Tembok Berlin 1961 Dibina - Sejarah

Tembok Berlin 1961 Dibina - Sejarah


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Dari saat sidang kemuncak Vienna, jalan keluar Jerman Timur ke Jerman Barat mulai meroket. Soviet mula membicarakan perang, dan pada bulan Julai Soviet meletupkan bom atom 60 megaton, bom atom terbesar hingga saat itu. Pada 13 Ogos, Tembok Berlin naik, membelah Berlin Timur dan Barat, mengakhiri aliran pelarian keluar dari Jerman Timur dan memecah belah kota.



9 Kisah Tembok Berlin yang Penting

Dari terbitan TIME pada 31 Ogos 1962

Untuk struktur yang tingginya hanya sekitar 12 kaki, Tembok Berlin meninggalkan tanda sejarah moden. Sepanjang 28 tahun di mana ia bertahan, TIME mengikuti konstruksi kejutan dinding & # 8217, mereka yang mati berusaha untuk menyeberang, dan akhirnya kejatuhannya dan selepasnya.

Anda boleh menelusuri kisah itu melalui garis masa sejarah Tembok Berlin & # 8217s atau, di bawah, baca bagaimana tembok itu jatuh dengan kata-kata mereka yang menyaksikannya berlaku:

25 Ogos 1961: Berlin: Tembok

Tembok Berlin naik dengan cepat dan tanpa peringatan pada 13 Ogos 1961. Walaupun pada waktu itu kurang tembok daripada pagar, tembok itu mengejutkan dunia. Selama hampir satu dekad, Berlin & mdash sebuah bandar yang terbahagi yang terletak di bahagian Timur dari sebuah negara yang berpecah & mdash adalah cara termudah untuk menyeberang dari Jerman Timur ke Barat, tetapi Timur telah menghadapi populasi yang semakin berkurang dan mengambil langkah drastik walaupun ada janji sebelumnya untuk memelihara kebebasan bergerak:

Jeritan siren dan bunyi besi di batu-batuan bergema di jalanan yang gelap dan gelap. Orang-orang Berlin Timur yang ketakutan mengintip dari balik tirai mereka untuk melihat konvoi tentera membentang ke blok. Mula-mula datang penumpang motosikal, kemudian jip, trak dan bas yang penuh sesak dengan pasukan Jerman Timur yang kelopak keluli. Mengejutkan mereka adalah kereta kebal & mdash squat buatan T-34 dan T-54 buatan Rusia. Di setiap persimpangan utama, sebuah peleton dikupas dan dihentikan, pistol siap. Selebihnya menuju perbatasan sektor, perbatasan 25 batu yang menembus jantung Berlin seperti sekeping kaca bergerigi. Ketika pasukan tiba di sejumlah titik perbatasan, trak kargo sudah mengeluarkan gulungan kawat berduri, tiang konkrit, kuda kayu, blok batu, picks dan sekop. Ketika fajar tiba empat jam kemudian, tembok membelah Berlin Timur dari Barat untuk pertama kalinya dalam lapan tahun.

31 Ogos 1962: Tembok Malu (lihat peta di bahagian atas)

Setahun kemudian, tunjuk perasaan meletus di Berlin Barat, dipicu oleh perlakuan kejam terhadap percubaan pelarian bernama Peter Fechter & mdash yang ditembak dan dibiarkan berdarah di tanah tanpa manusia antara kedua-dua belah pihak. TIME meneroka sama ada berlakunya keganasan dan protes lebih lanjut yang mungkin berlaku secara berterusan di bandar yang berpecah itu, dan mendapati bahawa banyak orang Berlin percaya bahawa hasil itu tidak mungkin berlaku tetapi merasakan bahawa Tembok akan bertahan seumur hidup mereka:

Di negara yang rata dan terbuka di sempadan utara bandar, tanah di sebelah barat kotak-kotak dengan ladang gandum coklat dan kebun kentang yang subur, hijau. Eastward membentangkan tanah tanpa manusia di mana sekali ladang subur terbiar sepi dan mati. Mereka mungkin berada di dua dunia yang berbeza & mdashand, dalam erti kata lain, mereka. Bahkan kawasan luar bandar di Berlin dibahagikan kepada Timur dan Barat oleh pagar kawat berduri dan konkrit yang tidak dapat ditembusi. Ketika terbentang ke arah selatan menuju kota yang berpisah, ia menjadi Tembok.

Jarang sekali dalam sejarah mempunyai blok dan mortar yang digunakan secara kejam atau dibenci. Setahun yang berusia sebulan ini, Tembok Malu, seperti yang sering disebutnya, membersihkan wajah Berlin yang berparut perang seperti luka yang tidak sembuh, keburukannya menyinggung mata kerana kemanusiaannya menyakitkan hati. Selama 27 batu ia melintasi kota, mengamputasi dataran bangga dan jalan raya yang sibuk, berbaris dengan tidak sopan melintasi kuburan dan kebun, memecah-belahkan keluarga dan rakan-rakan, mengubah seluruh jalan menjadi kekosongan. & # 8220Tembok, & # 8221 merenung seorang polis Berlin, & # 8220 bukan hanya sedih. Ia bukan hanya tidak masuk akal. Ini adalah skizofrenia. & # 8221

18 Ogos 1986: Kisah Timur-Barat Kota Sundered oleh Jill Smolowe

Pada ulang tahun ke-25 pembinaan tembok, TIME mendaftar masuk ke bandar dan mendapati bahawa orang Jerman di dua sisi Tembok telah berkembang menjadi dua kumpulan orang yang sangat berbeza. Berlin Barat lebih moden, Berlin Timur lebih tenang, ekonomi mereka berbeza & mdash tetapi warga Berlin dari kedua-dua pihak masih menaruh harapan bahawa mereka suatu hari akan bersatu kembali. Walaupun dengan perpecahan seperempat abad di bawah tali pinggang mereka, mereka merasakan bahawa mereka semua dapat bergaul:

Berlin Barat berjaya membuat perdamaian yang tidak selesa dengan Tembok yang mengerikan. Hampir setiap kit survival emosi Berliner & # 39; termasuk rasa humor yang tepat. Perjumpaan biasa: seorang warga Amerika, yang kembali ke Berlin setelah 60 tahun, meminta pemandu teksi untuk mengejar peristiwa semasa ketiadaannya. Jawab pemandu: & # 8220 Nazi datang, perang datang, orang Rusia datang. Anda tidak banyak ketinggalan. & # 8221 Tidak kurang hebatnya grafiti yang dicat dengan semburan di bahagian barat Tembok. SEMUA DALAM SEMUA, ANDA & # 8217 HANYA LAIN BRICK DI WALL, membaca sedikit hikmah. DONALD DUCK UNTUK PRESIDEN, menyatakan yang lain. Salah satu hiasan terbaru adalah kek ungu, dibahagi dua oleh dinding coklat. Batu bersurat: SELAMAT HARI KEMERDEKAAN KE-25.

