece granted the Jews the same civil rights as other Greek citizens. [124] In March 1926, Greece re-emphasised that all citizens of Greece enjoyed equal rights, and a considerable proportion of the city's Jews decided to stay.

According to Misha Glenny, such Greek Jews had largely not encountered "anti-Semitism as in its North European form". [126] Though antisemitism was utilised both by the Metaxas dictatorship and by newspapers such as Makedonia as part of the wider mechanism for identifying leftists, Greek Jews were either neutral or supportive of Metaxas. [127] By the 1940s, the great majority of the Jewish Greek community firmly identified as both Greek and Jewish. World War II was disastrous for Greek Jews the Battle of Greece saw Greek Macedonia occupied by Italy, Bulgaria, and Nazi Germany, with the latter occupying much of Central Macedonia and implementing the Nuremberg Laws against the Jewish population. Greeks of the Resistance and Italian forces (before 1943) tried to protect the Jews and managed to save some. [119] In 1943 the Nazis began actions against the Jews in Thessaloniki, forcing them into a ghetto near the railroad lines and beginning their deportation to concentration camps in German-occupied territories. They deported 56,000 of the city's Jews, by use of 19 Holocaust trains, to Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen concentration camps, where 43,000–49,000 of them were killed. [87] [88] [89] Today, a community of around 1,200 remains in the city. [119] Communities of descendants of Thessaloniki Jews – both Sephardic and Romaniote – live in other areas, mainly the United States and Israel. [119] Other cities of Greek Macedonia with significant Jewish population (Romaniote or Sephardi) in the past included Veria, Kavala and Kastoria.


Amphipolis

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Amphipolis is situated upon the eastern bank of the River Strymon about five kilometers (3.10 miles) inland from the northern shore of the Aegean Sea. In the time of Alexander the Great and his successors it was one of the greatest cities of anci.

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Military Decree of Amphipolis

The Military Decree of Amphipolis (c. 200 BC) is a Macedonian Greek inscription of two marble blocks, that originally contain at least three columns of text. It preserves a list of regulations governing the behaviour and discipline of the Macedonian army in camp.

τοὺς μὴ φέροντας τι τῶν καθηκόντων αὐτοῖς ὅπλων ζημιούτωσαν κατά τα γεγραμμένα· κοτθύβου ὀβολοὺς δύο, κώνου τὸ ἴσον, σαρίσης ὀβολοὺς τρεῖς, μαχαίρας τὸ ἴσον, κνημίδων ὀβολοὺς δύο, ἀσπίδος δραχμήν. Ἑπὶ δὲ τῶν ἡγεμόνων τῶν τε δεδηλωμένων ὅπλων τὸ διπλοῦν καὶ θώρακος δραχμὰς δύο, ἡμιθωρακίου δραχμήν. Λαμβανέτωσαν δὲ τὴν ζημίαν οἱ γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ ἀρχυ[πηρέτ]αι, παραδείξαντες τῶι βασιλεῖ τοὺς ἠθετηκότας
those not bearing the weapons appropriate to them are to be fined according to the regulations: for the kotthybos, two obols, the same amount for the konos, three obols for the sarissa, the same for the makhaira, for the knemides two obols, for the aspis a drachma. In the case of hegemons (officers), double for the arms mentioned, two drachmas for the thorax, a drachma for the hemithorakion. The secretaries (grammateis) and the chief assistants (archyperetai) shall exact the penalty, after indicating the transgressors to the King (basileus)

Other military terms mentioned are: ephodos (inspection patrol), ekkoition ("out-of-bed", LSJ: night-watch), stegnopoiia (building the barracks), skenopoiia (tent-making), phragmos (fencing in), diastasis, phylax (guard), hypaspists, parembole, stratopedon (camp), speirarch (commander of a speira), tetrarch, and the strategoi.


Behind Tomb Connected to Alexander the Great, Intrigue Worthy of "Game of Thrones"

As archaeologists dig deeper into the burial mound, ancient sources tell a tale of family drama and palace intrigue.

