Heinkel He 219

Heinkel He 219

Heinkel He219 Uhu

Spesifikasi (A-7 / R1)

Jenis: pejuang malam dua tempat duduk;
Jana kuasa: 2 x 1,900hp Daimler-Benz DB 603G 12-cyclinder inverted-vee engine;
Persembahan: 416mph / 670kph (kelajuan maksimum), 391mph / 630kph (kelajuan pelayaran), 40,025 kaki / 12,200m (siling perkhidmatan), 1,243 batu / 2,000 km (jarak maksimum),
Berat: 24,692lbs / 11,200kg (kosong), 33,730lbs / 15,300kg (maksimum lepas landas);
Dimensi: 60ft 8.25in / 18.5m (span sayap), 50ft 11.75in / 15.54m (panjang), 13ft 5.5in / 4.10m (tinggi), 479.01sq.ft / 44.5m.sq (kawasan sayap);
Persenjataan: Meriam 4 x 30mm MK108, meriam 2 x 20mm MG151 / 20 & meriam 2 x 30mm MK103;
Terpakai: Jerman.

Sejarah

Heinkel He219 Uhu (Owl) berpotensi menjadi salah satu pejuang malam terbaik dan paling berkesan Luftwaffe tetapi menderita salah sangka anggota kanan pemerintah dan Luftwaffe (terutama Jeneral Feldmarschall Erhard Milch, Ketua Polis Negara Luftwaffe, yang mengambil alih dari Ernst Udet ketika yang terakhir membunuh diri pada bulan November 1941) seperti yang dilakukan oleh banyak program lain, seperti Me262. Walaupun pesawatnya pantas, dapat bergerak dan mempunyai kekuatan senjata yang dahsyat, membuktikan dirinya setara dengan pengebom pejuang Bersekutu seperti nyamuk de Havilland, Milch berjaya mengetepikan program untuk memihak kepada Junkers Ju388J dan Focke-Wulf Ta154. Namun, sejumlah pesawat dihasilkan walaupun setelah pemisahan kepentingan formal dan pengeluaran berjumlah sekitar 288 pesawat, termasuk prototaip. The Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM) sejak awal sangat mesra dengan projek ini. Ia berpunca dari usaha swasta oleh Ernst Heinkel AG, yang menunjuk pesawat pengebom tempur P.1060 dan diusulkan sebagai pesawat serba guna. Program ini berlangsung hingga tahun 1941, ketika serangan malam oleh RAF menjadi masalah sehingga RLM meminta agar ia dirancang semula sebagai pejuang malam. Monoplane kantilever sayap bahu semua logam dengan landasan ekor yang mempunyai dihedral yang cukup besar dan berakhir dengan kemudi berkembar dan sirip menggabungkan sejumlah ciri baru. Juruterbang dan navigator yang duduk dari belakang ke belakang menikmati jarak pandang yang sangat baik dari kokpit yang diletakkan di hujung hadapan pesawat di hidung, di hadapan senjata itu sehingga kilatan mereka tidak menjejaskan penglihatan mereka. Krew juga dilengkapi dengan tempat duduk ejektor, He219 menjadi pesawat operasi pertama di dunia yang membawa peralatan tersebut dan itu juga merupakan pesawat pertama yang mempunyai roda pendaratan roda tiga (dengan roda hidung yang dapat dikendalikan) untuk mencapai status operasi dengan Luftwaffe.

Prototaip pertama diterbangkan pada 15 November 1942, dikuasakan oleh dua enjin Daimler-Benz DB 603A 1,750hp, dengan percubaan persenjataan menyusul di Peenemünde pada bulan Disember. Pesawat ini pada awalnya dipersenjatai dengan dua meriam 20mm MG151 dalam dulang ventral dan senapang mesin MG131 13mm (0.51in) yang bergerak di kokpit belakang. Pada bulan Februari 1943, pesawat itu dilengkapi dengan empat meriam MK108 30mm sebagai pengganti MG151s, tetapi ini menunjukkan kecenderungan untuk berpisah dengan pesawat ketika keempatnya ditembak. Sementara itu, prototaip kedua, diterbangkan pada bulan Disember 1942, membawa empat meriam MG151 dalam dulang ventral dan dua senjata serupa, satu di setiap akar sayap. Pada 8 Januari 1943, He219 V2 diterbangkan untuk bersaing dengan Ju188 tetapi ujian terbukti agak tidak meyakinkan sehingga mereka diikuti pada 25 Mac 1943 oleh percubaan yang lebih luas. Pesawat itu, diterbangkan oleh Major Werner Strieb, bersaing dengan Junkers Ju188S yang diterbangkan oleh Oberst Viktor von Lossberg dan Dornier 217, yang bersara awal. He219 V2 membebaskan dirinya dalam percubaan, sehingga pesanan 'off the drawing board' untuk 100 ditingkatkan menjadi 300. Prototaip tambahan dibina untuk dijalankan dalam program pembangunan, termasuk yang keempat yang dilengkapi dengan FuG220 Lichtenstein Radar SN-2, sementara pengeluaran bermula di Rostock, Vienna-Schwechat serta Mielec dan Buczin (kedua-duanya berada di Poland). Dari April 1943, sebilangan kecil pesawat praproduksi He219A-0 terbang dengan 1 / NJG1 di Venlo di Belanda dan pada malam 11/12 Jun 1943, Mejar Streib menembak lima lima Avro Lancasters secara tunggal. Enam operasi yang pertama mengakibatkan tuntutan kira-kira dua puluh pesawat Britain jatuh, termasuk enam nyamuk. Pada bulan Disember 1943, Milch mencadangkan agar seluruh program He219 dihentikan untuk memihak kepada Ju88G. Bantahan utama Milch adalah bahawa He219 akan mengganggu barisan pengeluaran pada masa kritikal dan bahawa prestasi Junkers sudah cukup untuk menyerang pengebom seperti Lancaster dan Halifax. Kelemahan utama dalam hujah ini adalah bahawa Inggeris telah mulai menggunakan Nyamuk untuk mengawal pengebom malam mereka dan Junkers tidak mampu memerangi pengebom pejuang Britain yang hebat ini. Dia pada awalnya mengemukakan tiga cadangan yang pertama, bahawa Heinkel harus meninggalkan He219 sama sekali memihak kepada Junkers Ju88G dan Dornier Do335; kedua bahawa pengeluaran He219 dikurangkan memihak kepada Ju88G; dan ketiga produksi He219 harus diteruskan seperti yang dirancang. Walaupun pilihan ketiga diikuti untuk sementara waktu, Milch akhirnya berhasil dan program ini dibatalkan pada bulan Mei 1944, walaupun pesawat itu sangat popular di kalangan kru udara dan darat. Sejumlah varian dihasilkan namun penghantaran dibuat ke beberapa unit, terutamanya 1 / NJG1 dan NJGr10. Pengebom pengintai He219A-1 ditinggalkan pada awal tahap pengembangan, jadi varian pertama yang melancarkan barisan pengeluaran adalah pejuang malam He219A-2 / R1, dilengkapi dengan dua meriam MK108 di dulang ventral dan dua meriam MG151 / 20 di akar sayap, sementara a Schräge Musik pemasangan dengan dua meriam MK108 dipasang di belakang kokpit menembak serong ke atas dan ke depan dipasang secara retrospektif.