Tidak ada mesej pintar di sebelah timur Tembok. Pegawai Jerman Timur menganggap barikade dengan bangga. Untuk meraikan ulang tahunnya, mereka merancang untuk mengadakan perbarisan dan telah mengeluarkan cap pos peringatan. & # 8220 Sejak pembinaannya, & # 8221 kata Karl-Heinz Gummich, seorang wakil di Pejabat Pelancongan Jerman Timur, & # 8220 ekonomi telah berkembang kuat, hubungan dengan Jerman Barat telah stabil, dan ancaman perang telah dihapus. & # 8221

22 Jun 1987: Kembali ke Tembok Berlin oleh George J. Church

Tembok Berlin telah menjadi tempat yang banyak memberi ucapan ketika Presiden Ronald Reagan muncul di sana pada tahun 1987 & mdash tetapi pada ketika itu, sesuatu yang berubah. Di USSR, kata-kata glasnost dan perestroika telah memasuki perbendaharaan kata politik. Mikhail Gorbachev berbicara tentang keterbukaan, dan pengaruhnya di Jerman Timur memberikan secercah harapan bahawa Tembok Berlin mungkin tidak selamanya. Reagan mendesak harapan itu dengan salah satu garis kerjayanya yang paling terkenal: & # 8220Mr. Gorbachev, meruntuhkan Tembok ini. & # 8221

Sebelum hadirin dianggarkan berjumlah 20,000 orang, Presiden hadir pada majlis itu. Merujuk kepada pembahagian bandar & # 8217 dan sengaja mengundang perbandingan dengan pidato John F. Kennedy & # 8220 yang terkenal & # 8220Ich bin ein Berliner & # 8221 pada tahun 1963, Reagan menyatakan & # 8220 kepercayaan yang tidak dapat diubah ini: es gibt nur ein Berlin & # 8221 (hanya ada satu Berlin). Dengan memperhatikan demonstrasi ganas terhadap dasar luar AS yang berputar di Berlin Barat sebelum kedatangannya, Reagan menegaskan, & # 8220Saya mengundang mereka yang melakukan demonstrasi hari ini untuk menandakan fakta ini: kerana kami tetap kuat, Soviet kembali ke meja & # 8221 dan berada di ambang perjanjian & # 8220 menghapuskan, untuk pertama kalinya, seluruh kelas senjata nuklear. & # 8221

16 Okt 1989: Kereta Api Kebebasan oleh William R. Doerner

Pada hari ulang tahun ke-40 Eat Germany, Tembok Berlin mula kehilangan semangatnya. Awalnya bertujuan untuk mencegah lalu lintas antara kedua-dua belah bandar, jalan raya menjadi kurang efektif apabila mungkin untuk sampai ke Jerman Barat dengan laluan lain:

Sejauh ini tahun ini, lebih daripada 110.000 orang Jerman Timur telah pergi, jauh dan paling jauh sejak Tembok Berlin naik pada tahun 1961. Sedikit lebih dari separuh telah berangkat dengan izin rasmi, tanda bahawa rejim Honecker telah dipaksa untuk melonggarkan dasarnya mengehadkan penghijrahan kepada warga tua dan beberapa pembangkang politik. Menurut pegawai Jerman Barat, kira-kira 1.8 juta orang Jerman Timur & # 8212 lebih daripada 10% penduduk & # 8212 telah memohon untuk pergi, walaupun terdapat risiko diskriminasi pekerjaan dan pendidikan.

Tetapi jumlah yang semakin meningkat enggan menunggu kebenaran. Pada bulan Ogos dan September, lebih daripada 30,000 pelancong memanfaatkan perbatasan yang baru dibuka antara Hungary dan Austria untuk menyeberang ke Jerman Barat. Berlin Timur memperketat kawalan perjalanan ke Hungary, namun pelarian baru terus merosot pada kadar 200 hingga 500 sehari. Hungary telah menolak cadangan untuk menutup sempadannya.

20 November 1989: Kebebasan! oleh George J. Church

Sehingga Tembok jatuh pada tengah malam pada 9 November 1989 & mdash kehilangan kuasanya secara tiba-tiba kerana ia telah naik, walaupun akan memakan masa berbulan-bulan untuk konkrit dibongkar & mdash WAKTU telah merancang untuk menjalankan cerita sampul mengenai pemilihan gabenor kulit hitam pertama di Amerika Syarikat, Doug Wilder dari Virginia. Tetapi, ketika editor pengelola Henry Muller menceritakan dalam sebuah surat kepada pembaca, & # 8220kemudian ada pengumuman yang mengejutkan bahawa orang Jerman Timur diizinkan melakukan perjalanan melalui Tembok Berlin dan juga akan diberikan pilihan raya yang lebih bebas. Ketua biro Bonn, Jim Jackson memanggil saya untuk mendesak agar kami menukar sampul, tetapi saya dan rakan editor tidak perlu dipujuk. & # 8221 Hasilnya ialah 12 halaman pelaporan dan fotografi dan, seperti yang dinyatakan oleh Muller, & # 8220history sebagai ia dibuat, setiap hari dan setiap minggu & # 8221:

Apa yang berlaku di Berlin minggu lalu adalah gabungan kejatuhan Bastille dan ledakan Malam Tahun Baru & # 8217, revolusi dan perayaan. Pada waktu tengah malam pada 9 November, suatu tarikh yang tidak hanya akan diingat oleh orang Jerman, ribuan orang yang telah berkumpul di kedua sisi Tembok itu mengaum dan mulai melaluinya, serta berulang-ulang. Berlin Barat menarik Berlin Timur ke puncak tembok sepanjang tahun yang lalu banyak orang Jerman Timur telah ditembak ketika cuba melarikan diri di saat Tembok hampir hilang di bawah gelombang kemanusiaan. Mereka bermain sangkakala dan menari di atas. Mereka membawa palu dan pahat dan memukul simbol penjara yang dibenci, mengetuk potongan beton yang longgar dan melambaikannya dengan penuh kemenangan di depan kamera televisyen. Mereka tumpah keluar ke jalan-jalan di Berlin Barat untuk pesta penyemprotan sampanye, tanduk tanduk yang berlanjutan lewat subuh, keesokan harinya dan kemudian subuh yang lain. Sebagai tajuk utama BZ harian: BERLIN ADALAH BERLIN LAGI.

Liputan tembok & # 8217s tidak mengenai pengumuman serius mengenai masa depan Eropah. Terdapat juga beberapa permata seperti ini, kisah beberapa pengusaha Amerika yang memasarkan potongan Tembok sebagai hadiah tepat pada masanya untuk musim percutian itu:

Minggu lalu dua penghantaran runtuhan kelabu dan putih, berjumlah 20 tan, dihantar dari Jerman ke Chicago & # 8217s O & # 8217Hare International Airport. Pengusaha Missouri yang mengimport serpihan bersumpah bahawa ia berasal dari bahagian Tembok Berlin yang dirobohkan. Tepat pada masanya untuk musim belanja Krismas, mereka akan membaginya menjadi 2 oz. potongan yang akan dijual, berserta buku kecil & # 8220 maklumat dan pengisytiharan kesahihan, & # 8221 dengan harga $ 10 hingga $ 15 di kedai hadiah dan gedung membeli-belah.

18 Disember 1989: Apa Masa Depan Yang Dipegang oleh Frederick Painton

Kira-kira sebulan selepas Tembok itu runtuh, TIME mengumpulkan lima pakar politik dan ekonomi Eropah untuk meramalkan apa yang akan terjadi seterusnya di benua & mdash termasuk apakah penghujung Tembok pasti akan membawa kepada penyatuan semula Jerman:

Untuk ketiga kalinya pada abad ini, urutan lama runtuh di Eropah, dan dunia menunggu dengan penuh semangat untuk yang baru dilahirkan. Peralihan itu menjanjikan jangka panjang, sukar dan berbahaya. Tetapi jarang sekali jika visi Eropah yang damai dan bebas yang terbentang dari Atlantik ke Ural kelihatan begitu jelas. Oleh itu, 1989 ditakdirkan untuk bergabung dengan tarikh-tarikh lain dalam sejarah & # 8212 1918 dan 1945 & # 8212 yang perlu diingat oleh pelajar sekolah, satu tahun lagi ketika era berakhir, dalam hal ini tempoh 44 tahun selepas perang, yang akan berakhir dengan penembusan yang cepat kerajaan Soviet.

8 Oktober 1990: Jerman: Dan Sekarang Ada Satu oleh Bruce W. Nelan

Dalam kesibukan mereka ke arah penyatuan selama 11 bulan terakhir, Jerman Timur dan Barat melepasi halangan di antara mereka seperti begitu banyak tenpins. Terobosan yang paling tidak dapat dilupakan dan menyegarkan hati adalah yang pertama, kejatuhan Tembok Berlin pada 9 November lalu. Kemudian diadakan pilihan raya bebas di Timur pada 18 Mac, kesatuan ekonomi pada 1 Julai, dan perjanjian 12 September dari empat Dunia Sekutu Perang II untuk menamatkan baki hak pendudukan mereka di Berlin.

