Benham II DD- 397 - Sejarah

Benham II DD- 397 - Sejarah

Benham II

(DD-397 dp. 1500; 1. 341'4 ", b. 35 '; dr. 17'2", s. 36.5
k .; cpl. 251: a. 4 5 ", 16 21" TT. Cl. Benham)

Benham kedua (DD -397) dilancarkan pada 16 April 1938 oleh Federal Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Kearny, N. J .; ditaja oleh Puan A. I. Dorr, cucu dari Laksamana Muda Benham; dan ditugaskan pada 2 Februari 1939, Leftenan Komander T. F. Darden dalam komando.

Ditugaskan untuk Armada Atlantik Benham melakukan rondaan di luar Newfoundland pada sebahagian besar tahun 1939 dan kemudian beralih ke Teluk Mexico. Diperintahkan ke Pasifik, dia tiba di Pearl Harbour 14 April 1940. Setelah bergantian antara perairan California dan Hawaii, kapal pemusnah itu berfungsi sebagai pengiring untuk Perusahaan (CV f;) semasa penghantaran pesawat Marin ke Midway (28 November-8 Disember 1941 ), sehingga hilang serangan di Pearl Harbor. Benham berkhidmat dengan pasukan petugas Enterprise dan Saratoga (CV-3) di luar Hawaii dan dengan TF 16 semasa serangan Doolittle di Tokyo (25 April 1942). Dia terus beroperasi dengan TF lO melalui Pertempuran Midway (3 Jun) di mana dia menyelamatkan 720 orang yang selamat dari Yorktown (Cv-s) dan 188 dari Hammann (DD-412); pendaratan di Guadalcanal dan Tulagi (7-9 Ogos); dan Pertempuran 'Sulaiman Timur (23-25 ​​Ogos). Benham bergabung dengan TF 64 pada 15 Oktober sebagai sebahagian daripada pasukan tentera laut yang menutup Guadalcanal. Pada 14 15 November dia mengambil bahagian dalam Pertempuran Tentera Laut Guadalcanal. Pada 0038, 15 November, dia mengambil torpedo ke depan, kehilangan busur, dan harus menarik diri dari pertempuran. Benham dengan tegas terus bertahan terus menuju Guadalcanal pada 15 tetapi pada 1637, kemajuan lebih jauh tidak mungkin dan anak buahnya yang berani harus meninggalkan kapal.

Benham (DD-397) menerima bintang pertempuran langsung selama 11 bulan berkhidmat dalam Perang Dunia II.


Benham II DD- 397 - Sejarah

Dari: DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN NAVAL FIGHTING SHIPS, Vol. Saya, hlm. 116.

Dilahirkan di Staten Island, NY, 10 April 1832, Andrew Ellicot Kennedy Benham dilantik sebagai Midshipman pada tahun 1847. Dia mengambil bahagian dalam Ekspedisi Paraguay (1854-55) dan berkhidmat dengan Pasukan Penyekat Atlantik Selatan dan Teluk Barat semasa Civil Wa r. Dia memerintahkan North Atlantic Station 1892-93, dan bersara pada tahun berikutnya. Laksamana Muda Benham meninggal dunia di Tasik Mahopac, N. Y., 11 Ogos 1905.

(DD-397 dp. 1500 l. 341'4 "b. 35 'dr. 17'2" s. 36.5 k. Cpl. 251 a. 4 5 ", 16 21" TT. Cl. Benham)

Benham kedua (DD-397) dilancarkan pada 16 April 1938 oleh Federal Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Kearny, NJ yang ditaja oleh Puan AI Dorr, cucu dari Laksamana Muda Benham dan ditugaskan pada 2 Februari 1939, Leftenan Komander TF Darden di cmmand .

Ditugaskan untuk Armada Atlantik Benham melakukan rondaan di luar Newfoundland pada sebahagian besar tahun 1939 dan kemudian beralih ke Teluk Mexico. Diperintahkan ke Pasifik, dia tiba di Pearl Harbour 14 April 1940. Setelah bergantian antara perairan California dan Hawaii, kapal pemusnah itu berfungsi sebagai pengiring untuk Perusahaan (CV-6) semasa penghantaran pesawat Marin ke Midway (28 November-8 Disember 1941), sehingga kehilangan serangan di Pearl Harbor. Benham berkhidmat dengan pasukan petugas Enterprise dan Saratoga (C V-3) di luar Hawaii dan dengan TF 16 semasa serangan Doolittle di Tokyo (8-25 April 1942). Dia terus beroperasi dengan TF 16 melalui Pertempuran Midway (3-6 Jun), di mana dia menyelamatkan 720 orang yang selamat dari Yorktown (CV-5) dan 188 dari Hammann (DD-412), mendarat di Guadalcanal dan Tulagi (7-9 Ogos), dan Pertempuran Sulaiman Timur (23-25 ​​Ogos). Benham bergabung dengan TF 64 pada 15 Oktober sebagai sebahagian daripada pasukan tentera laut yang menutup Guadalcanal. Pada 14-15 November dia ikut serta dalam Pertempuran Tentera Laut Guadalcanal. Pada 0038, 15 November dia mengambil torpedo ke depan, kehilangan busur, dan harus menarik diri dari pertempuran. Benham dengan tegas tetap bertahan, membuat kemajuan perlahan menuju Guadalcanal pada 15 tetapi pada 1637, kemajuan lebih jauh tidak mungkin dan anak buahnya yang gagah berani harus meninggalkannya. Gwin (DD-433) mengambil mangsa yang selamat dan tenggelam di 1938 oleh tembakan.

Benham (DD-397) menerima lima bintang pertempuran untuk perkhidmatannya selama 11 bulan dalam Perang Dunia II.


Pada bulan September dan Oktober 1939, Ellet beroperasi di Grand Banks on Neutrality Patrol, kemudian dengan Destroyer Division 18 dari Galveston dengan West Gulf Patrol. Berpusat di San Diego, setelah 26 Februari 1940, dia bergabung dalam manuver Battle Force sejauh Hawaii. Pada musim panas tahun 1941, pelabuhan rumahnya menjadi Pearl Harbor dan pada bulan Oktober, dia membawa pulang ekspedisi tinjauan tentera dari Pulau Krismas ke Honolulu.

Ketika Jepun menyerang Pearl Harbor 7 Disember 1941, Ellet kembali dari memperkuat Pulau Wake di layar TF 8 yang dengannya dia kekal sepanjang bulan Disember. Selepas pelayaran pengawal konvoi ke Pantai Barat, dia mengawal konvoi pasukan kembali ke Pulau Krismas pada bulan Februari.

Pada bulan April, dia menayangkan kapal induk TF 16, yang melancarkan B-25 di Halsey-Doolittle Raid yang terkenal di Tokyo dan bandar-bandar Jepun yang lain dan kembali ke Pearl Harbor ke-25. Kapal yang sama berlumba 6 hari kemudian untuk memperkuat kapal induk menuju kemenangan Sekutu Laut Coral yang hebat. Ia dimenangi sebelum ini Ellet& rsquos force sampai di sana, jadi TF 16 kembali ke Pearl Harbor. TF 16 berlayar dari Pearl Harbor 28 Mei 1942 sekali lagi untuk bergabung dengan TF 17. Bersama-sama mereka membalikkan armada Jepun dalam Pertempuran Midway yang menentukan pada 4, 5 dan 6 Jun. Jepun kehilangan empat kapal induk, banyak pesawat, sebilangan pesawat terbang yang tidak dapat diganti. Ellet kembali ke Pearl Harbour 13 Jun untuk bersiap-siap untuk menyerang serangan pertama di Amerika di bumi. (bersambung)


Benham II DD- 397 - Sejarah

Dalam beberapa minit torpedoingnya, USS Yorktown telah banyak mendaftar ke pelabuhan, hampir membawa dek hangarnya ke permukaan laut. Lebih penting lagi, dia telah kehilangan semua kuasa wap dan elektrik, dan oleh itu tidak dapat mengawal dan mengatasi banjir dengan berkesan. Menghadapi ancaman yang mungkin dilumpuhkan oleh kapal induk, menenggelamkan sebahagian besar kru, Pegawai Memerintahnya, Kapten Elliot Buckmaster, membuat keputusan enggan untuk meninggalkan kapal.

Pada kira-kira 1500 jam pada 4 Jun, proses suram mulai berjalan, ketika awak kapal mulai menuruni tali yang diikat ke dalam air berminyak yang mengelilingi kapal mereka. Pengawal pemusnah menghantar kapal dan berdiri untuk mengambil mangsa yang terselamat. Seorang pemusnah, USS Benham mengambil lebih daripada 700 orang, tiga kali lebih banyak daripada anak buahnya sendiri.

Halaman ini memaparkan pandangan mengenai pengabaian Yorktown.

Sekiranya anda mahukan pengeluaran semula resolusi lebih tinggi daripada gambar digital Perpustakaan Dalam Talian, lihat: & quotCara Mendapatkan Reproduksi Fotografi. & Quot

Klik pada gambar kecil untuk meminta pandangan yang lebih besar dari gambar yang sama.

Pertempuran Midway, Jun 1942

USS Yorktown (CV-5) ditinggalkan oleh anak buahnya setelah dia terkena dua torpedo udara Jenis Jepun 91, 4 Jun 1942.
USS Balch (DD-363) berdiri di sebelah kanan.
Perhatikan minyak licin di sekitar pembawa yang rosak, dan rakit tiup yang dipasang keluar dari buritannya.

Foto Tentera Laut A.S. rasmi, kini dalam koleksi Arkib Negara A.S.

Imej Dalam Talian: 104KB 740 x 615 piksel

Pengeluaran semula gambar ini juga boleh didapati melalui sistem pembiakan fotografi Arkib Negara.