Walau bagaimanapun, versi pengeluaran utama pertama adalah siri He219A-5, dengan A-5 / R1 serupa dengan A-2 / R1 kecuali pemasangan tangki bahan bakar lapan puluh enam Imp gal (390 liter) di belakang setiap nacelle menambah sekitar 400 batu (645km) ke jarak. Pelbagai sub-varian lain dihasilkan namun, termasuk mesin He219A-5 / R2 dengan mesin DB 603Aa 1.800hp dan He219A-5 / R4 yang mempunyai anggota kru ketiga dan kokpit melangkah dengan senapang MG131 13mm (0.51in) dalam pelekap yang boleh dilatih. Keperluan untuk mencari pembanding untuk nyamuk RAF menyebabkan pengembangan siri He219A-6, yang diperkenalkan pada awal tahun 1944. Ini pada dasarnya adalah versi He219A-2 / R1 yang dilucutkan yang dilengkapi dengan enjin 1,750hp DB 603L dan bersenjatakan empat meriam 20mm MG151 / 20, sebuah pesawat serupa tetapi satu yang hanya bersenjatakan dua meriam MG151 / 20 dibina dengan sebutan He219B-2. Versi pengeluaran akhir terdiri daripada siri A-7, yang memperkenalkan pengambilan supercharger yang lebih besar untuk enjin DB 603G tetapi sebaliknya serupa dengan siri A-5 dan semuanya menggunakan standard ketika itu Schräge Musik pemasangan. Sebagai tambahan, A-7 / R1 mempunyai dua meriam MK108 di akar sayap, bersama dengan dua meriam MG151 / 20 dan Mk103 di dulang ventral, sementara A-7 / R2 memiliki dua meriam MK108 dan bukannya MK103 di dulang ventral dan A-7 / R3 mempunyai meriam MG151 / 20 di akar sayap dan bukannya MK108s. A-7 / R4 membawa radar amaran ekor tetapi hanya empat meriam MG151 / 20. Enam pesawat He219A-7 / R5 dikuasakan oleh enjin Junkers Jumo 213E 1,900hp tetapi sebaliknya sama dengan He219A-7 / R3. Satu He219A-7 / R6 dihasilkan, dilengkapi dengan mesin 2,500hp Junkers Jumo 222A / B, seperti He219B-1 tiga kru tunggal yang menggunakan mesin kuasa yang sama tetapi menggunakan mesin DB 603Aa. Akhirnya, versi He319 dicadangkan sebagai pejuang malam pada dasarnya sama dengan He219 tetapi dengan sirip tunggal dan kemudi. Reka bentuknya ditinggalkan pada bulan November 1942 yang memihak kepada He419. He419A-0 pada dasarnya adalah He219A-5 yang dilengkapi dengan sayap baru dan enjin DB 603G yang diperbesar. Pesawat ini diikuti oleh enam pesawat He419B-1 / R1, yang mempunyai turbocharger yang digerakkan ekzos dan luas sayap yang meningkat sekitar 635sq.ft (59m.sq). Persenjataan standard adalah empat meriam MK108 dan dua MG151 / 20 sementara B-1 / R2 diproyeksikan memiliki empat senjata MG212 dan B-1 / R3 mempunyai empat meriam MK103.

Bibliografi

Gunston, Bill. Ensiklopedia Ilustrasi Pesawat Tempur Perang Dunia II, Salamander Books, London, 1978.
Kay, A L & Smith, J R. Pesawat Jerman Perang Dunia Kedua, Putnam Aeronautical Books, London, 2002.
Mondey, David. Panduan Ringkas Hamlyn untuk Pesawat Axis Perang Dunia II, Bounty Books, London, 2006.

Foto dan maklumat tambahan berdasarkan:
http://www.wingsontheweb.com/vhangar/he219/index.html
http://perso.orange.fr/christophe.arribat/f1-armyfighters.html
http://worldwartwo.free.fr/Materiel/avions/He%20219/he219.html
http://www.geocities.com/lastdingo/aviation/he219.htm


Heinkel He 219 - Sejarah

Sejarah Operasi

Siri pengeluaran utama pertama adalah He 219 A-0, walaupun pada awalnya siri pra-produksi, ia menjadi siri produksi yang berjalan lama, kerana banyak perubahan dimasukkan ke dalam reka bentuk, bersama dengan pembatalan beberapa varian yang dirancang. Masalah pengeluaran akibat pengeboman Bersekutu pada bulan Mac bermaksud A-0 tidak mencapai unit Luftwaffe sehingga Oktober 1943. A-0 biasanya dipersenjatai dengan dua meriam 20 mm MG 151/20 di akar sayap dan hingga empat 20 mm atau meriam 30 mm di ruang senjata ventral. Pesawat 10-15 pertama dihantar dengan radar 490 MHz UHF-band FuG 212 "Lichtenstein" C-1 dengan susunan antena Matratze elemen 4 × 8-dipol. 104 Dia 219 A-0 dibangun hingga musim panas 1944, kebanyakannya di EHW (Ernst Heinkel Wien) atau Heinkel-S & uumld di Wien-Schwechat.

Versi pertama yang dirancang untuk mencapai pengeluaran adalah model He 219 A-2, yang mempunyai nacelles enjin lebih lama yang mengandungi tangki bahan bakar tambahan, enjin 1670 PS DB 603AA yang disatukan dengan ketinggian kritikal yang lebih tinggi dan sering juga dua meriam MK 108 30 mm (1.18 in), sebagai sistem penembakan ke atas Schr & aumlge Musik yang benar-benar terkandung di dalam badan belakang, dengan moncong meriam bahkan dengan permukaan badan punggung. Dengan Schr & aumlge Musik, teluk senjata ventral menahan dua meriam kerana keterbatasan ruang. A-2 menampilkan sistem radar, Telefunken FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2, 90 MHz VHF-band yang diperbaharui, lengkap dengan elemen Hirschgeweih yang lebih besar, elemen drag 4 × 2-dipole yang lebih besar. Pada mulanya ia mempunyai jangkauan minimum yang lebih panjang daripada radar C-1, tetapi meningkatkan ketepatan dan resolusi dan juga kurang rentan terhadap gangguan chaff, hingga akhir musim panas 1944. Sebanyak 85 He 219 A-2 dibangun hingga November 1944 , paling banyak di EHR (Ernst Heinkel Rostock) atau Heinkel-Nord di Rostock-Marienehe (sekarang Rostock-Schmarl).

He 219 adalah pesawat tempur yang berkebolehan dan juruterbang bebas memburu pengebom Sekutu yang dikesan. Kawalan darat menghantar pesawat ke kawasan yang tepat, di mana juruterbang mengambil alih dan memandu diri mereka ke arah pengebom dengan maklumat radar Lichtenstein VHF. Jarak pengesanan maksimum radar SN-2 sejauh 4 km (3 mi) lebih besar daripada jarak antara pengebom. Walaupun prestasi A-2 tidak luar biasa - kira-kira 580 km / jam (360 mph) kelajuan - itu cukup maju berbanding Messerschmitt Bf 110Gs dan Dornier Do 217Ns, untuk kru mengejar beberapa pengebom dalam satu jenis .

Untuk meningkatkan kemampuannya untuk mencegat nyamuk, He 219 telah menghilangkan berat badan berlebihan. Dengan beberapa senjata dan sistem radio dikeluarkan, pesawat mampu mencapai kecepatan 650 km / jam (400 mph). Versi ini diberi sebutan A-6. Tidak ada yang dihasilkan, tetapi langkah penjimatan berat yang serupa dapat dilakukan di tingkat unit.

Versi pengeluaran utama terakhir adalah A-7 dengan enjin DB 603E yang disatukan. A-7 biasanya mempunyai dua meriam 20 mm MG 151/20 di akar sayap (di dalam busur baling-baling), dua 20 mm MG 151/20 di ruang senjata ventral dan dua MK 108s 30 mm (1.18 inci) sebagai belakang - pelekap dorsal fusel, tembakan menyerang Schr & aumlge Musik. Pengeluaran 210 pesawat akan dimulakan pada bulan November / Disember 1944, tetapi jumlah yang dihasilkan tidak diketahui kerana dokumen asal telah hilang atau tidak mengandung nomor sub-versi.


Varian

He 219 A-0 pada mulanya digunakan untuk pesawat pra-pengeluaran tetapi ia menjadi versi pengeluaran utama pertama dengan mesin 1,750 & # 160PS DB & # 160603A. 104 Dia 219 A-0 dibangun pada 30 November 1944. Dia 219 A-1 adalah pesawat pengebom pengintai yang dicadangkan, namun pembinaannya ditinggalkan. He 219 A-2 serupa dengan He 219 A-0 tetapi dengan nacelles enjin yang diperluas dengan tangki bahan bakar tambahan dan 1,670 & # 160PS DB & # 160603AA enjin. 85 He 219 A-2 dibangun pada 30 November 1944. Dia 219 A-5 adalah pejuang malam tiga tempat duduk yang dirancang, namun hanya beberapa prototaip yang diketahui dibangun dari pesawat udara A-2. Dia 219 A-6 adalah pemburu nyamuk de Havilland terancang. Ia adalah versi He 219 A-2 yang dilucutkan, yang dipersenjatai dengan empat 20 & # 160mm MG 151 / 20s. Dia 219 A-7 adalah versi tempur malam yang diperbaiki, yang dikuasakan oleh dua mesin 1.800 & # 160PS DB & # 160603E. 210 He 219 A-7 dipesan pada 30 November 1944. Dia 219 D-1 adalah terutamanya kerangka udara He 219 A-7 yang disesuaikan untuk mesin Jumo 213E. Hanya lima He 219 D-1 yang diketahui dihantar pada tahun 1945.