Mana-mana yang boleh diambil sebagai tarikh penyatuan menjadi tidak dapat dielakkan. Tetapi tarikh yang akan disambut di masa depan Jerman datang minggu ini, 3 Oktober, ketika Freedom Bell di Berlin Barat & balai dewan bandar Schoneberg dan bendera Republik Persekutuan Jerman dinaikkan di hadapan 96 tahun - bangunan Reichstag yang lama. Pada masa itu, Republik Demokratik Jerman, peninggalan kerajaan Stalin & # 8217, tidak lagi wujud.

Baca lebih lanjut mengenai kejatuhan Tembok Berlin di sini dalam arkib TIME & # 8217s, di mana cerita sampul 20 November 1989 kini tersedia.


Mengapa Tembok Berlin naik - dan bagaimana ia runtuh

Simbol Perang Dingin yang jelek dibina untuk mencegah orang Jerman Timur melarikan diri ke Barat. Pertarungan selama puluhan tahun untuk melarikan diri membendungnya.

Selama hampir 30 tahun, Berlin terbahagi bukan hanya oleh ideologi, tetapi oleh penghalang konkrit yang melintasi kota, berfungsi sebagai simbol Perang Dingin yang jelek. Dibangun dengan tergesa-gesa dan dirobohkan sebagai tunjuk perasaan, Tembok Berlin panjangnya hampir 27 batu dan dilindungi dengan kawat berduri, anjing penyerang, dan 55.000 ranjau darat. Tetapi walaupun tembok itu berdiri antara 1961 dan 1989, tembok itu tidak dapat bertahan dari gerakan demokratik besar yang akhirnya menjatuhkan sosialis Republik Demokratik Jerman (GDR) dan memacu akhir Perang Dingin.

Tembok itu berasal dari akhir Perang Dunia II, ketika Jerman diukir menjadi empat bagian dan diduduki oleh kekuatan Sekutu. Walaupun Berlin terletak kira-kira 90 batu ke timur dari sempadan antara GDR dan Jerman Barat dan dikelilingi sepenuhnya oleh sektor Soviet, bandar ini pada awalnya dibahagikan kepada empat suku, tetapi pada tahun 1947 disatukan ke zon timur dan barat.

Pada tahun 1949, dua orang Jerman baru ditubuhkan secara rasmi. Sosialis Jerman Timur dilanda kemiskinan dan terganggu oleh mogok kerja sebagai tindak balas terhadap sistem politik dan ekonominya yang baru. Kekurangan otak dan kekurangan pekerja yang terjadi mendorong GDR untuk menutup perbatasannya dengan Jerman Barat pada tahun 1952, sehingga lebih sukar bagi orang untuk menyeberang dari "Komunis" ke "bebas" Eropah. (Semak semula Geografi Nasional 'melaporkan dari Berlin Barat sebelum tembok itu runtuh.)

Jerman Timur mula melarikan diri melalui perbatasan yang lebih telap antara Timur dan Berlin Barat. Pada satu ketika, 1,700 orang sehari mencari status pelarian dengan menyeberang dari Timur ke Berlin Barat, dan sekitar 3 juta warga GDR pergi ke Jerman Barat melalui Berlin Barat antara 1949 dan 1961.

Pada waktu 13 Ogos 1961, ketika warga Berlin tidur, GDR mula membina pagar dan penghalang untuk menutup pintu masuk dari Berlin Timur ke bahagian barat bandar. Langkah semalam mengejutkan Jerman di kedua-dua sisi sempadan baru. Ketika askar GDR melakukan rondaan di garis batas dan pekerja mula membina tembok konkrit, pegawai diplomatik dan tentera kedua-dua pihak terlibat dalam serangkaian tegang.


Kisah Tembok Berlin dalam gambar, 1961-1989

Warga Berlin Barat terus berjaga-jaga di atas Tembok Berlin di depan Gerbang Brandenburg pada 10 November 1989, sehari setelah pemerintah Jerman Timur membuka sempadan antara Berlin Timur dan Berlin.

Dibangunkan pada waktu malam pada 13 Ogos 1961, Tembok Berlin (dikenali sebagai Berliner Mauer dalam bahasa Jerman) adalah pembahagian fizikal antara Berlin Barat dan Jerman Timur. Tujuannya adalah untuk mengelakkan orang Jerman Timur yang tidak puas melarikan diri ke Barat.

Ketika Tembok Berlin jatuh pada 9 November 1989, penghancurannya hampir sama sekejap dengan penciptaannya. Selama 28 tahun, Tembok Berlin telah menjadi simbol Perang Dingin dan Tirai Besi antara Komunisme pimpinan Soviet dan demokrasi Barat. Ketika jatuh, ia dirayakan di seluruh dunia.

Pada 13 Ogos 1961, Jerman Timur menutup sempadannya dengan barat. Di sini, tentera Jerman Timur membina barikade kawat berduri di sempadan yang memisahkan Berlin Timur dan Barat. Warga Berlin Barat memerhatikan karya tersebut.

Pada akhir Perang Dunia II, kuasa Sekutu yang dibahagikan menakluki Jerman menjadi empat zon. Seperti yang dipersetujui dalam Persidangan Potsdam, masing-masing diduduki oleh Amerika Syarikat, Britain, Perancis, atau Kesatuan Soviet. Perkara yang sama juga dilakukan dengan ibu negara Jerman, Berlin, Berlin. Hubungan antara Kesatuan Soviet dan tiga kekuatan Sekutu yang lain cepat hancur.

Hasilnya, suasana kerjasama penjajahan Jerman berubah menjadi kompetitif dan agresif. Salah satu insiden yang paling terkenal adalah Blok Berlin pada bulan Jun 1948 di mana Kesatuan Soviet menghentikan semua bekalan untuk sampai ke Berlin Barat.

Walaupun akhirnya disatukan kembali Jerman, hubungan baru antara kuasa Sekutu mengubah Jerman menjadi Barat berbanding Timur dan demokrasi berbanding Komunisme.

Pada tahun 1949, organisasi baru Jerman ini menjadi rasmi apabila tiga zon yang diduduki oleh Amerika Syarikat, Britain, dan Perancis bergabung untuk membentuk Jerman Barat (Republik Persekutuan Jerman, atau FRG).

Zon yang diduduki oleh Kesatuan Soviet dengan cepat diikuti dengan membentuk Jerman Timur (Republik Demokratik Jerman, atau GDR). Pembahagian yang sama ke Barat dan Timur berlaku di Berlin. Oleh kerana bandar Berlin terletak sepenuhnya di Zon Pendudukan Soviet, Berlin Barat menjadi pulau demokrasi di Jerman Timur Komunis.

Seorang pemuda Berlin Timur mendirikan tembok konkrit yang kemudiannya dilapisi oleh kawat berduri di sempadan sektor di bandar yang terbahagi pada 18 Ogos 1961. Polis Jerman Timur berjaga-jaga di latar belakang ketika pekerja lain mencampur simen.

Dalam jangka waktu yang singkat setelah perang, keadaan hidup di Jerman Barat dan Jerman Timur menjadi sangat berbeza. Dengan bantuan dan sokongan dari kekuasaan penjajahnya, Jerman Barat menubuhkan sebuah masyarakat kapitalis.

Ekonomi mengalami pertumbuhan pesat sehingga ia dikenali sebagai & # 8220 keajaiban ekonomi & # 8221. Dengan kerja keras, individu yang tinggal di Jerman Barat dapat hidup dengan baik, membeli alat dan perkakas, dan melakukan perjalanan mengikut kehendak mereka.

Hampir sebaliknya berlaku di Jerman Timur. Kesatuan Soviet telah melihat zon mereka sebagai rampasan perang. Mereka telah mencuri peralatan kilang dan aset berharga lain dari zon mereka dan menghantarnya kembali ke Kesatuan Soviet.