Suspense is rising as archaeologists sift for clues to the identity of the person buried with pomp and circumstance in the mysterious Amphipolis tomb in what is now northern Greece. The research team thinks the tomb was built for someone very close to Alexander the Great—his mother, Olympias one of his wives, Roxane one of his favorite generals or possibly his childhood friend and lover, Hephaestion.

Over the past three months, archaeologist Katerina Peristeri and her team have made a series of tantalizing discoveries in the tomb, from columns sculpted masterfully in the shapes of young women to a mosaic floor depicting the abduction of the Greek goddess Persephone. The tomb's costly artwork all dates to the tumultuous time around the death of Alexander the Great, and points to the presence of an important person.

Alexander himself was almost certainly buried in Egypt. But the final resting places—and the rich historical and genetic data they may contain—of many of his family members are unknown. The excavation at Amphipolis is bound to add a new chapter to the history of Alexander the Great and his family, a dynasty as steeped in intrigue, conspiracy, and bloodshed as the fictional Lannisters in the popular television series Game of Thrones. Among Alexander's family, "the king or ruler who ended up dying in his bed was rare," says Philip Freeman, a biographer of Alexander the Great and a classical historian at Luther College in Decorah, Iowa.

To understand these palace intrigues, one must begin with Alexander's father, Philip II, who ascended the throne of ancient Macedonia in 359 B.C. At the time, Macedonia was a modest mountain realm north of ancient Greece, but Philip had big dreams. He transformed Macedonia's army from a band of ragtag fighters into a disciplined military machine, and he armed it with a deadly new weapon, the sarissa, a long lance designed to keep enemy troops from closing in on his phalanxes.

A natural-born conqueror, Philip led his army to the west, crushing and intimidating the major Greek city-states until all had surrendered to his rule. "Philip II was a traditional warrior king," says Ian Worthington, author of By the Spear: Philip II, Alexander the Great, and the Rise and Fall of the Macedonian Empire. "He was always in the thick of battle."

By custom, Macedonia's kings married multiple wives, often for the purposes of sealing political alliances with powerful neighbors. Alexander's mother, Olympias, was a daughter of the king of Molossia, a realm that encompassed part of modern Albania, and she claimed descent from the legendary Greek hero, Achilles. She was one of Philip's many wives, and according to ancient historians, she schemed relentlessly at court to put her son on the Macedonian throne. Some historians even suspect that she poisoned Alexander's older half-brother, impairing his mental faculties.

For a time, her intrigues seemed to succeed. Philip groomed the young Alexander as his heir, providing the boy with a first-class education from a renowned tutor, Aristotle, and encouraging his prowess as a warrior.

But important Macedonian nobles at Philip's court viewed Alexander as half foreign and possibly illegitimate. By the time Alexander reached his late teens, Philip seemed to share these doubts. He took a new Macedonian wife, and during a drinking party, Philip allowed Alexander's legitimacy to be publicly questioned. Then Philip drew his own sword on Alexander, a mortal insult.

Philip later tried to patch things up, but he had created a dangerous enemy. Exactly what happened next is the subject of debate, although the bare facts are well known. In 336 B.C., Philip threw a lavish public wedding for one of his daughters and invited members of neighboring royal houses to attend this state occasion.

As part of the festivities, Philip planned to stage public games at daybreak in the theater at Aigai, his capital city. He strode into the stadium, wearing a white cloak over his shoulders. On one side was Alexander on the other was his new son-in-law. Philip waved away his bodyguards, and as he stood at the center of the theater, the large crowd began to roar with approval.

"That was the last thing he ever heard," says Worthington. An assassin stepped out from the crowd and stabbed Philip to death as the guests watched in disbelief. In the ensuing bedlam, the murderer, a man named Pausanias, bolted from the theater toward a spot where horses were tethered and waiting for him. But just as Pausanias was about to escape, he tripped and fell, and three of Philip's bodyguards speared him to death.

Did Pausanias act alone? Some ancient texts suggest that he did, assassinating Philip in a jealous rage. Many of the ancient Macedonian nobles were bisexual, and Philip was no exception. He had taken Pausanias as his lover, and when he tired of him, he discarded the young man and even allowed others to sexually abuse Pausanias. So Pausanias may have murdered Philip in an act of revenge.