Pertempuran Midway, Jun 1942

USS Yorktown (CV-5), di pusat kiri yang jauh, ditinggalkan setelah mengalami kerosakan torpedo, 4 Jun 1942.
Seorang pemusnah sedang berdiri di tepi kapal induk penyenaraian, dan USS Vincennes (CA-44) sedang mengejar di jarak tengah.

Foto Tentera Laut A.S. rasmi, kini dalam koleksi Arkib Negara A.S.

Imej Dalam Talian: 74KB 740 x 605 piksel

Pengeluaran semula gambar ini juga boleh didapati melalui sistem pembiakan fotografi Arkib Negara.

Pertempuran Midway, Jun 1942

Pesawat pemusnah untuk mengambil mangsa yang selamat kerana USS Yorktown (CV-5) ditinggalkan pada waktu petang 4 Jun 1942, berikutan serangan pesawat torpedo Jepun.
Pemusnah di kiri adalah (kiri ke kanan): Benham (DD-397), Russell (DD-414), dan Balch (DD-363). Destroyer di sebelah kanan adalah Anderson (DD-411).
Gambar dari USS Pensacola (CA-24).

Foto Tentera Laut A.S. rasmi, kini dalam koleksi Arkib Negara A.S.

Imej Dalam Talian: 78KB 740 x 605 piksel

Pengeluaran semula gambar ini juga boleh didapati melalui sistem pembiakan fotografi Arkib Negara.

Pertempuran Midway, Jun 1942

USS Yorktown (CV-5) ditinggalkan setelah menerima kerosakan dari dua torpedo udara Jepun, 4 Jun 1942.
Pemusnah di sebelah kanan mengambil mangsa yang terselamat. Yang paling jauh dari kedua kapal pemusnah itu adalah USS Balch (DD-363).

Foto Tentera Laut A.S. rasmi, kini dalam koleksi Arkib Negara A.S.

Imej Dalam Talian: 60KB 740 x 615 piksel

Pengeluaran semula gambar ini juga boleh didapati melalui sistem pembiakan fotografi Arkib Negara.

Pertempuran Midway, Jun 1942

USS Benham (DD-397), dengan 720 orang yang terselamat di USS Yorktown, menutup USS Portland (CA-33) pada sekitar jam 1900, 4 Jun 1942. Laporan pesawat yang tidak dikenali menyebabkan Benham melepaskan diri sebelum memindahkan mana-mana mangsa yang selamat. ke kapal penjelajah dan mereka tetap menaikinya sehingga keesokan harinya.
Perhatikan bahagian tepi minyak Benham. Yorktown yang ditinggalkan berada dalam jarak yang tepat.

Gambar Komando Sejarah dan Warisan Tentera Laut A.S.

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Pertempuran Midway, Jun 1942

USS Yorktown (CV-5) banyak menyenaraikannya setelah dia ditinggalkan pada waktu petang 4 Jun 1942.
Perhatikan bahawa dua pejuang F4F-4 & quotWildcat & quot masih diparkir di geladak penerbangannya, di belakang pulau.


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Pada 6 Jun 1942, tujuh puluh sembilan tahun yang lalu hari ini, USS Hammann (DD-412) tenggelam setelah torpedo oleh kapal selam Jepun I-168 semasa Pertempuran Midway.

Pada awal Pertempuran Midway, Hammann datang untuk membantu USS Yorktown (CV-5) untuk membantu perlindungan terhadap kapal terbang musuh. Namun, itu tidak setanding dengan torpedo yang ditembakkan dan akhirnya melanda Yorktown. Hammann membantu memindahkan anak kapal Yorktown ke kapal berdekatan untuk sepanjang hari pada 4 Jun 1942. Dua hari kemudian, dengan "kru kerangka" di tempat, Hammann membantu pihak kawalan kerosakan ketika mereka menilai jenazah Yorktown.

Semasa sibuk bekerja, kru tidak tahu bahawa kapal selam Jepun melepaskan empat torpedo tepat di kapal mereka. Dua ketinggalan, satu torpedo melepasi Hammann menyerang Yorktown, dan yang terakhir adalah hantaran langsung kepada Hammann. NHHC menjelaskan bahawa torpedo "menyerang kapal pemusnah di tengah kapal, [akhirnya] melabuhkan punggungnya" menjadikan Hammann sebagai penyebab yang hilang. Penyelamat dibawa menggunakan USS Benham (DD-397) (dipaparkan dalam foto) atau USS Balch (DD-363). Hanya memerlukan empat minit kapal itu tenggelam dan berakhir dengan letupan bawah laut yang dahsyat yang meragut nyawa lebih banyak pelaut menjadikan jumlah nyawa hilang kepada 80 orang.

Muzium Nasional Pelaut Amerika

# DYK bahawa cuti kebangsaan "Juneteenth" adalah "perayaan tertua yang diperingati secara nasional untuk berakhirnya penghambaan di Amerika Syarikat," menurut laman web rasmi Juneteenth.

Muzium Nasional Sejarah Amerika Afrika & Budaya mengutip bahawa "walaupun Proklamasi Pembebasan dibuat efektif pada tahun 1863, ia tidak dapat dilaksanakan di tempat-tempat yang masih di bawah kawalan Gabungan." NMAAHC menerangkan bahawa di tempat-tempat seperti "negara bagian Texas paling barat, orang-orang yang diperbudak tidak akan bebas sehingga kemudian." Pada 19 Jun 1865, dua tahun setelah penandatanganan Proklamasi Emansipasi, "2.000 tentera Union tiba di Teluk Galveston, Texas" yang bertugas di bawah arahan Jeneral Gordon Granger. Lelaki Granger & # 039s bekerjasama untuk membebaskan lebih daripada 250,000 orang yang diperbudak. Hari itu akan dihormati dan dikenali sebagai "Juneteenth," atau "Freedom Day," hari yang akan terus dirayakan dari generasi ke generasi.

Hubungan antara Juneteenth dan pelaut di Tentera Laut A.S. masih kuat hingga ke hari ini. Salah seorang Naib Laksamana Tentera Laut yang kini bersara (sekarang bersara) Kevin D. Scott, mengingatkan pada acara Jun Navyenth Navy 2017 pada tahun 2017 betapa pentingnya percutian ini telah membentuk hidupnya. Tumbuh di Portsmouth, Virginia yang terpisah pada 1960-an, Scott dan keluarganya sering menghadapi cabaran yang mempengaruhi kehidupan seharian mereka kerana perlumbaan mereka. Scott akan terus menghadapi cabaran ini pada usia dewasa yang bertugas di Tentera Laut A.S. Dalam petikan yang memperincikan pemikirannya tentang bagaimana Juneteenth akan terus membentuk masa depan semasa acara Angkatan Laut A.S., Scott berkata:

"Ini mengenai apa yang mungkin. Ini mengenai peluang. Semangat kesembilan belas dalam hal apa yang mungkin harus memotivasi kita, harus mendorong kita semua, demi anak-anak kita dan demi kita. "

Kami menggalakkan anda semua untuk belajar lebih banyak mengenai sejarah Juneteenth dan lihat video ini dari NMAAHC.


JUNYOKAN!

16 Februari 1922:
Nagasaki. Diletakkan sebagai kapal penjelajah ringan di Mitsubishi Shipbuilding's Yard.

30 Oktober 1923:
Dilancarkan dan diberi nama SENDAI.

29 April 1924:
Selesai dan didaftarkan di IJN. Kapal utama kelas SENDAI.

1 Disember 1924:
Kapten (kemudian Wakil Admira) Ijichi Kiyohiro (30) (bekas CO SUNOSAKI) dilantik sebagai CO.

2 Julai 1925:
Pegawai yang tidak dikenali dilantik sebagai CO.

1 November 1926:
Kapten (kemudian Laksamana Muda) Sagara Tatsuo (32) dilantik sebagai CO.

21 Disember 1927:
Kapten (kemudian Laksamana Muda) Ban Jiro (33) dilantik sebagai CO.

10 Disember 1928:
Kapten (kemudian Wakil Laksamana) Wada Senzo (34) (bekas CO MUROTO) dilantik sebagai CO.

1 Mei 1929:
Kapten Nohara Nobuharu (34) dilantik sebagai CO.

1 Disember 1930:
Kapten (kemudian Laksamana Muda) Kishimoto Kaneji (37) dilantik sebagai CO.

1 Disember 1932:
Kapten (kemudian Laksamana Muda) Takasaki Takeo (37) dilantik sebagai CO.

4 Julai 1934:
Kapten (kemudian Laksamana Muda) Yoshida Tsunemitsu (36) dilantik sebagai CO.

26 September 1935: Kejadian Armada ke-4:
Rosak akibat taufan. Kemudian, menjalani pembaikan.

15 November 1935:
Kapten (kemudian Naib Laksamana) Nakajima Torahiko (39) (bekas XO IWATE) dilantik sebagai CO.

1 Disember 1936:
Kapten (kemudian Laksamana Muda) Yamamoto Masao (38) dilantik sebagai CO.

14 Ogos 1937: "Sabtu Berdarah":
Shanghai. Flagship USS AUGUSTA (CA-31), yang membawa CINC, Armada Asiatik A.S., Laksamana Harry E. Yarnell (mantan CO SARATOGA, CV-3), tiba dari Tsingtao setelah melawan taufan dan sauh di Sungai Whangpoa.

Pada hari yang sama, Tentera Udara China (CAF) di bawah pemangku CO, pesara Kapten (kemudian LtGen) Claire L. Chennault, melancarkan lebih daripada 10 pesawat untuk menyerang kapal induk IZUMO dan armada Jepun. CAF secara tidak sengaja mengebom kapal penjelajah Inggeris HMS CUMBERLAND, tetapi bom mereka jatuh meluas. Dua bom juga jatuh di sebelah AUGUSTA, tetapi tidak ada yang terbunuh.