Ketika Jerman Timur menjadi negaranya sendiri pada tahun 1949, ia berada di bawah pengaruh langsung Kesatuan Soviet, dan masyarakat Komunis ditubuhkan. Ekonomi Jerman Timur terseret dan kebebasan individu dihalang dengan teruk.

Laluan jalan raya Berlin berhenti di perbatasan sektor Amerika di Berlin dalam pemandangan udara ini pada 26 Ogos 1961. Di luar pagar, bahagian Berlin Timur yang diperintah oleh komunis, trek telah dikeluarkan.

Di luar Berlin, Jerman Timur telah dibentengi pada tahun 1952. Pada akhir 1950-an, banyak orang yang tinggal di Jerman Timur menginginkannya. Tidak lagi tahan dengan keadaan hidup yang menindas, mereka akan menuju ke Berlin Barat. Walaupun beberapa dari mereka akan dihentikan dalam perjalanan, beratus-ratus ribu berjaya melintasi sempadan.

Sesampai di sana, pelarian ini ditempatkan di gudang dan kemudian diterbangkan ke Jerman Barat. Sebilangan besar mereka yang melarikan diri adalah profesional muda yang terlatih. Pada awal 1960-an, Jerman Timur dengan cepat kehilangan tenaga buruh dan penduduknya.

Antara tahun 1949 dan 1961, dianggarkan hampir 2.7 juta orang melarikan diri dari Jerman Timur. Pemerintah nekad menghentikan eksodus besar-besaran ini. Kebocoran yang jelas adalah akses mudah orang Jerman Timur ke Berlin Barat. Dengan sokongan Kesatuan Soviet, terdapat beberapa usaha untuk mengambil alih Berlin Barat.

Walaupun Kesatuan Soviet bahkan mengancam Amerika Syarikat dengan menggunakan senjata nuklear atas masalah ini, Amerika Syarikat dan negara-negara Barat lain komited untuk mempertahankan Berlin Barat.

Terdesak untuk menjaga warganya, Jerman Timur tahu bahawa sesuatu perlu dilakukan. Terkenal, dua bulan sebelum Tembok Berlin muncul, Walter Ulbricht, Ketua Dewan Negara GDR (1960-1973) mengatakan, & # 8220Niemand hat die Absicht, eine Mauer zu errichten & # 8221. Kata-kata ikonik ini bermaksud, & # 8220Tidak ada yang bermaksud membina tembok & # 8221. Selepas pernyataan ini, eksodus Jerman Timur hanya meningkat. Selama dua bulan berikutnya 1961, hampir 20,000 orang melarikan diri ke Barat.

Dinding konkrit yang tangguh terbentuk di tujuh titik persimpangan antara Berlin Timur dan Barat pada 4 Disember 1961. Tembok baru setinggi tujuh kaki dan setebal lima kaki. Hanya laluan kecil untuk lalu lintas yang dibiarkan terbuka. Di tengah-tengah Jambatan Bornholmer (sempadan sektor Perancis / Rusia), di belakang perangkap tangki keluli, tanda besar menunjukkan tukul dan kompas lambang Jerman Timur.

Khabar angin telah menyebar bahawa sesuatu mungkin berlaku untuk memperketat sempadan Berlin Timur dan Barat. Tidak ada yang mengharapkan kecepatan - atau kemurnian - Tembok Berlin. Tepat lewat tengah malam pada malam 12–13 Ogos 1961, trak dengan tentera dan pekerja binaan bergelombang di Berlin Timur.

Semasa kebanyakan warga Berlin tidur, kru ini mulai merobek jalan-jalan yang memasuki Berlin Barat. Mereka menggali lubang untuk memasang tiang konkrit dan mengikat tali berduri di seberang sempadan antara Berlin Timur dan Barat. Kabel telefon antara Timur dan Berlin Barat juga terputus dan saluran kereta api tersekat.

Warga Berlin terkejut ketika mereka bangun pagi itu. Apa yang pernah menjadi sempadan yang sangat lancar sekarang kaku. Tidak mungkin Berlin Timur melintasi sempadan untuk opera, permainan, permainan bola sepak, atau aktiviti lain.

Tidak lebih dari 60.000 penumpang boleh pergi ke Berlin Barat untuk pekerjaan dengan gaji yang baik. Tidak mungkin keluarga, rakan, dan kekasih melintasi sempadan untuk bertemu orang yang mereka sayangi. Mana-mana bahagian perbatasan yang tidur pada malam 12 Ogos, mereka terjebak di sisi itu selama beberapa dekad.

VOPO Jerman Timur, seorang polis sempadan tentera yang menggunakan teropong, berjaga-jaga di salah satu jambatan yang menghubungkan Berlin Timur dan Barat, pada tahun 1961.

Panjang keseluruhan Tembok Berlin adalah 91 batu (155 kilometer). Ia berjalan tidak hanya melalui pusat Berlin, tetapi juga melilit Berlin Barat, sepenuhnya memotongnya dari seluruh Jerman Timur. Tembok itu sendiri mengalami empat transformasi besar selama 28 tahun sejarahnya. Ini bermula sebagai pagar kawat berduri dengan tiang konkrit.

Hanya beberapa hari kemudian, pada 15 Ogos, ia dengan cepat diganti dengan struktur yang lebih kukuh dan lebih kekal. Yang satu ini dibuat dari bongkah konkrit dan ditutup dengan dawai berduri.

Dua versi pertama dinding digantikan dengan versi ketiga pada tahun 1965. Ini terdiri daripada dinding konkrit yang disokong oleh pengikat keluli. Versi keempat Tembok Berlin, yang dibina dari tahun 1975 hingga 1980, adalah yang paling rumit dan teliti. Ia terdiri daripada papak konkrit yang mencapai ketinggian hampir 12 kaki (3.6 meter) dan lebar 4 kaki (1.2 meter). Ia juga mempunyai pipa licin yang melintasi bahagian atas untuk menghalangi orang untuk menebalnya.

Pada masa Tembok Berlin runtuh pada tahun 1989, ada Tanah No Man & # 8217s 300 kaki dan dinding dalaman tambahan. Tentara melakukan rondaan dengan anjing dan tanah yang dipukul menunjukkan jejak kaki. Orang-orang Jerman Timur juga memasang parit anti-kenderaan, pagar elektrik, sistem lampu besar, 302 menara pengawal, 20 bunker, dan juga lombong ranjau.

Selama bertahun-tahun, propaganda dari pemerintah Jerman Timur akan mengatakan bahawa orang-orang Jerman Timur menyambut Tembok. Pada hakikatnya, penindasan yang mereka alami dan kemungkinan akibat yang mereka hadapi membuat banyak orang tidak bercakap sebaliknya.

Di bawah mata komunis & # 8220 orang & # 8217 polis & # 8221, pekerja Berlin Timur dengan sekop kuasa memusnahkan salah satu daripada sebilangan kotej dan rumah satu keluarga di sepanjang kawasan sempadan Berlin timur-barat yang jarang terselesaikan pada bulan Oktober 1961 .

Walaupun sebilangan besar perbatasan antara Timur dan Barat terdiri dari lapisan pencegahan, ada sedikit lebih banyak daripada pembukaan rasmi di sepanjang Tembok Berlin. Pusat pemeriksaan ini adalah untuk penggunaan pegawai dan orang lain yang jarang dengan izin khas untuk melintasi sempadan.

Yang paling terkenal adalah Checkpoint Charlie, yang terletak di sempadan antara Berlin Timur dan Barat di Friedrichstrasse. Checkpoint Charlie adalah pusat akses utama bagi kakitangan Sekutu dan orang Barat melintasi sempadan. Tidak lama setelah Tembok Berlin dibina, Checkpoint Charlie menjadi ikon Perang Dingin. Ini sering ditampilkan dalam filem dan buku yang ditetapkan dalam jangka waktu ini.

Seorang gadis muda di Sektor Timur melihat melalui kawat berduri ke Steinstucken, Berlin, pada bulan Oktober 1961.