Nota Lamunan

NJG 1 segera menemui perkara lain yang disukai mengenai Burung Hantu. Dengan mesin diimbangi dari badan pesawat, Burung Hantu itu benar-benar tiga tiub besar dengan sayap dan ekor. Tiub besar telah dilengkapi dengan banyak bagian yang dapat ditanggalkan dan palang akses, yang anehnya untuk senjata berteknologi tinggi, membuat pemeliharaan menjadi cepat. Walaupun Velno adalah satu-satunya tempat yang dapat melayani pejuang baru dengan betul, (sebenarnya, Burung Hantu yang cedera sering mengambil risiko terbang kembali ke Velno daripada mendarat di lapangan terbang yang lebih dekat dengan alasan itu) ia bukan babi pemeliharaan. Dan tentu saja, ketahanan dan tempat pelepasan bermaksud burung hantu itu juga menjaga anak buahnya dengan lebih baik. Masalah gigi tentu saja masih harus diselesaikan. Contohnya, cermin depan mengalami masalah kabut hingga tahun 1944. Namun, pandangan di hujung perkara adalah & # 8220 kita memerlukan skuadron perkara ini, sekarang & # 8221. Tindak balas Milch terhadap pertempuran pertama Burung Hantu itu, ah, tipikal: & # 8220He 219 itu bagus, ia menembak lima dalam satu misi. Kami tidak boleh meminta lebih daripada itu. Tetapi mungkin Streib akan memperoleh kejayaan yang sama dengan mesin lain. & # 8221


Foto RAF semasa serangan di Hamburg.
Ketika bulan Jun berubah menjadi bulan Julai, serangan di lembah perindustrian Ruhr menyebabkan Hitler membalikkan perintahnya yang sebelumnya, dan lebih banyak sumber mula mengalir ke arah pertahanan pengebom. Ini terbukti terlalu sedikit, terlambat. Bermula pada 24/25 Julai, RAF / RCAF / RAAF dan USAAF memulakan serangan kebakaran sepanjang minggu mereka di Hamburg. Kemusnahan ke bandar kedua terbesar di Jerman sangat besar. 42,000 orang awam terbunuh, kerugian yang hampir sama yang akan dialami Britain akibat serangan udara sepanjang perang. 61% dari semua perumahan musnah, dan separuh kilang besar terbakar, bersama dengan hampir separuh daripada yang lebih kecil. Ini segera diikuti oleh serangan Schweinfurt & # 8211Regensburg oleh USAAF. Sementara Luftwaffe pada siang hari menyerang para pengebom menyerang, menimbulkan kerugian yang tidak berkelanjutan, USAAF sangat mengganggu produksi bantalan bola di Schweinfurt, dan meratakan kilang Messerschmidt yang besar di Regensburg.
Tembakan udara Hamburg selepas ribut ribut.

Malapetaka berganda ini menyebabkan kepemimpinan RLM bergabung bersama sekali: jelas bahawa keutamaan pengeluaran pesawat harus menjadi pejuang pertahanan, siang dan malam. Perubahan strategi yang sangat diperlukan ini berlangsung sehingga Goering membawa arah baru ini kepada Hitler. Goering kembali menangis, mengatakan bahawa Hitler telah 1) kehilangan kepercayaan kepadanya 2) menolak semua tindakan pertahanan dan 3) mengatakan bahawa satu-satunya cara untuk Luftwaffe menebus dirinya adalah dengan memulakan kempen pengeboman menyerang Britain dengan segera, untuk mewujudkan pembalasan yang mengganas sehingga serangan seperti Hamburg akan dilihat sebagai terlalu berisiko. Ini memberi kesan negatif pada program He 219, kerana ia membuat sumber daya ke Heinkel's 177 semuanya tetapi tidak dapat dilarang sebarang kelewatan dari program itu harus keluar dari projek Heinkel lain.

Beberapa perkara yang perlu diperhatikan mengenai tawaran ini: Ju 88G masih dalam peringkat eksperimen, dan tidak ada prototaip Do 335 yang telah diterbangkan menjelang Disember 1943. Sementara itu, Burung Hantu tidak hanya memasuki produksi siri, tetapi juga diminta oleh skuadron yang menerbangkan mereka. Heinkel, secara semula jadi, mengambil pilihan ketiga & # 8211 walaupun kadar pengeluaran 100 per bulan ternyata sangat optimis.

Tembakan He 219 yang bagus dengan tanda penglihatan yang rendah. Nampaknya pekerjaan cat di permukaan atas bertentangan dengan Burung Hantu di Udvar-Hazy: lapisan kelabu-ungu dengan garis-garis kelabu muda.

Udvar-Hazesque He 219. Sumber tidak setuju jika bahagian bawah gelap adalah standard penyamaran atau sesuatu yang baru ditambahkan pada tahun 1945, ketika He 219 digunakan sebagai pesawat serangan darat malam.

Walaupun keadaannya suram bagi German Night Fighters, keadaan itu belum putus asa. Pada tahun 1943, Luftwaffe mempertahankan keunggulan udara siang hari di atas Reich, dan memperoleh kemenangan besar pada waktu malam. Berani setelah kemenangan mereka di Hamburg, komando pengebom RAF telah mengebom Berlin secara sistematik, secara harfiah dalam usaha untuk memaksa Jerman menyerah melalui serangan udara. (USAAF tidak dapat berpartisipasi, kerana serangan Schweinfurt telah merosakkan jumlah mereka dengan teruk, dan masa diperlukan untuk membina semula mereka.) The NJG & # 8211 menggunakan Bf 110Gs dan Ju 88s, & # 8211 telah berjaya menimbulkan kerugian yang melumpuhkan penyerang. Pertempuran udara di Berlin mengorbankan 1047 pengebom komando Bomber Command, dan hampir 7,000 orang. Kerugian ini sedemikian rupa sehingga RAF terpaksa menghentikan pengeboman kawasan malam untuk sementara waktu. Walaupun demikian, RAF mengekalkan kelebihan yang cukup besar dalam peperangan elektronik. Pejuang malam mendapat radar baru untuk mengimbangi: SN-2, yang memiliki jarak 10 KM, dan tahan terhadap kemacetan RAF. Hampir semua He 219 dilengkapi dengan set radar baru ini.

Pada alas penyebaran, dengan orang yang ditembak memberi anda idea tentang seberapa besar dan tinggi He 219 itu. The Owl hadir dengan tangga terintegrasi untuk kru, sangat mirip dengan tangga kru bersepadu A-10 jika anda pernah melihatnya. Panel segi empat tepat yang anda lihat terbuka adalah palka penyelenggaraan.
Dia 219 di bawah bumbung kayu camoflauge.

April juga menyaksikan serangan selanjutnya untuk mengebom kilang Heinkel di Vienna. Walaupun He 219 masih merupakan pertemuan langka bagi Sekutu, mereka sejauh ini menganggapnya sebagai pejuang malam paling berbahaya. Terima kasih kepada sebilangan pekerja Heinkel yang terdiri daripada jenis 'wajib militer' yang tidak dibayar, mudah bagi perisik Sekutu untuk mengawasi produksi He 219. Terbang dari Itali, USAAF telah melakukan tiga percubaan untuk menyerang kilang pejuang malam Heinkel di Vienna. Serangan pertama pesawat B-24 meleset ke kilang, memukul pinggir bandar berdekatan. Serbuan kedua menemui sasaran yang mendung. Percubaan ketiga pada 23 April menyerang mata lembu. 956 pengebom USAAF menjatuhkan 292 tan bom di kilang Heidfeld, memusnahkannya dan membunuh 94 pekerja. Heinkel terpaksa mengalihkan produksi di pabriknya, yang pertama dari beberapa kali kapasiti baru yang akan pergi ke He 219 pengeluaran habis digunakan oleh kilang Heinkel lain yang diledakkan. Beberapa hari kemudian kilang Heinkel yang lain di Vienna di Zwolfaxing turut terkena.

Carta Period USAAF ini menerangkan perkara dengan baik.

Satu lagi gambar serangan malam Lancaster.
Serbuan ini merupakan kemunduran besar bagi program He 219. Kepemimpinan Nazi telah sampai pada pertimbangan Kammhuber pada tahun 1944, dan menjadikan produksi pesawat pejuang sebagai keutamaan pesawat. Kebanyakan program bukan pejuang, termasuk He 177 dan Ju 290 yang sangat diperlukan, dihentikan pada ketika ini. Namun, harus membina semula kilang pada pertengahan tahun 1944 dijamin bahawa produksi He 219 tidak akan mencapai bahkan 50 pejuang sebulan. Kerana serangan ini, Heinkel terpaksa merancang semula komponen He 219 tertentu sehingga dapat dibuat dari kayu. Pembangun Glider Hutter disubkontrak kerana mereka mempunyai banyak pengalaman dalam pembuatan komponen pesawat kayu. Ketika permintaan datang untuk revisi He 219 untuk berfungsi sebagai pencegat ketinggian tinggi untuk melawan B-29, Heinkel yang terlalu banyak mengusahakan ini untuk Hutter. Di sinilah Hu 211 berasal.