CAF mengebom bandar Shanghai secara tidak sengaja, membunuh lebih dari 1700 orang awam dan mencederakan 1800 yang lain. Kapal terbang jenis 95 dari SENDAI menyerang formasi CAF dan menembak jatuh pesawat China. Sebuah kapal terbang pengakap Jenis 90 dari IZUMO menembak jatuh pejuang CAF. 1 Disember 1937:
Kapten (kemudian Wakil Laksamana) Kimura Susumu (40) (bekas XO IWATE) dilantik sebagai CO.

15 Disember 1938:
Kapten (kemudian Laksamana Muda) Izaki Shunji dilantik sebagai CO.

15 November 1939:
Pegawai yang tidak dikenali dilantik sebagai CO.

15 Julai 1940:
Kapten (Wakil Laksamana, selepas kematian) Shimazaki Toshio (bekas CO DD URANAMI) dilantik sebagai CO.

20 November 1941:
Bendera utama Laksamana Muda (kemudian Wakil Laksamana) Hashimoto Shintaro (bekas CO HYUGA) DesRon 3. Berangkat dari Hashirajima dengan DesRon 3's DesDivs 11, 12, 19 dan 20 (No. 1 Unit Pengiring).

26 November 1941:
Tiba di Samah, Pulau Hainan, China yang diduduki.

4 Disember 1941:
Pasukan dari Samah dengan DesDivs 12, 19 dan 20 mengawal 18 pengangkutan yang membawa tentera LtGen Yamashita Tomoyuki (kemudian dijuluki "Harimau Malaya") ke-25 ke Teluk Thailand.

7 Disember 1941: E Sakusen (Operasi "E") - Penjajahan ke Tanah Melayu.
Pada 2345 tempatan, SENDAI dan kapal pemusnahnya memulakan pengeboman Kota Bharu, Malaya.

8 Disember 1941:
Pada 0045 tempatan, SENDAI, DesDiv 19's AYANAMI, ISONAMI, SHIKINAMI dan URANAMI, penyapu ranjau W-2 dan W-3, subchaser CH-9 dan mengangkut pasukan darat AWAJISAN, AYATOSAN dan SAKURA MARU di Kota Bharu. Pada 0210, mereka diserang oleh tujuh pengebom ringan "Hudson" Skuadron No. 1 RAAF. Transport AWAJISAN MARU, kapal ibu pejabat Bahagian Ke-5 MajGen Takumi Hiroshi, dilanggar dan terbakar. Dua pengangkutan yang lain rosak. Setelah ditarik oleh dua kapal pemusnah DesDiv 19, AWAJISAN MARU ditinggalkan.

Briged India-Britain yang mempertahankan Kota Bharu memberikan tentangan sengit dan menimbulkan korban yang besar kepada orang Jepun, tetapi tidak lama lagi akan dikuasai dan dibanjiri. Pada hari yang sama, sepuluh pasukan darat pengangkutan lain tidak bertanding di Singora dan lima pasukan darat pengangkutan tidak bertanding di Patani, Thailand.

9 Disember 1941: Mengejar Tentera Laut Diraja "Force Z":
Kapal selam I-65 melihat pasukan Inggeris yang mengukus NNW pada jarak 14 knot. Ini adalah Laksamana Sir Tom SV Phillips yang berpindah dari Singapura untuk mencari dan menyerang pengangkutan pencerobohan Tanah Melayu dengan pasukannya Z: Kapal perang baru Kapten JC Leach HMS PRINCE OF WALES, Kapten (kemudian Wakil Laksamana) kapal perang lama WG Tennant, HMS REPULSE, pemusnah HMS ELECTRA , EXPRESS, TENEDOS dan pemusnah Australia HMAS VAMPIRE.

Laporan kedudukan Force Z diterima dengan tidak tepat kerana komunikasi yang salah, namun demikian SENDAI menyusun arah selatan dengan CruDiv 7 dan DesDiv 19 untuk serangan malam ke atas HMS PRINCE OF WALES dan REPULSE.

10 Disember 1941:
140 kilometer sebelah timur Kuantan, Tanah Melayu. Tidak lama selepas tengah malam, kapal selam I-58 berjalan di permukaan ketika pengamatnya melihat kapal-kapal Inggeris yang mendekat. I-58 segera menyelam dan cuba menembak salvo enam torpedo penuh di kapal terkemuka, PRINCE OF WALES, tetapi pintu luar tiub torpedo pertama macet. PRINCE of WALES berlalu. REPULSE datang seterusnya. I-58 melepaskan semua torpedo yang tersisa, tetapi gagal. I-58 melaporkan Force Z meneruskan SSW pada 24 knot.

SENDAI menerima laporan I-58 dan menyampaikannya kepada kapal terbang kapal penjelajah CHOKAI, bekas kapal Fleet Ekspedisi Selatan Pertama Naib Laksamana Ozawa Jisaburo (bekas CO HARUNA).

Petang itu, Force Z dikalahkan oleh pengebom torpedo dari Air Flotilla ke-22 dari pangkalan di Indochina. Kedua-dua kapal modal Britain tenggelam.

11 Disember 1941:
Tiba di Camranh Bay, Indochina.

12 Disember 1941:
AWAJISAN MARU dibaling oleh torpedoed dan tenggelam oleh kapal selam Belanda Luitenant ter zee 1e klasse Henry C. J. Coumou K-XII.

13 Disember 1941:
Menurunkan Camranh dengan Unit Pengiring No. 1 (kurang DesDiv 12) untuk merangkumi 39 pengangkutan Konvoi Malaya Kedua. Meliputi pendaratan 31 pengangkutan di Singora, Patani, Ban Don dan Nakhorn. Mengiring lima pengangkutan ke Kota Bharu.

19 Disember 1941:
Laut China Selatan. Kota Bahru. Pada waktu pagi, kapal selam Belanda Luitenant ter zee 1e klasse Pieter GJ Snippe (bekas CO of K-IX) O-20, yang kini berada di bawah komando Wakil Laksamana Geoffrey Layton, RN, di Singapura, melihat konvoi beberapa kapal pengangkutan yang dikawal oleh dua atau tiga pemusnah.

Pada 1115, kapal terbang SENDAI, mungkin Kawanishi E7N2 "Alf", mengesan dan mengebom O-20. Tidak lama kemudian, AYANAMI dan YUGIRI menyerangnya dengan tuduhan mendalam. Snippe terletak doggo di bahagian bawah dan mengelakkan pengisian kedalaman berulang. Malam itu, pada 2045, dia muncul untuk mengisi semula bateri O-20, tetapi api dari ekzos enjinnya membuat kapal selam itu pergi. Dia terlibat dengan tembakan dari URANAMI. Pada 2130, O-20 dikerahkan oleh anak buahnya. Ltz I Snippe dan enam anak kapal hilang. [1]

20 Disember 1941:
Pada pukul 0715, URANAMI menyelamatkan 32 anak kapal O-20 dari air dan menjadikannya POW.

21 Disember 1941:
SENDAI tiba di Camranh.

24 Disember 1941:
Berangkat Camranh dengan DesDiv 20 dan SHIKINAMI. Pengiring ASAKASAN dan RYUJO MARU.

30 Disember 1941:
Mendarat pasukan di Kota Bharu.

31 Disember 1941:
Tiba di Camranh dengan Unit Pengiring No. 1.

3 Januari 1942:
Berangkat Camranh dengan empat kapal pemusnah.

6 Januari 1942:
Tiba di Canton, China.

9 Januari 1942:
Berangkat dari Kanton untuk Camranh dengan konvoi 11 pasukan pengangkut dan tiga kapal pemusnah.

10 Januari 1942:
Pada 1247, LtCdr (kemudian Laksamana Muda) USS SEADRAGON William E. Ferrall (SS-194) melihat konvoi, tetapi Ferrall tidak dapat mendekati jarak lebih dari 2.500 ela. Dia melepaskan dua torpedo pada pengangkutan terakhir di lajur, tetapi kedua-duanya gagal. Dua dari kapal pemusnah cuba mencari SEADRAGON, tetapi Ferrall mengelak dan melarikan diri.

Lewat hari itu, SENDAI dan konvoi selamat tiba di Camranh.

16 Januari 1942:
Berangkat Camranh dengan CHOKAI, KUMANO CruDiv 7, SUZUYA, MIKUMA dan MOGAMI, kapal penjelajah ringan YURA, KINU dan DesRon 3 sebagai tindak balas kepada laporan palsu kapal perang kelas RENOWN Inggeris di Singapura.

18 Januari 1942:
Tiba di Camranh.

20 Januari 1942:
Berangkat Camranh mengawal 11 pasukan tentera dengan FUBUKI, HATSUYUKI dan SHIRAYUKI DesDiv 11, ASAGIRI DesDiv 20, AMAGIRI dan YUGIRI dan penyapu ranjau W-1.

22 Januari 1942:
Konvoi tiba di Singora.

26 Januari 1942:
Konvoi tiba di Endau.

27 Januari 1942: Pertempuran di Endau:
Singapura. Kapal pemusnah WW1 lama LtCdr B. S. Davies, HMS THANET dan LtCdr W. T. A. Moran's HMAS VAMPIRE dihantar untuk membuat serangan malam ke pasukan tansport di Endau, kira-kira 80 batu di sebelah utara Singapura. Pada 0237, menghampiri Endau, mereka menggunakan kapal perang yang mereka anggap sebagai pemusnah, tetapi sebenarnya adalah kapal penyapu ranjau W-1. VAMPIRE melancarkan dua torpedo di W-1, tetapi mereka ketinggalan. W-1 membunyikan penggera dan pemusnah Bersekutu terus menuju ke Endau.