Tembok Berlin memang menghalang sebahagian besar orang Jerman Timur berhijrah ke Barat, tetapi tidak menghalang semua orang. Semasa sejarah Tembok Berlin, dianggarkan kira-kira 5,000 orang berjaya menyeberang. Beberapa percubaan awal yang berjaya adalah mudah, seperti melempar tali ke Tembok Berlin dan memanjat.

Yang lain kurang ajar, seperti memukul trak atau bas ke Tembok Berlin dan berlari ke sana. Namun, yang lain bunuh diri ketika beberapa orang melompat dari tingkap tingkat atas bangunan pangsapuri yang bersempadan dengan Tembok Berlin.

Pada bulan September 1961, tingkap-tingkap bangunan ini naik dan saluran pembuangan yang menghubungkan Timur dan Barat ditutup. Bangunan lain diruntuhkan untuk membersihkan ruang untuk apa yang akan dikenali sebagai Todeslinie, & # 8220Death Line & # 8221 atau & # 8220Death Strip. & # 8221

Kawasan terbuka ini memungkinkan tembakan langsung sehingga tentera Jerman Timur dapat melaksanakan Shiessbefehl, perintah tahun 1960 agar mereka menembak sesiapa sahaja yang cuba melarikan diri. Dua puluh sembilan orang terbunuh dalam tahun pertama. Apabila Tembok Berlin semakin kuat dan besar, percubaan melarikan diri menjadi lebih terperinci.

Sebilangan orang menggali terowong dari ruang bawah tanah bangunan di Berlin Timur, di bawah Tembok Berlin, dan ke Berlin Barat. Kumpulan lain menyimpan sisa-sisa kain dan membina belon udara panas dan terbang di atas Tembok.

Malangnya, tidak semua percubaan melarikan diri berjaya. Oleh kerana pengawal Jerman Timur diizinkan untuk menembak sesiapa sahaja yang berada di sebelah timur tanpa amaran, selalu ada kemungkinan kematian di mana-mana dan semua plot pelarian. Dianggarkan bahawa di antara 192 dan 239 orang mati di Tembok Berlin.

Menyekat gereja & # 8211 Dua orang Jerman Timur mengerjakan tembok setinggi 15 kaki, meletakkan kepingan kaca pecah di bahagian atas untuk mengelakkan Berlin Timur melarikan diri.

Salah satu kes yang paling terkenal dari percubaan yang gagal berlaku pada 17 Ogos 1962. Pada awal petang, dua lelaki berusia 18 tahun berlari ke arah Tembok dengan tujuan untuk menipisnya. Anak muda yang pertama berjaya mencapainya. Yang kedua, Peter Fechter, tidak.

Ketika dia hendak menembok Tembok, seorang penjaga perbatasan melepaskan tembakan. Fechter terus naik tetapi kehabisan tenaga ketika dia sampai di puncak. Dia kemudian jatuh kembali ke bahagian Jerman Timur. Mengejutkan dunia, Fechter hanya tinggal di sana. Pengawal Jerman Timur tidak menembaknya lagi dan mereka juga tidak membantunya.

Fechter menjerit kesakitan hampir satu jam. Setelah dia mati berdarah, pengawal Jerman Timur membawa mayatnya. Dia menjadi orang ke-50 yang mati di Tembok Berlin dan simbol kekal perjuangan kebebasan.

Seorang pelarian berlari semasa percubaan untuk melarikan diri dari bahagian Jerman Timur Berlin ke Berlin Barat dengan memanjat Tembok Berlin pada 16 Oktober 1961.

Kejatuhan Tembok Berlin berlaku hampir secara tiba-tiba ketika kebangkitannya. Terdapat tanda-tanda bahawa blok Komunis semakin lemah, tetapi pemimpin Komunis Jerman Timur menegaskan bahawa Jerman Timur hanya memerlukan perubahan yang sederhana dan bukannya revolusi yang drastik. Warganegara Jerman Timur tidak bersetuju.

Pemimpin Rusia Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991) berusaha menyelamatkan negaranya dan memutuskan untuk melepaskan diri dari banyak satelitnya. Ketika Komunisme mulai goyah di Poland, Hungaria, dan Czechoslovakia pada tahun 1988 dan 1989, titik keluar baru dibuka untuk Jerman Timur yang ingin melarikan diri ke Barat.

Di Jerman Timur, protes terhadap pemerintah diatasi dengan ancaman keganasan dari pemimpinnya, Erich Honecker. Pada bulan Oktober 1989, Honecker terpaksa mengundurkan diri setelah kehilangan sokongan dari Gorbachev. Dia digantikan oleh Egon Krenz yang memutuskan bahawa keganasan tidak akan menyelesaikan masalah negara. Krenz juga melonggarkan sekatan perjalanan dari Jerman Timur.

Gambar yang diambil pada bulan Jun 1968 Tembok Berlin dan Berlin Timur (sektor Soviet).

Tiba-tiba, pada malam 9 November 1989, pegawai pemerintah Jerman Timur, Günter Schabowski melakukan kesalahan dengan menyatakan dalam pengumuman, & # 8220 Penempatan semula tetap dapat dilakukan melalui semua pusat pemeriksaan sempadan antara GDR [Jerman Timur] ke FRG [Jerman Barat] atau Berlin Barat & # 8221.

Orang ramai terkejut. Adakah sempadan benar-benar terbuka? Orang Jerman Timur secara tentatif mendekati perbatasan dan benar-benar mendapati bahawa pengawal perbatasan membiarkan orang menyeberang.

Dengan sangat cepat, Tembok Berlin dibanjiri oleh orang-orang dari kedua belah pihak. Sebahagiannya mulai meletup di Tembok Berlin dengan palu dan pahat. Terdapat perayaan dadakan dan besar di sepanjang Tembok Berlin, dengan orang-orang berpelukan, berciuman, menyanyi, bersorak, dan menangis.

Tembok Berlin akhirnya terkelupas menjadi kepingan-kepingan yang lebih kecil (sebilangan duit syiling dan yang lain dalam kepingan besar). Potongan-potongan itu menjadi barang koleksi dan disimpan di rumah dan muzium. Terdapat juga Peringatan Tembok Berlin di laman web di Bernauer Strasse. Setelah Tembok Berlin jatuh, Jerman Timur dan Barat bergabung kembali menjadi satu negara Jerman pada 3 Oktober 1990.

Langkah-langkah khas Berlin Timur untuk menghentikan pelarian pelarian ke barat adalah tingkap-tingkap bata di rumah pangsapuri di sepanjang garis pemisah bandar 6 Oktober 1961. Rumah itu, di sebelah selatan Bernauerstrasse, berada di Berlin Timur .

Pemandangan udara dari tembok sempadan Berlin, yang dilihat dalam gambar tahun 1978 ini.

Pengawal perbatasan Jerman Timur membawa seorang pelarian yang cedera dengan tembakan senapang mesin Jerman Timur ketika dia berlari melalui pemasangan sempadan komunis menuju Tembok Berlin pada tahun 1971.

Buruh Berlin Timur mengusahakan & # 8220Death Strip & # 8221 yang telah dibuat oleh pihak berkuasa komunis di sisi sempadan mereka di bandar yang terbahagi pada 1 Oktober 1961. Pagar kawat berduri berganda menandakan sempadan, dengan Berlin Barat di sebelah kanan. Dalam pandangan ini, kawasan buruh runtuhan rumah yang, beberapa hari sebelumnya, berdiri di lokasi berhampiran dengan sempadan. Bangunan di sepanjang garis pemisah sejauh 25 batu dievakuasi dan dihancurkan oleh warna merah Berlin untuk menghilangkan salah satu cara melarikan diri yang digunakan oleh warga Berlin Timur untuk melompat ke barat.

Meninggal dunia Peter Fechter dibawa oleh pengawal perbatasan Jerman Timur yang menembaknya ketika dia cuba melarikan diri ke barat dalam foto 17 Ogos 1962 ini. Fechter terbaring 50 minit di tanah tanpa lelaki sebelum dia dibawa ke hospital di mana dia meninggal sejurus tiba.