But several clues point to a conspiracy, says Worthington. Pausanias, for example, fled to a spot where multiple horses were waiting, suggesting that several people had made plans for escaping the crime scene.

"I think Pausanias was manipulated to kill Philip," says Worthington, who suspects that Olympias and Alexander played key parts in the assassination. Both mother and son had been deeply insulted by Philip. In addition, they may have feared that Philip's young Macedonian wife would produce a Macedonian heir more acceptable to the local nobility. The only way to prevent this would be to eliminate Philip. So Worthington theorizes that Olympias and Alexander poisoned Pausanias's mind and encouraged him to murder Philip.

Other classical historians aren't so sure Alexander was guilty of patricide. Nevertheless, says Luther College's Freeman, "if you put Alexander on a couch today and tried to analyze him, you could have a lot of fun."


The Mystery of Ancient Amphipolis


Excavations conducted in a tomb in Casta, in ancient Amphipolis, have raised questions. The area is being guarded by the police while the Greek Ministry of Culture and Sports is monitoring ongoing developments.
Archaeologists are wondering if they have discovered an ancient royal tomb. According to data presented by the department head of ancient monuments in northern Greece, Catherine Peristeri, excavations in Casta mound have revealed a unique world monument due to its size reaching a height of 3 meters and a total length of 497 meters.
The tomb dates back to 325-300 BC and reportedly bears the signature of famous ancient architect Dinocrates, a close friend of Alexander the Great.
According to Peristeri, major historical events had taken place in the area of Amphiboles during that period. Major generals and admirals of Alexander the Great are associated with the area, and it is there that in 311 BC Cassander exiled and then killed the wife of Alexander the Great, Roxanne, and his son, Alexander the Fourth.
The tomb consists of foundations, supporting columns, a top part and decorations of white marble from Thassos. It was destroyed during the Roman period and many architectural elements disappeared, some of which were discovered during excavations in the area where the famous Lion of Amphipolis is located.
Excavations in the mound of Amphipolis first started in the 1960s. Many have claimed that the tomb belongs to Alexander the Great. However, archaeologists and experts say that although the monument is really important, it is not attributed to him.
Samaras visits ancient Amphipolis
Greek Prime Minister Antonis Samaras, accompanied by his wife Georgia and Culture Minister Constantinos Tassoulas, is visiting the site of Ancient Amphipolis, in northern Greece. Samaras will also visit Kasta hill and will be guided through the ongoing archaeological excavation site.


Amphipolis Tomb Yields Amazing Finds But Mysteries Linger

Archeological finds at the Amphipolis tomb may date back to Alexander the Great. That news delights modern Greeks. But what if the tomb is Roman?

James Romm

Sakis Mitrolidis/AFP/Getty

With their economy cratering and their government shaky, the Greeks are praying that Alexander the Great—or rather, his mother or son, or one of his generals—will come to their rescue. Greece has high hopes that the giant tomb now being excavated at Amphipolis contains one of these ancient Macedonian leaders. But when the inner chambers of the structure are revealed, sometime within the next few weeks, there may be bitter disappointments in store.

Thus far the tomb at Amphipolis has produced artistic wonders, adding to speculation that its occupant(s) held very high rank. During the past week a superb mosaic, depicting a mythological rape scene, was uncovered on the floor of an antechamber: Hades, driving a chariot, is shown dragging the goddess Persephone down to his underworld kingdom, while a conspiratorial Hermes guides the team of horses. Even with a large circular section missing (but perhaps recoverable), this mosaic is clearly a masterwork, as are the sculpted caryatids (columns in the shape of women) that stand guard just in front of it.

Though these finds have amazed observers worldwide and delighted the Greek nation, they have told little about what might lie beyond the tomb’s as-yet unbreached fourth entrance wall. In fact both the mosaic and the caryatid columns have raised questions as to whether the building dates to the era of Alexander the Great’s successors—the last quarter of the 4th century B.C.—or may even be Roman rather than Greek in provenance.