Pada 0318, VAMPIRE melihat SHIRAYUKI ke pelabuhan dan melancarkan dua torpedo padanya, tetapi mereka terlepas. Kemudian THANET melancarkan keempat-empat torpedo, tetapi juga ketinggalan. Kedua-dua kapal pemusnah Bersekutu melepaskan tembakan dengan senapang 4 inci mereka. SENDAI dan SHIRAYUKI membalas tembakan. Pemusnah Bersekutu mengundurkan SE pada kelajuan maksimum.

Pada kira-kira jam 0400, THANET dilanda di ruang mesin dan dandang. Kelajuannya jatuh dan letupan merosakkan kapal pemusnah lama. Dia mati di dalam air, tersenarai di sebelah kanan dan mula tenggelam. VAMPIRE meletakkan skrin asap, tetapi THANET diserang oleh FUBUKI, HATSUYUKI, ASAGIRI, AMAGIRI, YUGIRI dan W-1. Pada 0415, HMS THANET tenggelam. VAMPIRE tidak rosak dan tanpa korban jiwa, tetapi dia tidak berpeluang menjemput mangsa yang selamat. Dia membuat Singapura tiba di sana pada 1000.

Pasukan pengangkutan KANSAI MARU dan KANBERA MARU rosak dalam tindakan tersebut. Kemudian, SHIRAYUKI mengambil 31 orang yang terselamat dari HMS THANET. Mereka tidak pernah dilihat lagi.

31 Januari 1942:
Pasukan pengawal kembali ke Camranh.

9 Februari 1942: L Sakusen (Operasi "L") - Pencerobohan di Palembang dan Pulau Banka, Sumatera.
Berangkat Camranh dengan FUBUKI, HATSUYUKI dan SHIRAYUKI DesDiv 11 yang mengawal lapan pengangkutan. Meliputi pendaratan pencerobohan.

12 Februari 1942:
Bergabung dengan kapal penjelajah ringan YURA dalam menyerang kapal Inggeris dan Belanda di Selat Bangka yang melarikan diri dari Singapura.

20 Februari 1942:
Melakukan operasi menyapu di sekitar Singapura dan di Selat Melaka dengan kapal pemusnah AMAGIRI dan ASAGIRI.

27 Februari 1942:
Tiba di Singapura dengan kapal penjelajah CHOKAI. Sauh di Keppel Harbour, Singapura.

8 Mac 1942: T Sakusen (Operasi "T") - Pencerobohan Sumatera Utara:
Pada 1600 (JST), kapal penjelajah ringan DesRon 3 SENDAI (F), DesDiv 19's ISONAMI, URANAMI dan AYANAMI, DesDiv 20's AMAGIRI, ASAGIRI dan YUGIRI berlepas dari Singapura dengan MineDiv 1s W-1, W-3, W -4 dan W-5 dan SubChas Div 11's CH-8 dan CH-9 dan kapal penjelajah ringan No. 1 Escort Force KASHII dan YURA, kaibokan SHIMUSHU dan MineDiv 41's REISUI dan TAKAO MARU yang mengawal konvoi pencerobohan Sumatera utara yang terdiri IJA mengangkut ANYO, ALASKA, RAKUYO dan KINUGAWA MARU yang mengangkut unsur-unsur Bahagian Pengawal Imperial dan IJN mengangkut TATSUMIYA dan HEITO MARU yang mengangkut Detasmen Kobayashi bahagian itu.

Penutup jarak jauh disediakan oleh kapal penjelajah berat Wakil Laksamana Ozawa Jisaburo (37) CHOKAI (kapal induk), CruDiv 7, MOGAMI, MIKUMA, KUMANO dan SUZUYA, DesDiv 11's FUBUKI, HATSUYUKI dan SHIRAYUKI serta DesDiv 12 dan MURAKUMO . Pengangkut pesawat ringan RYUJO, tender pesawat laut SAGARA MARU dan pesawat dari Naval Air Group ke-40 di lapangan terbang Seletar dan Bihoro Naval Air Group di lapangan terbang Butterworth, Pulau Pinang menyediakan penutup udara.

11 Mac 1942:
Pada 2030 (JST), enam pengangkutan konvoi pencerobohan Sumatera Utara dibahagikan kepada Kumpulan Sabang / Idi: TATSUMIYA, KINUGAWA dan HEITO MARUs dan Kumpulan Koetaradja: ANYO, ATLAS dan RAKUYO MARU.

12 Mac 1942:
Pada 0005 (JST), kedua kumpulan memasuki tempat pendaratan yang ditetapkan. Pendaratan tanpa had bermula pada pukul 0100 (JST).

15 Mac 1942:
Tiba di Pulau Pinang, Tanah Melayu.

20 Mac 1942:
Berangkat Pulau Pinang dengan pengangkutan pasukan dan Unit Pengiring No. 1 untuk menyokong penyitaan Kepulauan Andaman.

23 Mac 1942: D Sakusen (Operasi "D") - Pencerobohan Kepulauan Andaman:
Meliputi pendaratan tanpa batal satu batalion Bahagian Infantri ke-18 IJA di Port Blair.

2/3 April 1942:
Mejar Jeneral Lewis H. Brereton, Panglima Tentera Udara ke-10, mengetuai tiga pesawat Boeing B-17 dalam serangan di Kepulauan Andaman, kru B-17 mengaku menyerang kapal penjelajah (SENDAI) dan pengangkutan, tetapi ini tidak dapat dibuktikan. Dua B-17 dirosakkan oleh AA dan pejuang, tetapi semuanya kembali ke pangkalan.

3 April 1942: C Sakusen (Operasi "C") Raids di Lautan Hindi:
Berangkat dari Port Blair dengan tujuh kapal pemusnah DesRon 3 ke wilayahnya yang ditugaskan meliputi wilayah W Andaman.

8 April 1942:
Menurunkan Andaman.

11 April 1942:
Tiba di Singapura.

13 April 1942:
Berlepas dari Singapura. Pengisian bahan bakar dan kebebasan kru.

22 April 1942:
Tiba di Sasebo untuk perbaikan dan baik pulih.

25 April 1942:
Kapten (kemudian Laksamana Muda) Morishita Nobuei (bekas CO OI) dilantik sebagai CO. Kapten Shimazaki menjadi CO KONGO pada tahun 1943 dan KIA berada di sana pada 21 Nov '44.

16 Mei 1942:
Berlepas dari Sasebo.

17 Mei 1942:
Tiba di Hashirajima.

27 Mei 1942:
Tiba di Teluk Sukumo.

29 Mei 1942: MI Sakusen (Operasi "MI") - Pertempuran Midway:
Menurunkan Teluk Sukumo dengan CINC, Armada Gabungan, Laksamana (Laksamana Armada, selepas kematian) Badan Utama Yamamoto Isoroku (bekas CO AKAGI) dan FUBUKI DesDiv 11, SHIRAYUKI, MURAKUMO dan HATSUYUKI, URANAMI, AYANAMI, AYANAMI, SHIAMANI, ISIAMII Skrin BatDiv 1's YAMATO, NAGATO dan MUTSU, pengiring pengangkut HOSHO, tender kapal terbang CHIYODA dan NISSHIN dan Kapten Nishioka Shigeyasu's Group Group's oilers NARUTO dan TOEI MARU.

Badan Utama tetap 600 batu di belakang Wakil Laksamana (Laksamana, selepas kematian) Nagumo Chuichi (bekas CO KIRISHIMA) Pasukan Penyerang Pembawa Pertama dan tidak melibatkan pasukan Amerika.

14 Jun 1942:
Tiba di Kure. Bersesuaian semula.

26 Jun 1942:
Berangkat Hashirajima dengan FUBUKI, HATSUYUKI, MURAKUMO dan SHIRAYUKI DesDiv 11, AYANAMI DesDiv 19, SHIKINAMI dan URANAMI dan AMAGIRI, ASAGIRI, SHIRAKUMO dan YUGIRI DesDiv 20.

27 Jun 1942:
Tiba di Sasebo.

30 Jun 1942:
DesRon 3 mengawal konvoi pasukan dari Kure.

2 Julai 1942:
Tiba di Amami-O-Shima, Ryukyus.

10 Julai 1942:
Menjalankan rondaan antisubinari W Kyushu dari Amami-O-Shima.

15 Julai 1942: BT Sakusen (Operasi "B") - Operasi di Burma dan Raids di Lautan Hindi.
DesRon 3 ditugaskan semula ke Southwest Force. Berangkat Amami-O-Shima.

17 Julai 1942:
Tiba di Mako, Pescadores.

18 Julai 1942:
Sebelas kapal pemusnah SENDAI dan DesRon 3 meninggalkan Mako dan Takao.

23 Julai 1942:
Tiba di Singapura.

28 Julai 1942:
Berlepas dari Singapura.

29 Julai 1942:
Tiba di Sabang.

30 Julai 1942:
Bertolak dari Sabang.

31 Julai 1942:
Tiba di Mergui, Burma untuk operasi menyerbu Lautan Hindi.

7 Ogos 1942: Operasi Amerika "MENONTON" - Pencerobohan Guadalcanal, Kepulauan Solomon Britain:
Laksamana Muda (kemudian Laksamana) Richmond K. Turner Amphibious Task Force 62, yang dilindungi oleh Naib Laksamana (kemudian Laksamana) Frank J. Fletcher Task Force 61 dan Laksamana Muda (kemudian Laksamana) John S. McCain's task-force pesawat darat 63, darat MajGen (kemudian Gen / KKM / Komandan) Alexander A. Vandegrift Bahagian Laut Pertama di Florida, Tulagi, Gavutu, Tanambogo dan Guadalcanal membuka kempen untuk merebut kembali pulau itu.