Pemandangan dari atas bangunan Reichstag lama dari Gerbang Brandenburg, yang menandakan sempadan di kota yang terbahagi ini. The semi-circled wall around the Brandenburg Gate was erected by East German Vopos on November 19, 1961.

The Brandenburg Gate is shrouded in fog as a man looks from a watchtower over the Wall to the Eastern part of the divided city on November 25, 1961. The tower was erected by the West German police to observe the Inner-German border.

East German border guard Conrad Schumann leaps into the French Sector of West Berlin over barbed wire on August 15, 1961. More info about this picture.

West German construction workers have a chat in West Berlin, April 18, 1967 beside the wall separating the city.

East German border guards carry away a 50 year old refugee, who was shot three times by East German border police on September 4, 1962, as he dashed through communist border installations and tried to climb the Berlin wall in the cemetery of the Sophien Church.

A woman and child walk beside a section of the Berlin Wall.

Reverend Martin Luther King, American civil rights leader, invited to Berlin by West Berlin Mayor Willy Brandt, visits the wall on September 13, 1964, at the border Potsdamer Platz in West Berlin.

A mass escape of 57 people in October 1964 from East Berlin through a tunnel to the cellar of a former bakery in “Bernauer Street”, West Berlin. Picture of the tunnel exit.

A graffiti-covered section of the wall close to the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin in 1988. Sign reads: “Attention! You are now leaving West Berlin”

(1 of 3) Two East Berliners jump across border barriers on the Eastern side of border checkpoint at Chaussee Street in Berlin in April of 1989. They were stopped by gun wielding East German border guards and arrested while trying to escape into West Berlin. People in the foreground, still in East Berlin, wait for permits to visit the West.

(2 of 3) Two East Berlin refugees are taken away by border guards after a thwarted escape attempt at Berlin border crossing Chausseestreet, in this April 1989 picture.

(3 of 3) An East Berlin border guard, cigarette in mouth, points his pistol to the scene where two East Germans were led away after failing to escape to the west at Berlin border crossing Chausseestrasse. Eyewitnesses reported the guard also fired shots.

A general view of the overcrowded East Berlin Gethsemane Church on October 12, 1989. About 1,000 East Germans took part in a prayer service here for imprisoned pro-democracy protesters. The church was the focus of protests in the final days of the wall.

An unidentified East German border guard gestures toward some demonstrators, who who threw bottles on the eastern side of newly-erected barriers at the Checkpoint Charlie crossing point on October 7, 1989.

East and West Berliners mingle as they celebrate in front of a control station on East Berlin territory, on November 10, 1989, during the opening of the borders to the West following the announcement by the East German government that the border to the West would be open.

East Berliners get helping hands from West Berliners as they climb the Berlin Wall which divided the city for decades, near the Brandenburger Tor (Brandenburg Gate) on November 10, 1989.

A man hammers away at the Berlin Wall on November 12, 1989 as the border barrier between East and West Germany was torn down.

West Berliners crowd in front of the Berlin Wall early November 11, 1989 as they watch East German border guards demolishing a section of the wall in order to open a new crossing point between East and West Berlin, near the Potsdamer Square.

East and West German Police try to contain the crowd of East Berliners flowing through the recent opening made in the Berlin wall at Potsdamer Square, on November 12, 1989.

Decades later, the Berlin Wall is a memory, pieces of it scattered around the world. Here, some original pieces of the wall are displayed for sale at the city of Teltow near Berlin, on November 8, 2013

(Photo credit: AP / Getty Images/ Text: Jennifer Rosenberg).


The Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall was a series of walls, fences and barriers separating the East German-Soviet sections of Berlin from Western-occupied sections. It was erected in the midst of the Berlin Crisis in 1961 and stood for almost three decades as a symbol of Cold War division. With its fortifications, guards and booby traps, attempting to cross the Berlin Wall proved fatal for scores of civilians.

The Wall erected

The story of the Berlin Wall began in the early hours of August 13th 1961, when the government of East Germany ordered the closure of all borders between East and West Berlin.

As the sun rose that morning, Berliners were awoken by the sound of trucks, jackhammers and other heavy machinery. Watched by Soviet troops and East German police, workmen began breaking up roads, footpaths and other structures, before laying thousands of metres of temporary but impassable fencing, barricades and barbed wire. They worked for several days, completely surrounding the western zones of Berlin and cutting them off from the city’s eastern sectors.

Within three days, almost 200 kilometres of fenceline and barbed wire had been erected. The East German government’s official name for this new structure was Die anti-Faschistischer Schutzwall, or the ‘Anti-fascist Protective Wall’. It became known more simply as the Berlin Wall. According to East Germany, the wall’s function was to keep out Western spies and stop West German profiteers buying up state-subsidised East German goods. In reality, the wall was erected to stop the exodus of skilled labourers and technicians from East to West Berlin.

International reaction

The erection of the Berlin Wall made headlines around the world. For the Western powers, the closure of East Germany’s borders was not entirely unexpected, though the erection of a permanent wall took many by surprise.

The United States and West Germany immediately went on high alert, in case the events in Berlin were a prelude to a Soviet-backed invasion of the city’s western zones. Six days later, US president John F. Kennedy ordered American reinforcements into West Berlin. More than 1,500 soldiers were transported into the city along East German autobahns (unlike in the Berlin Blockade, access to West Berlin through East German territory was not blocked).

To prepare for another possible Soviet blockade, Kennedy also ordered a contingent of US cargo planes to be sent to West Germany. Some experts considered the Berlin Wall an act of aggression against Berliners in both zones and demanded strong action. Kennedy was more sanguine, suggesting that a wall “is a hell of a lot better than a war”.

The ‘death strip’

As weeks passed, the Berlin Wall became stronger and more sophisticated – and also more deadly. By June 1962, the East Germans had erected a second line of fencing, approximately 100 metres inside the first wall. The area between both fences came to be known as ‘no man’s land’ or the ‘death strip’.

Under East German regulations, any unauthorised person observed between the two walls could be shot without warning. Houses within the ‘death strip’ were seized by the East German government, destroyed and levelled. The area was floodlit and covered with fine gravel that revealed footprints, which prevented people from sneaking across unnoticed. Structures that overhung the ‘death strip’, like balconies or trees, were booby-trapped with nails, spikes or barbed wire.

In 1965, following several escape attempts where cars or trucks were used to punch through the fenceline, many sections of the barrier were replaced with pre-fabricated sections of concrete. This 3.4-metre high concrete barrier became the Berlin Wall’s most visible feature.

Crossing the Berlin Wall

Needless to say, crossing the border between the two Berlins became even more restrictive. Prior to the erection of the Berlin Wall, it had been comparatively easy for West Berliners to visit relatives in eastern sectors. They did so with a day pass issued by East German authorities.

Travelling in the other direction was more difficult. East Berliners wanting to cross the border had to show a government permit that was difficult to obtain. Elderly East Berliners found these permits easier to obtain because their potential defection was not detrimental to East Germany’s economy.

Those with business ties or immediate family in the West could also be granted permits – though these permits were often denied or revoked without reason. Permit-holders could cross the Berlin Wall at several points, the best known of which was ‘Checkpoint Charlie’ in Friedrichstrasse. Young East Germans, particularly those with any college education or technical training, found permits almost impossible to obtain.

Illegal crossings

There were, of course, many attempts to cross the wall illegally. Some East Germans tried climbing, scampering or abseiling over the wall – but the fortifications, barbed wire and armed Grepo (border police) made this a dangerous activity.

Ramming through barriers or checkpoints in vehicles was a common tactic in the early years of the wall. This tactic was nullified when the East Germans rebuilt all roads approaching the wall as narrow zig-zags, preventing vehicles from accelerating. Others tried tunnelling under the wall or flying over it, using makeshift hot-air balloons, with varying levels of success.