Establishing the date of ancient monuments is often not easy, especially in the absence of inscriptions or easily datable objects like coins and pottery sherds. No such clues have yet been announced by the archaeological team at Amphipolis, a group led by Katerina Persisteri. Peristeri has vigorously claimed that the structure she is excavating dates to the last quarter the 4th century B.C., the tumultuous era that followed Alexander’s conquest of his vast Asian empire and his sudden demise in 323, but has not said why she thinks so. In a recent interview, Peristeri responded angrily to those who have challenged this date, hinting that it relies on conclusive evidence that, for undisclosed reasons, has not as yet been made public.

Among these challengers is Olga Palagia, professor of archaeology at the University of Athens. After the caryatids were uncovered last month, Palagia, an expert in the history of ancient sculpture, suggested that they were carved not by the Greeks or Macedonians of Alexander’s era, but by Romans of a much later time imitating their Greek predecessors. The mosaic too looks to her eyes more like a work of the 1st than the 4th century B.C. In her view, the Amphipolis building may not hold Macedonian remains at all, but perhaps served to memorialize a Roman military victory in the area—perhaps that at Philippi, a site not far from Amphipolis, where, after the assassination of Julius Caesar, his heir Octavian defeated the senatorial armies of Brutus and Cassius.

Should Palagia’s Roman-era dating prove correct, the Amphipolis find would still be hugely important, but nonetheless deeply disappointing to the Greek nationalist feelings that the excavation has aroused. The idea that the tomb is linked to Alexander—a heroic leader who inspires great pride in modern Greeks—has figured prominently in the announcements and press conferences held by the excavators. Top government officials, including Prime Minister Antonis Samaras, have made highly publicized visits to the site and have claimed it as a monument to the glories of Greek, not Roman, civilization.

By now there is a great deal riding on what will be revealed in the main chambers of the tomb, presumably just beyond the recently cleared third antechamber. A nation beset by economic woes and political uncertainty may receive a badly needed boost to its self-confidence, a reminder of a glorious past when its kings ruled much of the world. Or it may see evidence of the decline that followed, the centuries after Alexander’s when Greeks became subject to “barbarian” Roman invaders. Research into the past has always been politicized in the Aegean region, but the questions surrounding Amphipolis, hopefully due to be answered in the next few weeks, have brought the politics of archaeology to a whole new level.


Researchers have possibly identified a second monument buried at Amphipolis

Aerial view of the Kasta Hill site.

Posted By: Dattatreya Mandal November 28, 2016

Ancient Greece’s largest tomb has more than its fair share of secrets. While back in January of 2015, it was revealed that the Amphipolis Tomb had not one, but five occupants researchers are now hypothesizing that there is possibly a second monument at the Kasta Hill site. This hypothesis is based on a geophysical survey, carried out by the Applied Geophysics Lab of the Aristotle University of Macedonia. And the consequent results have revealed a hidden structure buried at a depth of around 2 m (around 7 ft) on the west side of the hill.

As director of the lab, Grigoris Tsokas made it clear (as told to ANA-MPE news agency)-

We have a three-dimensional representation and the distribution of resistance shows that there is something there. We guess there is a second monument, far smaller than the one found, that has been found at a depth of about two meters and it should be investigated.

The survey also revealed a buried ravine of the north-eastern side, with a man-made embankment covering a significant part of the section. As for the main monument, the researchers additionally discovered a piece of coal along what might be the foundations of the megastructure. Analysis of the object points to a date of circa 300 BC (+/- 30 years) for the Amphipolis tomb construction. But of course all of these finds can only be confirmed through further excavations at the Kasta Hill site. As Tsokas added –

The geophysical study of Casta Hill was commissioned to our workshop in 2014 and the university has funded the research in full. We have already explored the hill and processed the data, which is difficult because of the volume, and have found some additional data. An excavation permit is needed and now we are trying to find the funds to continue.

Artist’s rendition of the Amphipolis Tomb layout. Credit: Greek Ministry of Culture.


Tonton videonya: The Tomb of Amphipolis. Long History Short