8 Ogos 1942:
Setelah pendaratan Amerika di Guadalcanal, operasi Lautan Hindi dibatalkan. SENDAI berlepas dari Mergui.

14 Ogos 1942:
Tiba di Makassar.

15 Ogos 1942:
Berangkat Makassar.

17 Ogos 1942:
Tiba di Davao. Bahan api.

19 Ogos 1942:
Berangkat Davao mengawal konvoi pasukan.

23 Ogos 1942:
Tiba di Truk.

24 Ogos 1942:
DesRon 3 berlepas menaiki pengangkutan SADO dan AKASAN MARU.

28 Ogos 1942:
Tiba di Rabaul, New Britain.

30 Ogos 1942:
Berangkat Rabaul.

31 Ogos 1942:
Tiba di Shortland, Bougainville.

4-5 September 1942:
Menyokong pendaratan di Guadalcanal.

8 September 1942:
Kerang Tulagi.

12 September 1942:
Pada 2130, SENDAI mengebom "Bloody Ridge" berhampiran Henderson Field, Guadalcanal dengan kapal pemusnah SHIKINAMI, FUBUKI dan SUZUKAZE. Kembali ke Shortland. [2]

18 September 1942:
Berangkat dari Shortland dengan empat kapal pemusnah untuk menyerang pasukan pendaratan konvoi penguat Amerika di Guadalcanal. Tidak dapat mengesan konvoi, SENDAI mengebom kedudukan Laut di Lunga Point, Guadalcanal. Kembali ke Shortland.

14 Oktober 1942:
Pada jam 2200, kapal terbang lembut NISSHIN dengan SENDAI, kapal penjelajah ringan YURA dan kapal pemusnah ASAGUMO, AKATSUKI, IKAZUCHI dan SHIRAYUKI mendarat 1,100 pasukan di Cape Esperance, Guadalcanal.

3 November 1942:
Berangkat dari Shortland dengan HATSUYUKI dan SHIRAYUKI DesDiv 11.

6 November 1942:
Tiba di Truk.

9 November 1942:
SENDAI meninggalkan Truk dengan HATSUYUKI dan SHIRAYUKI DesDiv 11 pasukan saringan, AYANAMI DesDiv 19, SHIKINAMI dan URANAMI untuk kapal pengangkut JUNYO Pasukan Penyokong Carrier, KONGO BatDiv 3 dan TONE HARUNA dan CruDiv 8. Memberi sokongan yang jauh dari wilayah Jawa Ontong kepada Pasukan Pengebom Naib Laksamana Abe Hiroaki (bekas CO FUSO) terhadap Henderson Field.

13 November 1942: Pertempuran Tentera Laut Pertama Guadalcanal:
Java Ontong. Selepas kehilangan HIEI BatDiv 11, Wakil Laksamana (kemudian Laksamana) Kondo Nobutake membentuk Pasukan Pengeboman Darurat yang terdiri daripada KIRISHIMA BatDiv 11, ATAGO (F) CruDiv 4 dan TAKAO, kapal penjelajah ringan DesRon 10 NAGARA dan kapal pemusnah ASAGUMO, TERUZUKI, SHATSUYY , IKAZUCHI dan SAMIDARE.

14 November 1942:
DesRon 3's SENDAI dan DesDiv 19's AYANAMI, SHIKINAMI dan URANAMI membentuk Unit Penyapu. JUNYO CarDiv 2, kapal perang KONGO dan HARUNA dan selebihnya Kondo's Second Fleet Advanced Force akan memegang stesen sebagai penutup jauh.

15 November 1942: Pertempuran Tentera Laut Kedua Guadalcanal:
Iron Bottom Bay di Pulau Savo. Laksamana Muda (kemudian Wakil Laksamana) Pasukan Petugas 64 Willis A. Lee mendekati Guadalcanal pada arah utara dalam pembentukan lajur. USS WALKE (DD-416) memimpin, diikuti oleh BENHAM (DD-397), PRESTON (DD-379) dan GWIN (DD-433) dengan kapal perang baru Kapten Glenn B. Davis USS WASHINGTON (BB-56) dan Kapten (kemudian Naib Laksamana) Thomas L. Gatch DAKOTA SELATAN (BB-57) 5,000 ela di belakang.

Pada 0001, WASHINGTON membuat kontak radar pada jarak 18,000 ela, menuju ke timur Pulau Savo. Pada 0016, WASHINGTON melepaskan tembakan ke arah SENDAI dengan bateri utamanya 16 inci. SENDAI membuat asap, meletakkan dan berhenti tidak rosak.

Kapal penjelajah ringan NAGARA dan kapal pemusnah menyerang orang Amerika dengan tembakan dan torpedo "Long Lance". Semasa aksi, lebih dari 30 torpedo dilancarkan di DAKOTA SELATAN. Mereka semua merindukannya, tetapi PRESTON dan WALKE tenggelam dan BENHAM sangat teruk sehingga dia mesti dimarahi keesokan harinya oleh GWIN.

WASHINGTON mendekati sejauh 8,400 meter dari KIRISHIMA yang tidak dapat dikesan. WASHINGTON memukul KIRISHIMA dengan lapan atau sembilan dari tujuh puluh lima peluru AP radar 16 inci yang ditembaknya. KIRISHIMA terbakar, dua dari menara 14 inci cacat, kemudinya musnah dan dia berlubang di perairan. KIRISHIMA lists to starboard and begins circling to port, smoking and ablaze.

SOUTH DAKOTA and WASHINGTON's secondary five-inch armament repeatedly hit destroyer AYANAMI. She has to be scuttled by URANAMI. At 0325, KIRISHIMA is also scuttled, then rolls over to starboard and capsizes. The victorious WASHINGTON is untouched.

18 November 1942:
SENDAI and her destroyers return to Truk.

18 November-28 December 1942:
At Truk.

28 December 1942-3 January 1943:
Truk. Refit by repair ship AKASHI.

21 January 1943:
Two 25 mm guns removed from oiler SANYO MARU are transferred to SENDAI.

22 January 1943:
Departs Truk.

24 January 1943:
Arrives at Rabaul.

25 February 1943:
Rabaul. DesRon 3's SENDAI and DesDivs 11 and 22 are reassigned from the First Fleet to Vice Admiral Mikawa Gunichi's (former CO of KIRISHIMA) Eighth Fleet at Rabaul.

23 March 1943:
Rear Admiral (Vice Admiral, posthumously) Akiyama Teruo (former CO of NAKA) assumes command of DesRon 3 from Rear Admiral Hashimoto.

1 April 1943:
Vice Admiral, the Baron, Samejima Tomoshige (former CO of NAGATO) assumes command of the Eighth Fleet. Vice Admiral Mikawa is reassigned as the Schoolmaster of the Naval Navigation School.

3 April 1943:
Rabaul. DesDiv 30 is reassigned to DesRon 3.

10 April 1943:
Departs Rabaul.

12 April 1943:
Arrives at Truk. Begins refit.

19 April 1943:
Refit is completed. Departs Truk.

21 April 1943:
Arrives at Rabaul. Departs the same day.

21 April 1943:
Arrives at Kavieng. SENDAI takes damaged heavy cruiser AOBA under tow and departs the same day with destroyers HATSUZUKI and NAGATSUKI.

25 April 1943:
Arrives at Truk.

28 April 1943:
Departs Truk.

4 May 1943:
Arrives at Sasebo.

5 May 1943:
At Sasebo for repairs and refit. A Type 21 radar is installed. The No. five 5.5-inch gun mount is removed. Two triple 25-mm AA gun mounts are installed.

20 May 1943:
Captain Shoji Kiichiro (former ComDesDiv 16) is appointed CO. Captain (later Rear Admiral) Morishita is posted as CO of HARUNA, and later CO of YAMATO.

25 June 1943:
Departs Sasebo. That same day, destroyer NIIZUKI becomes flagship of DesRon 3.

28 June 1943:
Arrives at Yokosuka. Embarks troops.

30 June 1943:
Departs Yokosuka.

5 July 1943:
Arrives at Truk.

6 July 1943:
Departs Truk with YUGURE.

7 July 1943:
Rear Admiral (Vice Admiral, posthumously), the Baron, Ijuin Matsuji (former CO of KONGO and son of Fleet Admiral Ijuin Goro, former CINC, Combined Fleet) assumes command of DesRon 3 from Rear Admiral Akiyama who was KIA aboard NIIZUKI sunk at the Battle of Kula Gulf on 5-6 July.

8 July 1943:
Arrives at Rabaul, disembarks troops and departs.

9 July 1943:
Arrives at the Shortland Island anchorage.

During the next three months, SENDAI operates out of Rabaul covering reinforcement convoys to Buin and Shortland.

18 July 1943:
SENDAI departs Rabaul for the Vella Gulf with CruDiv7's KUMANO and SUZUYA, CruDiv 4's CHOKAI, DesDiv 27's YUGURE, DesDiv 31's KIYONAMI and destroyers MIKAZUKI and MATSUKAZE acting as fast transports carrying troop reinforcements. Off Kolombangara, the group is attacked by Guadalcanal-based Marine Grumman TBM "Avenger" torpedo-bombers. KUMANO and CHOKAI's aft hull plates are damaged by near-misses from 2000-lb bombs dropped by radar.

20 July 1943:
The transport group is attacked by North American B-25 "Mitchell" skip bombers. DesDiv 27's YUGURE and DesDiv 31's KIYONAMI are sunk with all hands.

21 July 1943:
Arrives at Rabaul.

28 August 1943:
SENDAI departs Rabaul on a troop transport run to Shortland with destroyer SAZANAMI.

31 October 1943:
Departs Rabaul for Bougainville with CruDiv 5, DesRons 2, 3 to cover a reinforcement convoy of destroyer-transports AMAGIRI, YUNAGI, UZUKI and FUZUKI.