Around 230 people died attempting to cross the Berlin Wall. In 1962 Peter Fechter, an 18-year-old East German factory worker, was shot in the hip by a border patrol. Fechter bled to death in the ‘death strip’ while helpless onlookers on both sides watched impotently. Siegfried Noffke, who had been separated from his wife and daughter by the wall, dug a tunnel underneath it, only to be captured and machine-gunned by Stasi agents.

The Berlin Wall as propaganda

The Berlin Wall became a stark and foreboding symbol of the Cold War. In the West, its presence was exploited as propaganda.

The Berlin Wall, Western leaders said, was evidence that East Germany was a failing state, that thousands of its people did not want to live under communism. US secretary of state Dean Rusk called the Wall “a monument to communist failure” while West German mayor Willy Brandt called it “the wall of shame”.

In Washington, there was considerable debate about how the US should respond to the erection of the Berlin Wall. Ever the realist, President Kennedy knew that threats or shows of aggression might provoke confrontation or lead to war. He instead focused his attention on West Berlin, hailing it as a small but determined bastion of freedom, locked inside an imprisoned state.

Kennedy visited West Berlin in June 1963 and was greeted by ecstatic crowds, which cheered wildly and showered his motorcade with flowers and confetti. In the Rudolph Wilde Platz (later renamed the John F. Kennedy Platz), the US president told a rapt audience:

“There are many people in the world who really don’t understand, or say they don’t, what is the great issue between the free world and the Communist world. Let them come to Berlin. There are some who say that communism is the wave of the future. Let them come to Berlin. And there are some who say in Europe and elsewhere we can work with the Communists. Let them come to Berlin. And there are even a few who say that it is true that communism is an evil system, but it permits us to make economic progress. ‘Lass sie nach Berlin kommen’: let them come to Berlin… Freedom is indivisible, and when one man is enslaved, all men are not free… All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, and therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words: ‘Ich bin ein Berliner’ (I am a citizen of Berlin).”

The Berlin Wall stood in place for almost 30 years. It remained the most tangible evidence of the Cold War and Iron Curtain separating the Soviet bloc from the West. Western leaders often referred to it as a symbol of Soviet repression. US president Ronald Reagan visited West Berlin in June 1987 and urged his Soviet counterpart, Mikhail Gorbachev, to “tear down this wall“. It was the people of Berlin themselves who tore it down, during a public demonstration in November 1989.

1. The Berlin Wall was erected by the East German government in 1961. It was constructed to halt the exodus of people, particularly skilled workers, from communist East Berlin.

2. Construction of the Berlin Wall began before dawn on August 13th 1961. Borders were initially closed with fences and barbed wire, then later fortified with large concrete walls

3. The West condemned the Berlin Wall and exploited it as anti-communist propaganda. The wall was evidence, they said, that Soviet communism was failing and East Germany was now a prison state.

4. Over time, the Berlin Wall was heavily fortified, booby-trapped and policed by armed guards. Despite this, many Berliners tried to cross it, and around 230 were killed in the process.

5. The Berlin Wall would stand for almost three decades as a tangible sign of the Iron Curtain and the divisions between the Soviet bloc and the democratic West. The political changes of the late 1980s, the weakening of the East German government and a popular uprising led to the Berlin Wall being torn down in November 1989.


Effects of the Berlin Wall

With the closing of the East-West sector boundary in Berlin, the vast majority of East Germans could no longer travel or emigrate to West Germany. Berlin soon went from the easiest place to make an unauthorized crossing between East and West Germany to the most difficult. Many families were split, and East Berliners employed in the West were cut off from their jobs. West Berlin became an isolated exclave in a hostile land. West Berliners demonstrated against the Wall, led by their Mayor Willy Brandt, who strongly criticized the United States for failing to respond. Allied intelligence agencies had hypothesized about a wall to stop the flood of refugees, but the main candidate for its location was around the perimeter of the city. In 1961, Secretary of State Dean Rusk proclaimed, “The Wall certainly ought not to be a permanent feature of the European landscape. I see no reason why the Soviet Union should think it is … to their advantage in any way to leave there that monument to communist failure.”

United States and UK sources expected the Soviet sector to be sealed off from West Berlin, but were surprised how long they took to do so. They considered the Wall an end to concerns about a GDR/Soviet retaking or capture of the whole of Berlin the Wall would presumably have been an unnecessary project if such plans were afloat. Thus, they concluded that the possibility of a Soviet military conflict over Berlin had decreased.

The East German government claimed that the Wall was an “anti-fascist protective rampart” intended to dissuade aggression from the West. Another official justification was the activities of Western agents in Eastern Europe. The Eastern German government also claimed that West Berliners were buying state-subsidized goods in East Berlin. East Germans and others greeted such statements with skepticism, as most of the time the border was closed for citizens of East Germany traveling to the West but not for residents of West Berlin travelling East. The construction of the Wall caused considerable hardship to families divided by it. Most people believed that the Wall was mainly a means of preventing the citizens of East Germany from entering or fleeing to West Berlin.


Bernauer Strasse Over the Wall_Six Stories from East Germany 3

Bernauer Strasse, 1978. Factories and houses were torn down those that remained were bricked over to form part of the wall.

Age 40 on November 9, 1989

Many GDR scientists needed only 1.5 grams for promotion to senior scientist or professor, says Joachim Sauer, now a computational chemist at Humboldt University in Berlin. “This was the weight of the Communist Party sticker.”

Before the wall fell, joining the Communist Party was an essential step for career advancement. For Sauer and other scientists who didn’t have the political stamp of approval, permanent postdoc-level positions were the most they could hope for. They also had to avoid making any provocative or critical statements about the Communist Party. Even so, Sauer says, “Staying quiet and keeping to yourself was not always enough.”

For example, late on a Friday afternoon in 1986, Sauer recalls the arrival of an unexpected guest in his office at the Institute of Chemistry in East Berlin. The institute’s Communist Party secretary showed up to request—in reality to demand—an opinion essay about a recent Communist Party congress, a demand completely unrelated to Sauer’s work as a theoretical chemist. The essay, Sauer was told, would be posted on the institute’s notice board for all to read.

It was a catch-22. “If you were to write what you think, you were in trouble,” says Sauer. “If you were to write what they wanted you to write, then you would deny yourself.” Sauer spent a stressful weekend searching for a solution to the impossible conundrum. In the end he says what he wrote was “okay on the surface, but had a double meaning, a small hammer that gave a message.” Sauer says the experience seems almost funny now, but not then. The essay was posted for only a few hours before officials decided to remove it.

Living behind the Berlin wall was not just personally stressful but also professionally frustrating. By the 1980s the GDR’s economic problems combined with Western embargoes meant research equipment was often outdated. As a computational chemist, Sauer says it was frustrating to be stuck behind the wall just as VAX computers were shrinking from building sized to room sized.

But sometimes equipment was unofficially available the GDR regularly smuggled in from the West all sorts of things, from exotic fruit to medical equipment. For example, Sauer says his research institute had managed to get embargoed computers via Austria, a fact that the institute’s administrators tried to keep secret by keeping the machines in a locked room and placing the terminals in another room, one open to the scientists. Sauer says he and his fellow scientists were skilled enough to extract the system information and so learned the computers’ origin.

After the wall came down, Sauer went to work for a software company in San Diego before being recruited back to Germany. A few years later he was awarded a professorship at Berlin’s Humboldt University. Sauer continues his quantum computational research—with brief breaks to entertain international heads of states with his wife, German Chancellor Angela Merkel. Sauer’s new workspace is in a recently renovated lab on Humboldt University’s Aldershof campus, where the GDR’s Institute of Chemistry used to sit, just across from a former Stasi military barracks.

Heinz Mustroph

Age 38 on November 9, 1989

India’s flamboyant Bollywood film industry may seem worlds apart from the factories of Communist East Germany, but business made them bedfellows. Before 1989 Heinz Mustroph worked as a chemist for Filmfabrik Wolfen, a government-owned company that supplied color film to primarily Bolly-wood clients.