Ini tidak bermaksud bahawa kejayaan tidak dijaringkan. Dari saat pengenalan hingga yang pertama pada November 1944, dia menembak jatuh 133 pesawat musuh, hampir semua pengebom berat ini. Lapan daripada jumlah ini disahkan membunuh nyamuk. Persembahan yang mengagumkan, terutama dalam konteks perpecahan Luftwaffe. Pada bulan November, satu kru He 219 memperoleh 6 kemenangan dan satu lagi kemungkinan membunuh hanya dalam 12 minit. Malam berikutnya, kru ditembak oleh NAF Nyamuk, dengan hanya operator radio yang masih hidup. Ini mungkin kisah karier tempur He 219 secara ringkas: kerangka udara yang baik mencatat beberapa kemenangan yang luar biasa tetapi jumlahnya terlalu buruk untuk mempengaruhi perubahan sebenar dalam gelombang perang.

Dia berusia 219 dalam keadaan tidak aktif pada akhir perang.
Pejuang Ju 88 dan Bf 110 malam menunggu pembuangan di Denmark selepas perang.

NJG masih beroperasi pada tahun 1945. Contohnya, dalam serangan di Duselberg pada bulan Februari 1945, para pembela Reich berjaya menuntut 62 kemenangan atas kekuatan menyerang 450. Sebenarnya, awal tahun 1945 menyaksikan jumlah pejuang malam Luftwaffe memuncak di lebih daripada 1000 mesin. Malangnya, kebanyakan kru yang mahir sekarang mati, dan penghambatan pengeluaran minyak Axis meninggalkan sedikit bahan bakar untuk menerbangkannya. Kesudahannya sekarang tidak lagi diragukan. Pada 25 Mac, pangkalan operasi NJG 1 dibelasah oleh B-17 dan B-24 dari USAAF, dan pada keesokan harinya sisa-sisa pangkalan itu diikat selama sekitar 8 jam. Penyelamat NJG 1 berpindah ke Pulau Sylt, sebuah Pulau Jerman di Laut Utara. Menjelang April, seluruh skuadron (yang secara nominal memiliki empat bahagian) telah dikurangkan menjadi kekuatan satu sayap. Dia berusia 219 tahun adalah burung pelik dalam unit yang terbang dengan pesawat Bf 110 Gs dan Ju 88. Enam terakhir He 219 yang dibina dibuat di & # 8220forest factory & # 8221 (IE a forest) dari alat ganti, dua dengan loji kuasa biasa, dan empat dengan mesin Jumo 213E. Tidak jelas apakah ia digunakan secara operasi. Burung hantu terakhir yang ditembak mempunyai loji janakuasa yang lebih eksotik: enjin jet di bawah badan pesawat. Pada awal pagi 15 April 1945, seorang nyamuk mk. XXX mengesan pesawat pada jarak 7000 meter. Menyelam dan menyerang, ia membakar burung hantu yang luar biasa ini. Ia nampaknya merupakan prototaip Heinkel yang telah digunakan. Enjin Jet memberi He 219 dorongan besar dalam pendakian dan percepatan & # 8211 tetapi tidak melakukan apa-apa untuk meningkatkan kelajuan tertinggi Burung Hantu, dan merupakan hambatan yang ketara ketika tidak menyala.

Ia kelihatan bagus, tetapi masih tidak dapat melakukan apa yang dapat dilakukan oleh Mossies yang dilengkapi Packard dan Merlin.

Dia 219 sedang dihapuskan. Penyamaran titik biasa.
Burung Hantu mati di pangkalan Munster.
Kerana semua yang lain hancur, begitu juga RLM. Kerana ketuanan udara Sekutu, kilang untuk He 162 dibina di lombong garam yang tidak digunakan. Pada bulan-bulan terakhir Perang, rasa jijik Hitler terhadap kegagalan Luftwaffe begitu lengkap sehingga ketika dia memerlukan nasihat udara, dia mencarinya dari juruterbang peribadinya. Goering akan mengakhiri perang dengan ditangkap, dan kemungkinan besar dituduh melakukan pengkhianatan. Milk selepas bunuh diri Hitler dan kejatuhan Berlin cuba melarikan diri dari Jerman, tetapi pada 4 Mei 1945 ditangkap oleh Komando Britain berhampiran pantai Baltik. Ketika Milch menyerah, dia menghadiahkan tongkat Field Marshallnya kepada petugas yang memerintah, Brigadier Derek Mills-Roberts. Brigider baru-baru ini terlibat dalam pembebasan kem konsentrasi Bergen-Belsen, dan mengembalikan kehormatan dengan memecahkan tongkat di atas kepala Milch.

Adapun Burung Hantu itu sendiri: pada akhir perang, sekitar 54 tahun 219-an ditangkap dalam keadaan terbang. Tidak ada banyak minat pada pejuang malam Heinkel, agak dimengerti, kerana itu adalah burung yang cukup jelas dalam pengurusan projek penerbangan perang Nazi. Dengan pejuang jet, pengebom jet, dan semacam sayap terbang jet pejuang, sukar untuk bersemangat dengan pejuang malam prop kembar. Penerbangan Soviets menguji dua pesawat 219 He, dan setelah memberikannya kepada Czechoslovikia, yang menggunakannya sebagai tempat uji mesin jet pada tahun 1950-an. Penerbangan Britain juga menguji lima Uhus sebelum membatalkannya.


Penggunaan dalam pertempuran

Taktik di bawah ini, boleh digunakan dalam semua mod permainan:

Naik ke ketinggian tinggi, pastikan pesawat musuh berada di bawah anda, turun dan tetap di belakang mereka. Oleh kerana kebanyakan meriam anda dipasang di badan pesawat, anda tidak perlu mengatur penumpuan. Walau bagaimanapun, anda masih perlu menetapkannya, kerana dua meriam Mk 108 30 mm anda dipasang di sayap, tetapkannya sejauh 600 meter. Oleh kerana ini akan membolehkan mereka membantu meriam pesawat utama untuk menyebabkan kerosakan kritikal dan / atau memusnahkan pesawat musuh.

Pengebom
Sebaik sahaja anda mengesan pengebom musuh, lakukan keturunan yang tidak rasional dan cepat namun jangan kehilangan tenaga dan kepantasan anda dalam prosesnya. Sebaik sahaja anda mendekat, tembak letupan pendek untuk membuat sudut serangan anda betul. Ketika anda mulai menutup sasaran anda, penembak sasaran anda mungkin mula melepaskan tembakan. Kerangka udara He-219 yang lasak dapat menahan hentakan.

Ini tidak bermaksud anda hanya harus tinggal di pengebom pukul enam semasa serangan, hanya tinggal pada pukul enam akan mengakibatkan kematian anda pada waktunya. Anda perlu terus bergerak tidak menentu dan tidak dapat diramalkan, sekiranya penembak di pesawat sasaran belum dinetralkan.

Gunakan WEP dan letakkan letupan dua hingga tiga saat ini akan menurunkan pengebom. Setelah pengebom jatuh, naik dan cari mangsa seterusnya. Untuk pengebom yang lebih sukar seperti B-25 Mitchell, anda perlu melepaskan tembakan yang lebih lama jika bertujuan untuk pesawat, jaraknya sekitar lima saat. Walau bagaimanapun, anda selalu boleh mengarahkan mesin dan sayap dan menembakkan bust yang lebih pendek sekitar dua saat, ini akan menyebabkan kerosakan besar pada mesin, spar sayap, flap dan aileron, yang sering menyebabkan pesawat sasaran tertangkap dan / atau hilang kawalan dan kemalangan yang akan memberi anda pembunuhan.

Pejuang, pemintas & apa sahaja yang bukan pengebom.
Selagi anda tetap di ekornya dan tidak dapat dikesan, pesawat pejuang akan mudah dibunuh.

Tetap di belakangnya dan jangan biarkan ia melarikan diri. Jangan kehilangan tenaga anda: jangan berpusing, ini adalah bagaimana anda akan kehilangan tenaga yang anda perlukan untuk melepaskan diri. Tembak di atas atau di bawah arah yang akan dilaluinya segera setelah ia mulai membelok, melepaskan dan menggunakan WEP untuk menjauh dari pesawat musuh itu.

Anda harus benar-benar berhati-hati dengan pesawat berikut, ini dapat mengatasi dan menghilangkan anda dari pertempuran: P-61 Black Widow, Yak 9UT termasuk semua Yak's, P-51 Mustang, termasuk semua pejuang Amerika dan British Spitfires.