1 November 1943: American Operation "SHOESTRING II": The Invasion of Bougainville:
Rear Admiral (later Vice Admiral) Theodore S. Wilkinson's Third Amphibious Force, Task Force 31, lands LtGen Vandegrift's 1st Marine Amphibious Corps at Cape Torokina, Empress Augusta Bay, Bougainville, Solomons.

After the American invasion of Cape Torokina, DesRon 3 is assigned to Rear Admiral (later Vice Admiral) Omori Sentaro's (former CO of ISE) Attack Force with CruDiv 5's HAGURO and MYOKO and Rear Admiral Matsubara Hiroshi's (former CO of DD ASAGIRI) DesRon 2's light cruiser AGANO and destroyers NAGANAMI, WAKATSUKI and HATSUKAZE.

That same day, SENDAI is bombed by a Consolidated B-24 "Liberator", but suffers no damage.

2 November 1943: The Battle of Empress Augusta Bay:
Vice Admiral Omori departs Rabaul to escort 1,000 IJA troops to Empress Augusta Bay to oppose the American invasion at Cape Torokina, Bougainville. Omori's force includes CruDiv 5's MYOKO (F) and HAGURO, Rear Admiral Ijuin's DesRon 3's SENDAI with destroyers SHIGURE, SAMIDARE and SHIRATSUYU and Rear Admiral (later Vice Admiral) Osugi Morikazu's (former CO of KONGO) DesRon 10's light cruiser AGANO with destroyers NAGANAMI, WAKATSUKI and HATSUKAZE and destroyer-transports AMAGIRI, YUNAGI, UZUKI and FUZUKI.

At 0026, HAGURO catapults a floatplane, probably a Mitsubishi F1M "Pete".

At 0031, Rear Admiral (later Vice Admiral) Aaron S. Merrill (former CO of INDIANA, BB-58) intercepts the Japanese with his Task Force 39's CruDiv 12's radar-equipped light cruisers USS CLEVELAND (CL-55), COLUMBIA (CL-56), MONTPELIER (CL-57) and DENVER (CL-58), Captain (later Admiral/CNO) "31 knot" Arleigh Burke's destroyers USS STANLY (DD-478), CHARLES F. AUSBURNE (DD-570), CLAXTON (DD-571) and DYSON (DD-572) and Cdr B. L Austin's CONVERSE (DD-509), FOOTE (DD-511), SPENCE (DD-512) and THATCHER (DD-514).

At 0040, HAGURO's floatplane spots several American warships 20 mile S of Omori's force. At that same time, Captain Burke's four van destroyers launch 25 Mark-15 steam torpedoes at Omori's force.

At 0045, lookouts on SHIGURE spot the American destroyers at 7,500 yards. SHIGURE turns hard starboard and launches eight torpedoes towards them. SENDAI also turns hard starboard, but bears down on SHIGURE. SHIGURE barely avoids a collision with SENDAI, but the following SAMIDARE side-swipes SHIRATSUYU and crushes her hull portside.

At 0050, all four of Merrill's cruisers take SENDAI under radar directed 6-inch fire. They hit her with their first salvo and more thereafter setting her afire.

About 0100, Omori's flagship MYOKO collides with HATSUKAZE and the destroyer loses her bow. At 0108, American destroyer FOOTE is hit by a torpedo and damaged heavily, but does not sink.

At 0115, MYOKO and HAGURO are straddled by American shells. Both cruisers open fire blindly and launch 24 torpedoes in the direction of Merrill's forces. In the next 20 minutes, HAGURO takes about ten hits from 5-inch and 6-inch shells, but most are duds and the damage is minor.

At 0134, Vice Admiral Omori orders the withdrawl of the remaining Japanese forces. He signals Rabaul and requests a submarine be dispatched to rescue survivors. At 0200, SENDAI is abandoned. ComDesRon 3 Rear Admiral Ijuin enters the water. 236 other SENDAI crewmen are rescued by destroyers.[3]

Burke's destroyers finish off HATSUKAZE by gunfire. She goes down with all 240 hands.

SENDAI remains afloat until 0430 when she sinks at 06-10S, 154-20E. Captain Shoji and 184 crewmen go down with her.

Captain Shoji is promoted Rear Admiral, posthumously.

5 January 1944:
Removed from the Navy List.

Authors' Notes:
[1] On 12 June 2002, Dutch divers of the International Association for Handicapped Divers locate the wreck of O-20 about 35 miles NE of Kota Bharu, Malaysia at a depth of 144 feet.

[2] Dubbed "Bloody Ridge", it is later renamed "Edson's Ridge" in honor of LtCol (later MajGen/MOH) Merritt A. Edson, CO of the First Marine Raider Battalion that held the ridge against repeated assaults by MajGen Kawaguchi Kiyotake's 6,000-man Brigade attempting to retake Henderson Field.

[3] On 3 Nov 43, Rear Admiral Ijuin and 75 survivors from SENDAI are rescued by LtCdr Shoda Keiji's submarine RO-104.

Special thanks for assistance in researching the IJN officers mentioned in this TROM go to Aldert Gritter/"Adm. Gurita" of the Netherlands and Mr. Jean-Fran ois Masson of Canada.


Benham II DD- 397 - History

1/96 Scale US Patrol Frigates

1/72 Scale US Destroyers

1/48 Scale US Destroyers and Destroyer Escorts

1/100 Scale German and Japanese Destroyers

1/96 Scale Canadian Frigates

1/72 Scale UCanadian Frigates

1/192 Scale US Destroyers

Order # Ship Name Class Skala Panjang Rasuk Harga
WHU-D 27 KM Frederick Ihn Z-14 1:100 47 1/2" 4 5/8" $ 199.00

The FREDRICK IHN was the 14th ship of the Mass (Z-1) class of large destroyers built by the Kriegsmarine during the 1930's to replace the older World War One destroyers that the German Navy was allowed to retain after the Armistice and treaties of 1919.. When the 16 ships of this class were completed, they were among the largest destroyers in the world. The FREDRiCK IHN was active all through the war mostly in Norwegian waters where she was one of the escorts kept on hand for escorting the Battleship TIRPITZ during her brief cruises. The Z-14 survived the war and was turned over to the Soviet Navy in 1946 and was finally scrapped in 1956. This hull has the shaft exits and strut locations and rudder positions marked in, and comes with a set of plans.


German Destroyers of World War II by Gerhard Koop, Klaus-Peter Schmolke

Order # Ship Name Class Skala Panjang Rasuk Harga
WHU-D 28 KM Z-39 "Narvik Class" 1936 A 1:100 49 7/8" 4 3/4" $ 219.00

The KM Z-39 was one of the type 1936A destroyers built by the German Navy from 1939 to 1944. These large destroyers were better known as the "Narvik" class, they were very graceful looking ships and were among the most heavily armed destroyers to see action during World War 2. The Z-39 saw action in the English channel, Norwegian waters and the North and Baltic seas and survived the war to be allocated to the United States in 1945. The US Navy brought the ship to the US for evaluation and was extensively photographed while in drydock prior to transferring the ship to France. This hull features the shaft exits and strut locations and anchor bolsters molded in and comes with a detailed set of plans. This hull can be used to build the Z-23 thru Z-43

A SeaPhoto Photo Reference CD is available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above.


German Destroyers of World War II
by Gerhard Koop, Klaus-Peter Schmolke

Order # Ship Name Class Skala Panjang Rasuk Harga
WHU-D 29 IJN Akizuki
1:100 52" 4 1/2" $ 199.00

The AKlZUKl class of large Anti-Aircraft destroyers were originally built to act as escorts for the lmperial Japanese Navies aircraff carriers and battleships. These ships were kept in almost continuous action once the US Navy went on the offensive in the south and central Pacific. There were 12 ships of this class completed during the war, of which only 6 ships survived, not all operational, which is still better than any other destroyers the Japanese navy had. Their survival rate had a lot to do with the excellent 3.9" dual purpose gun that these ships mounted in 4 twin mounts. This hull has the shaft exits and strut location molded in and comes with a set of detailed plans.

The HMCS HALIFAX is the first of 12 Patrol Frigates built by the Canadian Navy starting in 1987 with the last ship of the class, HMCS Ottawa being completed in 1996. 7 of these ships are assigned to the Atlantic fleet with the remaining 5 in the Pacific fleet based in British Columbia. These ships are the newest class of warship to join the Canadian Navy and are also the best equipped. Our hulls for these ships is based on official drawings for this class with the master hull patterns being expertly fabricated by Mr. Jonathan Evans of Toronto. This hull has the shaft exit locations molded in and comes with a detailed set of arrangement plans to assist the builder with their project.

A SeaPhoto Photo Reference Set is available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above.

The USS Tacoma PF-3 was the lead ship of nearly 100 patrol frigates built by the US Navy in World War 2 to fight Hitlers U-boats. These ships were based on a Royal Navy designed ASW Frigate that could be built rather quickly and in large numbers, 21 of the US built ships went to the Royal Navy as their Colony class, these ships were built in Canada as well and were called the River class in the British, Canadian and Australian Navies. Several units of this class served in the Soviet navy during the war and then several other navies through the 50 s and 60 s. At least 4 have been saved as museums.

This hull comes with a set of detailed plans

The Fletcher class Destroyers numbered 174 ships built in two groups during W.W.II. The early ships of this class were built with round streamlined bridge fronts, while the second group had a squared bridge structure and had the MK 37 director lowered to help stability and to reduce building time. These ships served in the US Navy from mid 1942 until the early 1970's. One of the round bridge ships was still operating in the Mexican Navy in 1998. This hull has shaft exits and strut locations molded in. A set of detailed arrangement plans for the Fletcher as she appeared in 1942-43 also accompanies this hull.This 1:72 scale Fletcher hull is mid sized for the modeler who feels that the 1:96 scale may be too small for them and the 1:48 scale too large to handle.

DD-445 1:72 SET This package includes the hull, plans, and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Please note this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials not included. $TBA

Special Shipping: This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-1 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 80.00

This Gearing class destroyers were the longest serving destroyers built by the US Navy, several of these ships still serve today in foreign navies . One of these ship, the USS Joseph P. Kennedy DD-850 is serving as a museum ship in Fall River Massachusetts, teaching school children as well as adults about the life of Destroyerman in three wars. This 1:72 scale hull was built for the modeler who wants to build a Gearing class destroyer and feels that the 1:96 scale hull is too small for their requirements but do not have the room for our larger 1:48 scale model. This hull has the shaft exits and strut locations scribed in and comes with a set of arrangement plans in 1:72nd scale.. Again this hull is mid sized so that we would have a hull in the proper size for almost any modeler who wants to build one of these famous World War Two destroyers.NOTE: YOU CAN ALSO REQUEST THIS HULL WITH THE PLANS FOR THE DD-561 AS IN THE 1950'S

DD-661 1:72 SET: This package includes the hull, plans, and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Please note this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials not included. $===.==

DD-561 1:72 SET:1950's This package includes the hull, plans, and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Please note this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials not included. $ TBA

Special Shipping: This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-1 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 80.00

The USS CASSIN YOUNG DD-793 is an example of the Fletcher class destroyers that were recommissioned for the Korean war and then were retained in service through the 1950's. many of these ships were used for Naval Reserve trainers until about 1980. The Cassin Young served into the 1970's when she was decommissioned and laid up in reserve at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard with many of her sister Fletcher class destroyers awaiting to be sold for scrap or used as a target vessel in the development of new weapons systems. Fortunately she was saved from this fate and was turned over to the National Parks Service to be preserved as a museum ship at the old Charlestown Navy Yard in Boston. This ship serves as a lasting reminder of the ships that fought in World War Two, showing future generations what life was like in the Destroyer navy during the 1940's up to the 1970'sThis hull has the lacations for the shaft and strut exit locations marked into the hull and comes with a set of arrangement plans.

DD-793 1:72 SET: This package includes the hull, plans, and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Please note this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials not included. TBA

Special Shipping: This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-1 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 80.00


USS Waldron (DD-699) 1953

The SUMNER DD-692 class destroyers were developed from the previous Fletcher class destroyers to carry the new 5"-38 cal. Twin dual purpose mounts that were designed for destroyer use. These new mounts were being mounted on almost all new classes of warships that the US Navy was building and were effective in the Anti-Aircraft and surface engagement roles. By putting twin mounts on destroyers, this added one more barrel to their main battery on nearly the same displacement. The hull for this class was widened by one foot to increase stability and fuel storage. This hull has the Shaft and strut exit locations marked in and comes with a set of arrangement plans in 1:72nd scale.

DD-692 1:72 SET: This package includes the hull, plans, and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Please note this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials not included. TBA

Special Shipping: This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-1 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 80.00


USS William M. Wood Mid 1940's

The Gearing class destroyers were the longest serving destroyers built by the US Navy, several ships still serving today in foreign navies . One of these one ship, the USS Joseph P. Kennedy DD- 850 is a museum ship in Fall River Massachusetts, teaching school children as well as adults about the life of Destroyerman in three wars. She is also featured in the movie "13 Days" about the Cuban Missile Crisis. This 1:72 scale hull was built for the modeler who wants to build a Gearing class destroyer and feels that the 1:96 scale hull is too small for their requirements but do not have the room for our larger 1:48 scale model. This hull has the shaft exits and strut locations scribed in and comes with a set of arrangement plans.

Special Shipping: This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-1 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 80.00

Order # Ship Name Class Skala Panjang Rasuk Harga
WHU72-4A USS JOSEPH P. KENNEDY JR DD-710 1:72 65" 6 7/8" $ 259.00

This Gearing class destroyers were the longest serving destroyers built by the US Navy, several of these ships still serve today in foreign navies . One of these ship, the USS Joseph P. Kennedy DD-850 is serving as a museum ship in Fall River Massachusetts, teaching school children as well as adults about the life of Destroyerman in three wars. This 1:72 scale hull was built for the modeler who wants to build a Gearing class destroyer and feels that the 1:96 scale hull is too small for their requirements but do not have the room for our larger 1:48 scale model. This hull has the shaft exits and strut locations scribed in and comes with a set of arrangement plans of these ships as they appeared after their FRAM modernization.

This package includes the hull, plans, and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Please note this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials not included. $ TBA

Special Shipping: This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-1 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 80.00

A SeaPhoto Photo Reference Set is available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above.


Benham II DD- 397 - History

November and the Continuing Buildup (continued)

The buildup on Guadalcanal continued, by both sides. On 11 November, guarded by a cruiser-destroyer covering force, a convoy ran in carrying the 182d Infantry, another regiment of the Americal Division. The ships were pounded by enemy bombers and three transports were hit, but the men landed. General Vandegrift needed the new men badly. His veterans were truly ready for replacement more than a thousand new cases of malaria and related diseases were reported each week. The Japanese who had been on the island any length of time were no better off they were, in fact, in worse shape. Medical supplies and rations were in short supply. The whole thrust of the Japanese reinforcement effort continued to be to get troops and combat equipment ashore. The idea prevailed in Tokyo, despite all evidence to the contrary, that one overwhelming coordinated assault would crush the American resistance. The enemy drive to take Port Moresby on New Guinea was put on hold to concentrate all efforts on driving the Americans off of Guadalcanal.

Native guides lead 2d Raider Battalion Marines on a combat/reconnaissance patrol behind Japanese lines. The patrol lasted for less than a month, during which the Marines covered 150 miles and fought more than a dozen actions. Department of Defense (USMC) Photo 51728

On 12 November, a multifaceted Japanese naval force converged on Guadalcanal to cover the landing of the main body of the 38th Division. Rear Admiral Daniel J. Callaghan's cruisers and destroyers, the close-in protection for the 182d's transports, moved to stop the enemy. Coastwatcher and scout plane sightings and radio traffic intercepts had identified two battleships, two carriers, four cruisers, and a host of destroyers all headed toward Guadalcanal. A bombardment group led by the battleships Hiei and Kirishima, with the light cruiser Nagura, and 15 destroyers spearheaded the attack. Shortly after midnight, near Savo Island, Callaghan's cruisers picked up the Japanese on radar and continued to close. The battle was joined at such short range that each side fired at times on their own ships. Callaghan's flagship, the San Francisco, was hit 15 times, Callaghan was killed, and the ship had to limp away. The cruiser Atlanta (CL-104) was also hit and set afire. Rear Admiral Norman Scott, who was on board, was killed. Despite the hammering by Japanese fire, the Americans held and continued fighting. The battleship Hiei, hit by more than 80 shells, retired and with it went the rest of the bombardment force. Three destroyers were sunk and four others damaged.

The Americans had accomplished their purpose they had forced the Japanese to turn back. Kosnya tinggi. Two antiaircraft cruisers, the Atlanta and the Juneau (CL-52), were sunk four destroyers, the Barton (DD-599), Cushing (DD-376), Monssen (DD-436), and Laffey (DD-459), also went to the bottom. In addition to the San Francisco, the heavy cruiser Portland and the destroyers Sterret (DD-407), and Aaron Ward (DD-483) were damaged. One one destroyer of the 13 American ships engaged, the Fletcher (DD-445), was unscathed when the survivors retired to the New Hebrides.

With daylight came the Cactus bombers and fighters they found the crippled Hiei and pounded it mercilessly. On the 14th the Japanese were forced to scuttle it. Admiral Halsey ordered his only surviving carrier, the Enterprise, out of the Guadalcanal area to get it out of reach of Japanese aircraft and sent his battleships Washington (BB-56) and South Dakota with four escorting destroyers north to meet the Japanese. Some of the Enterprise's planes flew in to Henderson Field to help even the odds.

In the great naval Battle of Guadalcanal, 12-15 November, RAdm Daniel J. Callaghan was killed when his flagship, the heavy cruiser San Francisco (CA-38) took 15 major hits and was forced to limp away in the dark from the scene of action. Department of Defense (Navy) Photo 80-G-20824 and 80-G-G-21099

On 14 November Cactus and Enterprise flyers found a Japanese cruiser-destroyer force that had pounded the island on the night of 13 November. They damaged four cruisers and a destroyer. After refueling and rearming they went after the approaching Japanese troop convoy. They hit several transports in one attack and sank one when they came back again. Army B-17s up from Espiritu Santo scored one hit and several near misses, bombing from 17,000 feet.

Moving in a continuous pattern of attack, return, refuel, rearm, and attack again, the planes from Guadalcanal hit nine transports, sinking seven. Many of the 5,000 troops on the stricken ships were rescued by Tanaka's destroyers, which were firing furiously and laying smoke screens in an attempt to protect the transports. The admiral later recalled that day as indelible in his mind, with memories of "bombs wobbling down from high-flying B-17s of carrier bombers roaring towards targets as though to plunge full into the water, releasing bombs and pulling out barely in time, each miss sending up towering clouds of mist and spray, every hit raising clouds of smoke and fire." Despite the intensive aerial attack, Tanaka continued on to Guadalcanal with four destroyers and four transports.

Japanese intelligence had picked up the approaching American battleship force and warned Tanaka of its advent. In turn, the enemy admirals sent their own battleship-cruiser force to intercept. The Americans, led by Rear Admiral Willis A. Lee in the Washington, reached Sealark Channel about 2100 on the 14th. An hour later, a Japanese cruiser was picked up north of Savo. Battleship fire soon turned it away. The Japanese now learned that their opponents would not be the cruisers they expected.