Cara melakukan pertempuran pertahanan:
Ketika anda dilawan oleh pejuang musuh, pastikan anda mendorong mesin ke WEP dan mendorong pesawat ke dalam penyelaman yang sangat curam sekitar 70 darjah. Anda akan mencapai sekitar 470 mph dalam penyelaman ini, jangan melakukan pergerakan tajam ini akan mengakibatkan anda menyebabkan kerosakan struktur dan sering akan merobek sayap anda. Untuk keluar dari kelajuan ini, lakukan peningkatan kecil pada sudut serangan menyelam, anda dapat menjaga kecepatan dan tenaga yang diperoleh dari penyelaman mengelak ini, kemudian mulailah pendakian anda kembali ke ketinggian.

Menumbuk tanah
Sejak awal permainan, turun ke ketinggian yang sangat rendah, mungkin memilih jarak jauh dari jalan penerbangan yang diharapkan dari mana-mana pejuang musuh. Cuba biarkan mereka melepasi dan libatkan para pejuang dalam pasukan anda sebelum melibatkan salah satu sasaran darat.

Tangki sederhana dapat dibunuh dengan mudah dengan tali pinggang Mk 103s "Armored Targets", bertujuan untuk sisi tangki, atau belakang tangki.

Cubalah yang terbaik untuk tidak melampaui batas, kerana ciri penerbangan He 219 tidak memaafkan jika anda turun terlalu rendah.

Setelah membunuh sasaran dari sisi, terbang sedikit sebelum berpusing untuk melibatkan semula sasaran lain, kerana anda mahukan peluang terbaik untuk menyerang tangki dengan satu tembakan Mk 103s, yang boleh membunuh tangki dengan mudah.

AAA dan Artileri boleh dibiarkan begitu sahaja, atau dibunuh dengan mudah dengan Mk 108s atau MG 151s, kerana anda mungkin mahu menyimpan Mk 103s untuk sasaran yang lebih berat.

Radar

He 219 A-7 dilengkapi dengan radar carian FuG 202, yang terletak di hidung pesawat kotak kawalan yang merupakan sebahagian daripada model kerosakan radar yang terletak di bahagian belakang kokpit.

FuG 202 - Radar Pengesanan Sasaran
Maksimum
Pengesanan
Julat
Dijamin
Pengesanan
Julat
Max Azimuth
Sudut Imbas
Ketinggian Maksimum
Sudut Imbas
4.000 m 4.000 m ±30° ±30°

Kawalan Enjin Manual

Elemen MEC
Pengadun Pitch Radiator Pengecas super Pengecas turbo
Minyak Air Jenis
Tidak terkawal Boleh dikawal
Kawalan automatik tersedia
Boleh dikawal
Kawalan automatik tersedia
Boleh dikawal
Kawalan automatik tersedia
Asingkan Tidak terkawal
1 gear
Tidak terkawal

Kebaikan dan keburukan

  • Persenjataan
    • Senjata api yang sangat kuat, dengan statistik massa pecah satu saat tertinggi dalam permainan.
    • Berkembar 30 mm MK 108 meriam pada Rating Pertarungan yang sangat rendah.
    • Meriam berkembar MK 103 berkembar 30 mm seperti batu bata ke mana-mana sasaran tanah
    • Cemerlang dalam memburu pengebom.
    • HVAP-T (MK 103) Mempunyai penembusan yang sangat baik hingga 95 mm, memungkinkan untuk menghancurkan tangki sederhana dan berat (dengan tujuan tepat).
    • Kadar pendakian yang pantas apabila digunakan dengan WEP.
    • Kerangka udara yang keras dan kukuh.
    • Gear pendaratan kuat, boleh melakukan pendaratan yang cepat.
    • Dapat mengawal dengan satu mesin dan menjaga keturunan yang terkawal dengan baik.
    • Dapat memadamkan kebakaran tangki bahan bakar sayap dalam selaman asalkan didorong ke belakang.
    • Mesin disejukkan dengan cepat dengan pendikit yang tinggi.
    • Enjin tidak terlalu panas pada suhu pendikit 90% atau lebih rendah.
    • Mempunyai akses ke radar
    • Persenjataan
      • Meriam MK108 30 mm mempunyai halaju rendah.
      • Tidak ada persenjataan pertahanan.
      • Tidak ada pilihan persenjataan tambahan.
      • Sukar untuk mengelakkan musuh jika mereka berada di belakang anda.
      • Boleh mula terlalu panas dengan cepat semasa menggunakan WEP.
      • Kelajuan tertinggi bawah 388 mph (624 km / j).
      • Prestasi kadar pendakian biasa-biasa sahaja tanpa WEP.
      • Boleh berhenti dengan mudah, jika anda meletakkannya dalam pendakian yang curam.
      • Memerlukan jarak jauh di landasan untuk mendarat dengan selamat.
      • Menjadi besar dan berat untuk pertempuran anjing tanpa mengalami kerosakan kritikal.
      • Tidak dapat memadamkan api fuselage, jika tangki bahan bakar pesawat telah dinyalakan.
      • Sukar dikawal pada kelajuan rendah dan sudut curam.
      • Tidak boleh bergerak seperti beberapa pemintas enjin berkembar yang lain.
      • Bergiliran melebihi 85-90 darjah pada gilirannya, akan menyebabkan pesawat terbalik, ini sangat sukar untuk dipulihkan jika berada pada ketinggian rendah.
      • Tidak mungkin mendarat tanpa alat pendaratan kerana bahagian ekor akan terlepas.
      • Perbezaan prestasi balistik yang besar antara meriam MG 151 20 mm, MK 103 30 mm, dan MK 108 30 mm, menjadikan mustahil bagi kebanyakan senario untuk menggabungkan kekuatan penuh dari ketiga-tiganya.

      Heinkel He 219 A-2 / R4 Uhu (Burung Helang)

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      Heinkel He 219 A-2 / R4 Uhu (Burung Helang)

      Aplikasi Enjin: Daimler Benz DB 603 A

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      Heinkel He 219 A-2 / R4 Uhu (Burung Helang)

      Aplikasi Enjin: Daimler Benz DB 603 A

      Usage Conditions Apply

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      Heinkel He 219 A-2/R4 Uhu (Eagle Owl)

      Engine Application: Daimler Benz DB 603 A

      Heinkel He 219 A Uhu at the Udvar-Hazy Center

      He 219 Wing

      Existing camouflage paint helped Museum specialists recreate the wave pattern elsewhere on the night fighter during its restoration.

      Replicating the He 219 Patterns

      Specialists compare the original He 219 pattern with a replicated section.

      Applying He 219 Pattern

      Museum specialist Dave Wilson applies the wave pattern of the Heinkel He 219 as part of the aircraft's restoration.

      He 219 Balkenkreuz

      A closer look at the lower wing starboard Balkenkreuz of the Heinkel He 219 with its shape laid out with special masking tape.

      Finished He 219 Wing

      The finished He 219 wing, with the rearward half of the Balkenkreuz left untouched.

      He 219 Painting

      Curator Evelyn Crellin and Museum specialist Dave Wilson discuss paint finish and upper starboard wing Balkenkreuz on the He 219.

      Status Paparan:

      This object is on display in the Boeing Aviation Hangar at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA.

      The He 219 has been described as the best night fighter operated in World War II by the German Air Force, the Luftwaffe. It may have been the best night fighter of the war. Only the American Northrop P-61 "Black Widow" shares the He 219's unique status of being designed for night operation. The He 219 was fast, maneuverable, and carried devastating firepower. It was the only piston-engined Luftwaffe night fighter which could meet the fast British De Havilland "Mosquito" on equal terms. Advanced features included cannons mounted to fire at an oblique angle, the first steerable nosewheel on an operational German aircraft, and the world's first ejection seats on an operational aircraft.

      The He 219 has been described as the best night fighter operated in World War II by the German Air Force, the Luftwaffe. It may have been the best night fighter of the war. Only the American Northrop P-61 "Black Widow" shares the He 219's unique status of being designed for night operation. The He 219 was fast, maneuverable, and carried devastating firepower. It was the only piston-engined Luftwaffe night fighter which could meet the fast British De Havilland "Mosquito" on equal terms. Advanced features included cannons mounted to fire at an oblique angle, the first steerable nosewheel on an operational German aircraft, and the world's first ejection seats on an operational aircraft.

      The He 219 was conceived by Ernst Heinkel in the summer of 1940 as Project P.1060, a private-venture multirole fighter. The design was rejected as too radical by the German Aviation Ministry (RLM), where Heinkel had many enemies. By late 1941, night bombing by the British Royal Air Force (RAF) had reached such serious proportions that the existing Junkers Ju 88 and Messerschmitt Bf 110 night fighters were unable to counter it. At the urging of Maj. Gen. Josef Kammhuber, commander of night fighters, the RLM asked Heinkel to redesign the P.1060 as a radar-equipped night fighter. The Germans first used aerial intercept radar successfully against a British night bomber in early 1942. The clumsy radar antennas, which looked like an array of toasting forks, slowed the Ju 88 night fighter by some 40 kph (25 mph). More speed was needed.

      The faster He 219 V1 prototype flew on November 15, 1942, only 11 months after the design request. Following a competition with the Ju 88 S night fighter in early 1943, the Luftwaffe ordered 300 He 219s. Production was delayed when RAF raids on Heinkel's Rostock and Vienna-Schwechat factories destroyed nearly all of the drawings in March and April 1943.

      A small batch of preproduction He 219 A-0s was nevertheless delivered to 1st Squadron, 1st Night Fighter Group (I/NJG-1) at Venlo, The Netherlands, in April 1943. In the first operational mission, on the night of June 11/12, 1943, one of these preproduction aircraft, flown by Major Werner Streib and his radio operator, downed five British bombers, four Halifax and one Lancaster. The He 219 was fitted with the combat-tested Telefunken FuG-212 ("FuG" for "Funkgerät" or "radio equipment") "Lichenstein" C-1 intercept radar, first used operationally in early 1942. The radar's range was limited to 4-6 km (3-4 mi), and its coverage was only a 70-degree cone facing forward, so the aircraft worked best in an integrated air defense system with ground radars, radio networks, and ground observers pointing out potential targets.

      The He 219 was universally popular with its flight and ground crews and was considered a "first-class" aircraft by its British foes. Later versions, like the A-2/R1 in August 1943 (the "R" indicating "Rüstsatz", or "field conversion"), had a "Schräge Musik" (Jazz Music) gun installation, with two MK-108 cannon firing obliquely upward from behind the cockpit. This 30 mm cannon was so powerful that three of its explosive rounds were enough to bring down a heavy bomber like the British Lancaster. The oblique installation allowed attacks to be made on bombers from their vulnerable undersides while avoiding defensive gunfire. "Schräge Musik" proved so effective that it became the preferred armament of the night fighter aces.

      German night fighters commonly intercepted British bombers by homing in on emissions resulting from security lapses: for instance, identification-friend-or-foe transmitters left on, or navigation and bombing radars radiating continuously. To counter Germany's effective, coordinated use of aerborne and surface radars, Britain began using air-dropped metallized chaff (codenamed "Window"). This blinded both ground radars and the first-generation "Lichtenstein" C-1 aerial radar.

      Eleven He 219s were built in 1943 and 195 in 1944 at plants in Vienna-Schwechat and Rostock-Marienehe. In the Schwechat plant, some 2,000 prisoners from the Mauthausen concentration camp were employed at the assembly lines. The A-5, the first major He 219 production version, was delayed until March 1944 by various problems. The improved, longer-wavelength Telefunken FuG-220 "Lichtenstein" SN-2 radar was fitted, which was not blinded by chaff. Equipped with a different but still clumsy antenna array, called "Hirschgeweih" or "antlers", this radar provided detection out to 4000 m (3.1 mi). Nevertheless, mid-air collisions with targets at night were still commonplace.

      RAF bomber losses on night operations in 1943 had been 3.6 percent, despite the use of chaff and other early electronic warfare techniques like active jamming. By March 1944, losses on some raids were as high as 12 percent -- higher than the U.S. Army Air Force's average 11 percent losses in day bombing during the period. On the night of March 30, 1944, for example, German night fighters brought down 94 British bombers involved in a raid on Nurnberg.

      For anti-Mosquito operations, the He 219 A was stripped down as the A-6 version, attaining 650 kph (404 mph). The He 219 A-7, the next major production version, carried a powerful armament of eight cannon - two 30 mm Rheinmetall MK-108s in the wing roots, two 30 mm Rheinmetall MK-103s and two 20 mm Mauser MK-151/20s in a ventral tray, and two MK-108s in a "Schräge Musik" installation. The A-7/R6, with Junkers Jumo 222A/B engines (2500 hp), was the fastest of the type, attaining 700 kph (435 mph). Despite the aircraft's successes, Erhard Milch, another Heinkel opponent who was chief of aircraft procurement and supply, persuaded the RLM in May 1944 to cancel the whole program. He favored standardization on the multipurpose Junkers Ju 388 and the Focke-Wulf Ta 154 night fighter, which he thought were easier to manufacture but which in fact never saw combat.

      Nevertheless, Heinkel continued to produce small numbers of the He 219 at Vienna-Schwechat. Fifty-four were built in 1945 and, in all, 294 were constructed and 268 eventually put in service. On November 2/3, 1944, one He 219 downed six bombers in 12 minutes, but attrition of the nightfighter force was increasing. On January 10, 1945, 1st Squadron of Night Fighter Group 1 had 64 He 219s on strength, but only 45 were serviceable. The situation was so bad the He 219 service manuals even included a special volume on how to salvage crashed airplanes. Because of the Luftwaffe's desperate need for the night fighters, and because the He 219 was easy to assemble, six additional aircraft were actually built in the field from spare parts and used operationally without being officially registered. Two of the He 219s, captured by the Russians, were flown in 1946 by Czechoslovakia under the designation LB-79.


      Heinkel He 219 UHU

      Many features of the He 219 were at the outer edge of technology. It was the Luftwaffe's first operational aircraft with tricycle landing gear - criticised by some staff officers as 'this unneccessary American innovation.' It was also one of the first warplanes to be equipped with ejection seats, and the first to use them in combat.

      Derived from Heinkel's P.1060 fighter bomber propasal, which attracted only lukewarm support in Berlin, the all metal shoulder wing He 219 seated its pilot and navigator back to back. It was a practical, sensible design and performed well but bitter opposition led by Generalfeldmarschall Erhard Milch who favoured the Junkers Ju 188, delayed production.

      As a result of squabbling, the He 219 was late reaching service. But this fighter showed its cabilities on 11/12 June 1943 when a mission led by Major Werner Streib shot down five RAF Lancasters. The He 219 had some limited success in combat, but built in larger numbers it might have had a dramatic impact on the war.

      It could have been the best combat aircraft of World War II, but the Heinkel He 219 Uhu suffered from misjudgements by the German high command which never used it to its best effect. Conceived as a multi-purpose warplane, it saw service only as a heavily armed night-fighter. It was one of the few Luftwaffe aircraft which stood any chance of intercepting the fast flying British Mosquito.


      Heinkel He 219 Uhu (Eagle-Owl)

      Authored By: Dan Alex | Last Edited: 05/19/2018 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

      The advanced Heinkel He 219 "Uhu" (meaning "Eagle-Owl") was an impressive dedicated night-fighter platform serving the interests of the Third Reich - albeit in limited numbers - during World War 2. Though a capable aircraft and proven in combat, many factors worked against this fine machine, keeping the He 219 from achieving any level of quantitative usefulness. Less than 300 of the type were ever produced and these appeared in a few varied forms. During her recorded actions, the He 219 revealed an impressive ability to obliterate enemy bombers at night but was ultimately done in by her technical complexity and - like other promising Luftwaffe implements - internal dissention and general decision-making ineptitude on the part of German authorities. The Uhu did settle a few "firsts" in her short production life - she became the Luftwaffe's first aircraft to feature a tricycle landing gear arrangement (all aircraft to this point has been of the "tail-dragging" variety) as well as becoming the first Luftwaffe aircraft to make standard use of AI radar. Beyond that, the He 219 also became the first operational aircraft anywhere in the world to make use of ejection seats for her crew. Approximately 294 He 219 Uhu examples (some sources state as low as 268) were produced in whole. Her impact on the RAF night-time bombing campaigns was minimal at best, but a glimpse of what could have been possible.

      German General Josef Kammhuber served as the experienced "General of the Night Fighters" of the Luftwaffe throughout World War 2 and was credited with the creation of the first truly effective defensive night-fighter system known as the "Kammhuber Line". Although deciphered and ultimately defeated by the RAF, such development showcased the need for such defense. On the other side of the table sat Field Marshal Erhard Milch, an officer serving as the director of the RLM (Reich Air Ministry) during World War 2. Milch oversaw the re-armament of the Luftwaffe following Germany's defeat in World War 1 and subsequent dismantling. The two men found each other quickly at odds and these conflicts remained throughout their respective tenures until Kammhuber was removed from his position in 1943. Before his relocation, General Kammhuber was convinced of the need for German night-fighter defense and signed off on the production of the He 219. However, Milch had destined this particular project for cancellation due to its complexity and cost and chose other more feasible projects at hand. This ultimately led to a final showdown in which Kammhuber was reassigned to an outdated fighter group outpost in distant Norway. Kammhuber did survive the war to the end and ultimately returned to the burgeoning Luftwaffe of West Germany as its Inspekteur der Bundesluftwaffe, serving in this capacity from 1956 to 1962.