The resulting clash, fought in the glare of gunfire and Japanese searchlights, was perhaps the most significant fought at sea for Guadalcanal. When the melee was over, the American battleships' 16-inch guns had more than matched the Japanese. Both the South Dakota and the Washington were damaged badly enough to force their retirement, but the Kirishima was punished to its abandonment and death. One Japanese and three American destroyers, the Benham (DD-796), the Walke (DD-416), and the Preston (DD-379), were sunk. When the Japanese attack force retired, Admiral Tanaka ran his four transports onto the beach, knowing they would be sitting targets at daylight. Most of the men on board, however, did manage to get ashore before the inevitable pounding by American planes, warships, and artillery.

The Japanese Model 89 (1929)
50mm Heavy Grenade Discharger

Born out of the need to bridge the gap in range between hand grenades and mortars, the grenade discharger evolved in the Imperial Japanese Army from a special purpose weapon of infantry assault and defense to an essential item of standard equipment with all Japanese ground forces.

Commonly called Juteki by the Japanese, this weapon officially was designated Hachikyu Shiki Jutekidarto, or 1189 Model Heavy Grenade Discharger, the term "heavy" being justified by the powerful 1-pound, 12-ounce high explosive shell it was designed to fire, although it also fired the standard Model 91 fragmentation grenade.

To the American Marines and soldiers who first encountered this weapon and others of its kind in combat they were known as "knee mortars," likely so named because they generally were fired from a kneeling position. Typically, the discharger's concave baseplate was pressed firmly into the surface of the ground by the firer's foot to support the heavy recoil of the fired shell, but unfortunately the term "knee mortar" suggested to some untutored captors of these weapons that they were to be fired with the baseplate resting against the knee or thigh. When a Marine fired on of these dischargers from his thigh and broke his upper leg bone, efforts were swiftly undertaken in the field to educate all combat troops in the safe and proper handling of these very useful weapons.

The Model 89 (1929) 50mm Heavy Grenade Discharger is a muzzle-loaded, high-angle-of-fire weapon which weighs 10-1/4 pounds and is 24 inches in overall length. Its design is compact and simple. The discharger has three major components: the rifled barrel, the supporting barrel pedestal with firing mechanism, and the base plate. Operation of the Model 899 was easy and straightforward, and with practice its user could deliver accurate fire registered quickly on target.

Encountered in all major battles in the Pacific War, the Model 89 Grenade Discharger was an uncomplicated, very portable, and highly efficient weapon operated easily by one man. It was carried in a cloth or leather case with a sling, and its one-piece construction allowed it to be brought into action very quickly. This grenade discharger had the advantage over most mortars in that it could be aimed and fired mechanically after a projectile had been placed in the barrel, projectile firing not being dependent upon dropping down the barrel against a stationary firing pin as with most mortars, where barrel fouling sometimes caused dangerous hangfires. Although an instantaneous fuze employed on the Model 89 high explosive shell restricted this shell's use to open areas, the Model 91 fragmentation grenade with its seven-second fuze made this discharger effective in a jungle or forest setting, with complete safety for the user from premature detonation of projectiles by overhanging foliage. Smoke and signal shells, and an incendiary grenade, were special types of ammunition used with this versatile and effective weapons which won the respect of all who came to know it.— Edwin F. Libby

Ten thousand troops of the 38th Division had landed, but the Japanese were in no shape to ever again attempt a massive reinforcement. The horrific losses in the frequent naval clashes, which seemed at times to favor the Japanese, did not really represent a standoff. Every American ship lost or damaged could and would be replaced every Japanese ship lost meant a steadily diminishing fleet. In the air, the losses on both sides were daunting, but the enemy naval air arm would never recover from its losses of experienced carrier pilots. Two years later, the Battle of the Philippine Sea between American and Japanese carriers would aptly be called the "Marianas Turkey Shoot" because of the ineptitude of the Japanese trainee pilots.

A Japanese troop transport and her landing craft were badly damaged by the numerous Marine air attacks and were forced to run aground on Kokumbona beach after the naval Battle of Guadalcanal. Many enemy troops were killed in the attacks. Department of Defense (USMC) Photo 53510

The enemy troops who had been fortunate enough to reach land were not immediately ready to assault the American positions. The 38th Division and the remnants of the various Japanese units that had previously tried to penetrate the Marine lines needed to be shaped into a coherent attack force before General Hyakutake could again attempt to take Henderson Field.

General Vandegrift now had enough fresh units to begin to replace his veteran troops along the front lines. The decision to replace the 1st Marine Division with the Army's 25th Infantry Division had been made. Admiral Turner had told Vandegrift to leave all of his heavy equipment on the island when he did pull out "in hopes of getting your units re-equipped when you come out." He also told the Marine general that the Army would command the final phases of the Guadalcanal operation since it would provide the majority of the combat forces once the 1st Division departed. Major General Alexander M. Patch, commander of the Americal Division. would relieve Vandegrift as senior American officer ashore. His air support would continue to be Marine-dominated as General Geiger, now located on Espiritu Santo with 1st Wing headquarters, fed his squadrons forward to maintain the offensive. And the air command on Guadalcanal itself would continue to be a mixed bag of Army, Navy, Marine, and Allied squadrons.

The sick list of the 1st Marine Division in November included more than 3,200 men with malaria. The men of the 1st still manning the frontline foxholes and the rear areas—if anyplace within Guadalcanal's perimeter could properly be called a rear area—were plain worn out. They had done their part and they knew it.

On 29 November, General Vandegrift was handed a message from the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The crux of it read: "1st MarDiv is to be relived without delay . and will proceed to Australia for rehabilitation and employment." The word soon spread that the 1st was leaving and where it was going. Australia was not yet the cherished place it would become in the division's future, but any place was preferable to Guadalcanal.


Bremerton-Olympic Peninsula Council Navy League of the US

A painting by the artist Wayne Scarpaci entitled “Night Action”.
The drawing depicts the Washington (BB-56) in action against the Kirishima at the 4th battle of Savo Island, 15 Nov 1942.

The tide of the Guadalcanal campaign was turned by one new American battleship, the USS WASHINGTON (BB-56,) CAPT Glenn B. Davis, commanding, in a brutal and near-run battle the night of 14-15 Nov 42. With the battleship USS SOUTH DAKOTA (BB-57) on fire and out of action, and the four screening destroyers sunk or crippled, WASHINGTON was the only ship left of Rear Admiral Willis “Ching” Lee’s Task Force 64 that entered Ironbottom Sound the evening of 14 Nov 1942, in a last ditch effort by Vice Admiral William F. Halsey to halt yet another major effort by the Japanese to bombard Henderson Field and land more reinforcements on Guadalcanal (it was a last-ditch effort for the Japanese too.)

WASHINGTON single-handedly took on a Japanese force of one battleship (KIRISHIMA, a survivor of the 13 Nov battle,) two heavy cruisers, two light cruisers, and nine destroyers. In a matter of minutes, with accurate radar-directed fire, WASHINGTON pummeled the KIRISHIMA with between 9 and 20 hits (probably 20) by 16″ shells and over forty hits by 5″ shells, which caused KIRISHIMA to sink after midnight. WASHINGTON also hit other Japanese ships with her secondary armament, including probably the destroyer USS PRESTON (DD-379) too. WASHINGTON then maneuvered to avoid multiple torpedo attacks. The loss of the KIRISHIMA caused the rest of the Japanese force to withdraw, with the exception of one sinking destroyer.


Lista de classes de contratorpedeiros da Marinha dos Estados Unidos

A lista das classes de contratorpedeiros da Marinha dos Estados Unidos inclui todas as classes de navio de guerra do tipo contratorpedeiro (em inglês: destroyers ) comissionadas. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Uma classe de navios identifica embarcações construídas com os mesmos planos, embora possam apresentar variações de um navio para outra embarcação .

O destróier evoluiu da necessidade das Marinhas combaterem o navio tipo torpedeiro que fez uma estréia devastadora na Guerra Civil de 1891 no Chile e na Primeira Guerra Sino-Japonesa de 1894. O barco torpedeiro era pequeno e rápido, podendo atacar os navios de maior porte da época, lançando os seus torpedos, saindo rapidamente da área. As Marinhas foram em busca de uma arma contra este tipo de ameaça, surgindo daí um novo tipo embarcação destinadas especificamente a combater os torpedeiros. [3]

O primeiro destróier da Marinha norte-americana o USS Bainbridge (DD-1) foi comissionado em 24 de novembro de 1902 e era tripulado por 75 homens. A embarcação com 76 m de comprimento, deslocava 420 toneladas, e alcançava uma velocidade de 29 nós. O Bainbridge serviu como navio de escolta durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial. [ 4 ] [ 5 ]

Os Estados Unidos classificam os seus contratorpedeiros em dois tipos, sistema também adotado pela Organização do Tratado do Atlântico Norte e por outras Marinhas. O primeiro tipo são os contratorpedeiros, com prefixo DD [ nota 1 ] no seu número de amura, navios de guerra menos sofisticados, que se destinam a desempenhar, primariamente, funções de luta anti-submarina. O segundo tipo é o dos contratorpedeiros de mísseis guiados, com o prefixo DDG [ nota 2 ] , que são mutifuncionais, com capacidades antiaéreas, anti-submarinas e anti-superfície. A recente introdução de mísseis de cruzeiro nos contratorpedeiros da Marinha dos Estados Unidos permitiu uma ampla expansão do seu papel permitindo ataques contra objetivos em terra. [ 6 ]

A lista está organizada e ordenada por período de serviço que a classe esteve operacional e por tipo de contratorpedeiro. O bloco de números de casco em parênteses dentro de cada classe representam os navios que foram cancelados antes de serem concluídos.

Sempre que necessário a informação é complementada por notas de rodapé.

DD 490, DD 493 - DD 497, DD 618 - DD 628, DD 632 - DD 641, DD 645 - DD 648 [ 87 ]


Tonton videonya: Twist n Track on Benham. World of Warships: Legends