      With that being said, the development of the Uhu was in doubt from the outset, despite the type showcasing capabilities on par with its British counterpart - the de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito. Very few German aircraft of the time could match the British twin-engine fighter pound for pound and any other night-fighting implements fielded by the Luftwaffe were more often than not outdated fighters of little value in the day. The He 219 seemingly fulfilled a glaring need.

      Origins of the He 219 placed it as a Heinkel private venture centering around a high-speed, high-altitude bomber aircraft design under the prototype designation of P.1055 appearing in paper form sometime in 1940. The bomber was to have ejection seats for the crew (a first for any aircraft), a fully-retractable tricycle undercarriage landing gear system (a first for any German aircraft) and a cockpit pressurization system for high-altitude work. Additionally, the type was to be defended by remotely-controlled defensive gun turrets - this approach becoming the norm in advanced high-level bombers by the end of the war (as in the massive Boeing B-29 Superfortress). The P.1055 was estimated to provide a top speed of 470 miles per hour with a 2,500 mile range, both extremely impressive statistics - at least on paper. Though the initial design and several subsequent revisions of said design were rebuffed by the RLM as being too "technologically complex", Heinkel revised the P.1055 into a new designation of P.1060 when General Kammhuber became interested in stocking a fleet of dedicated night-fighters for his new defense group.

      By 1941, the late-night RAF bombing campaign was beginning to take its toll on the German war machine infrastructure so a reactive measure was due on the Luftwaffe's part. The new Heinkel P.1060 design was submitted to the RLM in January of 1942 but a Junkers Ju 88 variant and the Messerschmitt Me 210 design were selected instead, pushed forth by General Milch. Regardless, Heinkel continued private development of his P.1060 for the time being and, after some lengthy delays in obtaining the needed Daimler-Benz engines, the completed prototype was made available in November. First flight was achieved on November 6th, 1942, and proved promising though some inherent stability issues needed to be addressed. The armament suite was also revised. General Kammhuber saw the completed prototype fly on November 19th and quickly moved to secure production orders, this despite General Milch's orders to the contrary. Later evaluation using a second prototype pitted the type against the twin-engine Dornier Do 217N night-fighter and Junkers Ju 88S high-speed bomber in mock air battles. The He 219 came out on top against both classes of aircraft. Production began on the He 219 A-0 (now dubbed the "Uhu") and the aircraft was officially introduced into the Luftwaffe ranks in 1943.

      Such was the excitement around the He 219 that officials quickly placed it into action in pre-production prototype forms. The He 219 A-0 was first fielded in April of 1943 with the I/NJG 1 (Night Fighter Wing) out of Venlo, Netherlands, with some 300 Uhus then on order (General Kammhuber ultimately envisioned some 2,000 in his stables). In one night-time sortie alone, this occurring on June 11th, 1943, German Major Werner Streib accounted for the downing of no less than five RAF Lancaster heavy bombers in the span of just 30 minutes. While cannon armament generally offered up a slower rate-of-fire when compared to machine guns, there was no denying the devastating destructive capabilities of their ilk. Heavy airborne cannon against the lightly-armored British bombers quickly reduced the airframes to a Swiss-cheese type appearance. A single cannon projectile was often enough to cause serious damage to a single engine, causing a nightmare for enemy bomber pilots and crewmembers alike. The He 219's formidable armament was wholly proven as was its onboard advanced airborne interception radar. Though Streib fielded the Uhu in a successful first sortie, his landing was marred by a non-responsive flaps which forced him to overshoot the runway. His He 219 crashed, breaking apart into three main pieces. Fortunately, both he and his radar operator escaped with minor injuries.

      In just six total missions, He 219 crews could attest to the validity of the Uhu's design for the night-fighter accounted for some 20 total enemy aircraft including 6 of the fabled British de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito twin-engine, two-man night-fighters. By all accounts, the He 219 proved quite favorable to both her pilots and ground crews. It would seem an unshakable legacy was in the making.

      Permulaan Akhir

      Despite the promising nature of the base He 219 Uhus, the type was never pressed into service in usable numbers. Some German authorities still remained skeptical in the use of the large fighter platform - this in spite of the regular occurring night-time losses on the ground at the hands of the RAF. As such, several more, seemingly time-wasting developments, were constructed to further validate and test the design. By this time, the DH.98 Mosquito had evolved well past the Uhu's original performance capabilities resulting in a requirement for an improved He 219. This "improved" Uhu would be fitted with better performing engines and less armament, making up for a better overall top speed to at least meet that of the British Mosquitos.

      More delays soon greeted the potential reach of the He 219 for General Milch, charged with overseeing all of the aircraft production for the Luftwaffe, convinced the German Air Ministry to instead focus on developing the Junkers Ju 388J "Stortebeker" heavy fighter and Focke-Wulf Ta 154 "Moskito" night-fighter. As always, these two designs were both equally promising on paper but wrote a different sort of story once in practice. The Ju 388 came online late in the war and production issues saw that only 69 examples were delivered. Likewise, the Ta 154 arrived late in the war and saw limited production thanks to poor performance (even less than that of her prototypes) and inherent structural failings- leading to only 50 examples made available.

      Adding insult to injury in July of 1944, zero priority was being given to the development or production of night-fighting aircraft such as the He 219. The Third Reich sought to stave off its compounding losses by enacting the "Fighter Emergency Program" instead. This program put an end to all production centering on piston-driven bombers and the like and chose instead to focus all available attention and resources to supplying the Luftwaffe with more advanced and defensive-minded fighter types - mainly the new-fangled, jet-powered Messerschmitt Me 262A and high-speed jet-powered bombers such as the Arado Ar 234. The advanced twin-engine, piston-powered Dornier 335 was also developed at speed. As such, the Heinkel He 219 was only fielded with its initial air group (I/NJG 1) as well as a few other loose He 219 attachments in limited operation elsewhere.

      The Uhu took on a very unique external appearance and became one of the more distinct Luftwaffe aircraft of the war. Her two-man pressurized cockpit was situated at the extreme forward end of the fuselage allowing for excellent vision of the oncoming terrain. The fuselage was curved along the upper and lower sections, sporting slab sides everywhere else. The pilot and his radar operator sat in tandem though they were interestingly seated in a back-to-back arrangement - no doubt as a space-saving move to make room for the applicable radar equipment in the second cockpit. The crew was covered over by a clear three-piece canopy system made up of the forward curved windshield, a rounded static rear covering over the radar operators station and the large main canopy access door. The main canopy was hinged over along the starboard side and divided in two sections by light framing. Both crewmen sat in high-backed ejection seats. The pilot controlled the aircraft via a centered control column immediately before him. The nose was dominated by a collection of antennae giving the Uhu something of a fragile appearance. Wings were high-mounted monoplanes set just aft of the cockpit and featured a straight leading edge, a polyhedral trailing edge and slightly-rounded wingtips. The wingroots emanated from the fuselage just forward of amidships and the entire wingspan measured in at a respectable 60 feet, 8 inches. Outboard of the wingroots were streamlined engine nacelles fitted ahead of the wing leading edges and tapering into conical assemblies well past the wing trailing edge. The wings featured dihedral (upward angle) outboard of each engine installation. Each engine powered a VDM three-blade constant speed airscrew propeller system seated with large conical spinners. The fuselage tapered off into a rounded point at the extreme rear to which was affixed the tail assembly. The tail assembly was made up of individual horizontal planes capped by two vertical tail fins to either end. The vertical tail fins were angled inwards towards centerline while each horizontal plane sported noticeable dihedral - moreso than the main wings themselves. The undercarriage was of a tricycle arrangement and made up of two main legs and a nose leg. The main landing gear legs were double-wheeled and retracted rearwards into the underside of each engine nacelle. The steerable nose landing gear leg was singled-wheeled and also retracted rearwards under the cockpit floor. The nose landing gear leg is of note for it rotated 90-degrees to fit inside of its bay, laying flat below the cockpit floor. At any rate, the tricycle wheel arrangement also gave the Uhu a pronounced high stature when at rest on the ground, noticeably towering over the average German pilot. The He 219 was tall enough to require a retractable access step ladder along her forward portside to help her crew aboard.

      Power for the principle He 219 A-7 model was derived from a pair of Daimler-Benz DB 603E liquid-cooled inverted V12 inline engines delivering 1,900 horsepower each. Her maximum take-off weight was listed at just under 30,000lbs. A maximum speed of 385 miles per hour was reported as was a range of 960 miles. Her ferry range was an impressive 1,335 miles while her operating ceiling was near 30,500 feet, requiring the use of the aforementioned pressurized cockpit for both of her crew.

      Any night-fighter was essentially only as good as her armament and the He 219 did not disappoint. Her armament suite centered around bomber-killing cannons stationed throughout the strong points of her airframe. 4 x 20mm MG 151 cannons were situated in an ventral fairing (also called a "gunpack") with 300 projectiles per cannon. An additional 2 x 20mm MG 151 cannons were fitted into the wing roots and also afforded 300 projectiles per cannon. 2 x 30mm MK 108 series cannons were fitted just aft of the cockpit in a "Schrage Musik" installation. This installation held each cannon at 65-degree angles to fire obliquely and were given 100 projectiles per cannon. The Schrage Musik installation allowed the He 219 crew to position the aircraft behind and beneath a targeted enemy bomber. From this vantage point, she could her to fire her guns in an upwards-forward angle against what was traditionally the least protected position of any Allied bomber design.

      Of particular note in terms of the weapons arrangement of the He 219 was that all were set far away from the pilots field of vision. One can imagine how temporary blindness could set in for a pilot who was witness to the muzzle flash of his cannons in the dark of night. This blindness could leave a given night-fighter crew vulnerable for a time, as what was discovered in other night-fighters such as the British Boulton Paul Defiant and her four-gun powered turret seated directly behind the pilot. The He 219 weapons were set well aft of the cockpit and worked well to hide the interrupting flash patterns of her cannon from the pilot.

      The He 219 A-0 became the pre-production/prototype Uhu which later gave birth to some 104 total production models fitting the Daimler-Benz DB 603A series engine of 1,750 horsepower. The He 219 A-1 was a proposed dedicated reconnaissance-bomber version that was ultimately abandoned. The He 219 A-2 followed along the same lines as the A-0 but featured revised engine nacelles that were extended and incorporated additional internal fuel for increased operational ranges. These were built in 85 examples and fitted with the Daimler-Benz DB 603AA engines of 1,650 horsepower.

      The He 219 A-2/R1 became the two-seat night-fighter variant fully-armed with 2 x 20mm MG 151/20 cannons in the wingroots, 2 x 30mm MK 108 cannons in the ventral tray and a further 2 x MK 108 in an obliquely firing emplacement aft of the cockpit.

      The He 219 A-5 was a proposed three-man Uhu design that only existed in prototype forms and was based on the A-2.

      The He 219 A-6 was envisioned as a dedicated "anti-Mosquito" airframe, lighter than her previous forms, and armed simply with 4 x 20mm MG 151/20 cannons. The A-6 also had some of her radio communications equipment removed to help lighten her overall load and therefore help to increase performance - particularly in top speed. These modifications allowed the A-6 the capability of reaching near-400 mile per hour speeds at altitude.

      The He 219 A-7 was an improved form of the base night-fighters already in circulation and ended up becoming the final Uhu production variant. Armament consisted of 2 x 30mm Mk 108 cannons in the wingroots, 2 x 30mm MK 103 cannons paired with 2 x 20mm MG 151/20 cannons in the underfuselage weapons tray as well as 2 x 30mm Mk 108 cannons in the Schrage Musik arrangement along the upper fuselage aft of the cockpit. Typically, the MK 103 cannons were nixed from in-the-field Uhus to help preserve a respectable operating weight and maximum speed. A-7s were powered by a pair of Daimler-Benz DB 603E series inline piston engines of 1,900 horsepower and some 210 were on order by late 1944.

      The He 219B was the next logical evolution in the He 219 line but was never furthered. B-models would have been fielded with the Junkers Jumo 222A/B series engines rated at 2,200 horsepower for an impressive estimated speed of 440 miles per hour. High-altitude performance would have been addressed by longer-spanning wings (measuring up to 72 feet). The B-model only existed in a few "mutt" forms, these being either existing A-models with the developmental long-span wings or models with different high-performance engine configurations. At any rate, the He 219B was not to be for the history books.

      The He 219C was another intended evolution in the He 219 line. This would have been a three-man airframe using the aforementioned long-spanning wing assembly for improved high-altitude performance as well as the Junkers Jumo 222 series powerplants. The fuselage would have been an all-new offering making room for a rear powered tail turret for one of the crew. Though plans were enacted and construction materials made ready, the He 219C was never even completed even as a prototype and the requested Jumo engines were never made available.

      The He 219E existed only in paper form and was a proposed super-high altitude "stalker" with greater spanning wings measuring up to 93.5 feet. Engines would have been Daimler-Benz DB 614 series powerplants which were reportedly based on the DB 603C series, the new systems rated at about 2,000 horsepower a piece. The He 219E became one of the many Third Reich "paper projects" on file, never to see a workable prototype form.

      He 219 A-2 "Uhu" (Wekummer 290202) was brought to the American mainland by the British Royal Navy vessel HMS Reaper sometime in 1945. Her restored fuselage is now on display at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Dulles Airport while her wings are still undergoing restoration. She represents one of the few surviving Uhu's in existence today - a small testament to her limited legacy.

      The He 219 was also captured and evaluated by the British after the war and photographed in RAF colors.

      With so much working against the Uhu, it is a wonder that nearly 300 systems were ever produced. Internal wrangling surely played a part in the aircraft's limited reach and one was left to his/her imagination as to whether the He 219 would have had any sort of impact against the lethal night-time bombing campaign of the RAF. The He 219 fell in line with many of the other available aircraft projects for the Luftwaffe, destined to never realize their potential. As it stood, the He 219 was a promising design at its core and proven by her limited sorties and furthered in legacy only by the word of her crews. Beyond that, the Uhu played only a small role in what had become the all-out defense of the German homeland. Had German authorities been on the same page regarding its usefulness and fate, the Uhu might have played a greater role in extending the war for some time longer in favor of the Reich - this while more potent jet-powered designs of German origin were becoming available.


      HEINKEL HE 219

      Tutto ciò che si desidera conoscere dell&rsquoHeinkel: l&rsquoorigine, lo sviluppo e l&rsquoimpiego presentati attraverso un dettagliato testo e ricco apparato iconografico.

      The He 219 was in many respects unique. It was the world&rsquos first series-built aircraft to be fitted as standard with an ejection seat &ndash and not just one seat, but two. It was also unique in that it was designed and built as a dedicated nightfighter for home-defence duties. This came at a time when the prevailing military mind-set was almost exclusively fixed on the offensive role of aircraft. And, because of this mind-set, the He 219 was plagued by uncertainties that affected production and development. The He 219 was also unique for its tricycle undercarriage which came at a time when tail-draggers were common. Sometimes likened to a praying mantis, the very look of the He 219 with its nose-mounted dipoles gave just a small hint of its fearsome reputation in the night air war over continental Europe. In May 1940 RAF Bomber Command took the decision to go over to the strategic night bombing of Germany. The later introduction of four-engined heavies, the Stirling, Halifax and Lancaster, into Bomber Command operations saw an increase in the frequency and intensity of bombing raids. The Heinkel He 219 with its heavy firepower was quickly rushed into frontline service but like so many weapons of the time it came too late, and in insufficient numbers, to change the course of the conflict.


      Kandungan

      The He 219 was developed from a private venture design intended to provide a single aircraft type capable of fulfilling a number of roles, from torpedo attack to long range air fighting. The type's many innovative features led to the design being rejected by the RLM in 1940. However, a chance visit by Generalmajor JosefKammhuber, head of the Luftwaffe's night fighter branch, resulted in the private venture design being reworked for the night fighter role, with the designation He 219, in the face of serious and determined opposition. & # 912 & # 93

      The excellence of Heinkel's design meant that only minor modifications to the first prototype were required before it's first flight on 15th November 1942. The type's susceptibility to yaw/roll instability was cured by extension of the rear fuselage, and enlargement of the tail surfaces. The subsequent armament and equipment alterations prompted the RLM to request reduction in the 29 resulting armament variations. Development was also delayed by Allied air raids during march and April 1942, which virtually destroyed all production facilities for the He 219 at Rostock, and resulted is production being dispersed to a number of different sites. & # 913 & # 93

      Service [ edit | sunting sumber]

      The type made it's operational debut on the night of 11th-12th June 1943, when Major Werner Streib, Gruppenkommandeur of 1 Gruppe of Nachtjagdgeschwader 1 based at Venlo in the Netherlands, used a pre production He 219A-0 for a live interception mission. Assisted by his radar observer, Unteroffizier Fischer, Streib allegedly destroyed five RAF bombers, only for the aircraft to break up on landing, due to a high speed landing resulting from flap failure. Fortunately Streib and Fischer were unharmed and, during six sorties flown over the next ten days, Streib's unit destroyed an additional 20 RAF aircraft, including six De Havilland Mosquitos, which had previously been considered invulnerable. & # 914 & # 93