After the Berlin wall collapsed, workers at the film company tried to keep business alive, but clients forced to pay in more expensive West German Deutschmarks soon went elsewhere. The color-film company—like many businesses in the East—couldn’t stay afloat. Without a job Mustroph partnered with some former colleagues to start a contract research company that in 1997 morphed into FEW Chemicals, a manufacturer of specialized dyes, also based in Wolfen.

Mustroph was in his late 30s when the Berlin wall fell, young enough to adapt to the new political and economic realities, even though the adjustment was not always smooth. “Although I worked much harder in the years after the wall came down than before, life is better for me now. Now, if someone wants to try something new with their lives, they make their own limits,” he says, instead of being dictated by government.


Trying to escape from East Germany often wasn’t as simple as climbing the wall — in some places, people also had to cross a “no man’s land” between two walls undetected. Along some stretches of the wall, the East Germans built a second wall and kept the heavily patrolled span between the two clear so soldiers could look for defectors’ footprints in the dirt and have a clear firing line. Here it’s shown in an archival photo.


The History and Meaning of the Berlin Wall

This November marks the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall. On November 9, 1989, as the shaky East German communist government resigned, the Berlin Wall came tumbling down. Large crowds formed on both sides of the Wall. East and West Berliners climbed on top, and then people began using sledgehammers and pickaxes to cut holes in it. Large numbers of East and West Berliners started to move back and forth through the Wall, capturing the spirit of a freedom to move without political barriers standing in the way.

It is worth recalling how and why the Berlin Wall was constructed in the first place, and what it meant for an individual to be viewed as the property of the state in the stream of 20th-century political events.

Barb Wire and Bricks Stop People From “Voting With Their Feet”

On August 10, 1961, Nikita S. Khrushchev, the premier of the Soviet Union, attended a birthday party in Moscow for Sergei S. Verentsov, the Soviet marshal in charge of the missile program of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Khrushchev informed the celebrating assembly of leading Soviet military and political dignitaries that something momentous was about to occur.

“We are going to close Berlin,” Khrushchev announced. “We’ll just put up serpentine barbed wire and the West will stand there like dumb sheep. And while they’re standing there, we’ll finish a wall.” The crowd broke into an enthusiastic applause.

The city of Berlin had been divided into four Allied occupation zones at the end of the Second World War in Europe. The eastern half of the city was the Soviet zone. The western half was divided into American, British, and French zones, surrounded by the Soviet zone of occupation in eastern Germany. The closest British or American zone of occupation in western Germany was 110 miles to the west. The Soviets had established a “people’s republic” in their zone — the German Democratic Republic, with East Berlin as its capital.

Between the late 1940s and 1961, more than 4 million East Germans and East Berliners took advantage of the relative ease of crossing from the Soviet zone in Berlin to one of the Western zones to “vote with their feet” not to live in the “workers’ paradise” that Moscow had been generous enough to impose upon them. This mass exodus was a huge embarrassment to both the Soviet and the East German governments. It also represented a major loss in skilled labor and in many of the professional occupations.

The Soviets had been almost completely successful in keeping secret that West Berlin was to be sealed. On Saturday, August 12, 1961, 1,573 East Germans crossed the line separating East and West Berlin and registered as refugees desiring to live in the West. They were the last group to be allowed to freely depart. The Soviets stretched barbed wire across the Brandenburg Gate facing the Western zones in the center of the city. And at 2:30 on the morning of August 13, the border between East and West Berlin was closed.

“Successes” and “Failures” of the Wall

Two days later, on August 15, work began on the Berlin Wall it was made of brick and concrete and took two years to complete. When finished, it was 28 miles long and nine feet high, with barbed wire at the top. East German guards armed with machine guns fired upon any who attempted to cross it. There was also a 200-yard area leading up to the Wall covered with land mines and patrolled by police dogs.

Yet, in spite of this, during the 28 years of the Wall’s existence, between 1961 and 1989, an estimated 5,000 people managed to escape either over, under, or through the Wall. Some escaped through the sewer system under the Wall. Others dug tunnels — the longest one was 500 feet long, through which 57 people made their getaway to West Berlin in 1964.

One woman sewed Soviet military uniforms for three male friends, who drove through one of the Wall’s border checkpoints with her crammed under the front seat. An archer used an arrow to shoot a cable over the Wall from a building in East Berlin and slid along it to freedom.

Some constructed hot-air balloons and crude flying machines using bicycle motors to power their flight over the Wall. Others swam across canals or rivers that separated parts of East and West Berlin.

The Costs of Trying to Escape to Freedom

There also emerged a smuggling business that ran ads in West German newspapers. One such company, Aramco, with headquarters in Zurich, Switzerland, gave out press releases referring to their “most modern technical methods.” The company’s prices were not that unreasonable: $10,000 to $12,000 per person, with “quantity discounts” for families, payable into a numbered account in a Swiss bank. If an escape attempt failed, the company refunded most of the money to the person financially sponsoring the breakout.

The East German government issued “wanted” posters on the East Berlin side of Checkpoint Charlie, offering 500,000 East German marks for the director of Aramco, Hans Ulrich Lenzlinger (about $25,000 at the black market exchange rate in the 1970s). The “wanted” posters negatively referred to him as a “trader in people.” In February 1979, someone collected the bounty on Lenzlinger’s head, after he was shot repeatedly in the chest and killed at his home in Zurich.

He was not the only victim of escape attempts. During those 28 years of the Wall’s existence, 80 people lost their lives trying to get to the western side of the Wall. And more than 100 others lost their lives trying to escape along other points of the highly fortified East German border with West Germany.

One of the most inhuman border killings happened in August 1962. Peter Fechter, an 18-year-old bricklayer, was shot and wounded while attempting to climb over the Wall. For 50 minutes he begged for help as he slowly bled to death in sight of soldiers and journalists looking over the Wall from one of the western border checkpoints. Only after he died did the East German guards retrieve his body.

The Berlin Wall came to symbolize the Cold War and its division of the world into halves, one half still relatively free and the other half under the most brutal and comprehensive tyranny ever experienced by man in modern history. Nothing was supposed to cross the Iron Curtain of barb wire fences, landmined farm fields, and machine-gun watchtowers that cut across central Europe from the Baltic to the Adriatic Sea, without the permission of the Marxist masters in Moscow.

The Wall vs. the Right to Move

What the Berlin Wall epitomized was the 20th-century idea of the individual as the property of the state. Behind that Wall the East German government told the people where to live and work, what goods they could consume, and what enjoyments and entertainments they would be permitted. The state determined what they read and watched and said. And they could not leave the country — either for a visit or forever — unless it served the goals and interests of their political masters. And if anyone attempted to leave without permission, he could be shot and left to die, alone and helpless, with others forced to stand by as horrified observers.

In the 19th century, the great triumph of classical liberalism had been the abolition of the last of the ancient restrictions on the right of the individual to his life, liberty, and honestly acquired property. This had included the right of people to freely travel without undue government interference or control.

In earlier times, not only the physical difficulties of transportation prevented men from widely moving from one region or continent to another. Matching these physical barriers were the legal barriers of taxes, tolls, passports, and serfdom, which bound the vast majority of people to the land owned by the privileged and titled political castes.

Classical liberals and classical economists of the early 19th century argued for the removal of such restraints on people’s freedom. The guiding principle was that a man has a property right in himself, that he owns himself. As the British classical economist John R. McCulloch expressed it in the 1820s:

Of all the species of property which a man can possess, the faculties of his mind and the powers of his body are the most particularly his own and these he should be permitted to enjoy, that is, to use and exert, at his discretion … in any way, not injurious to others, [as] he considers most beneficial for himself.

A logical extension of the right of self-ownership over one’s mind and body and its use to further his personal and peaceful purposes was the right to move to where he believed he could best improve his circumstances. As the 19th century progressed, the various restrictions on the freedom to move were removed. Passports were virtually eliminated throughout the major countries of Europe and North America, and legal barriers to both emigration and immigration were almost completely abolished in these same nations.

Tens of millions of people, on their own personal account and with private funding, left their places of birth in pursuit of better lives and fortunes in countries and on continents of their own choice. Free movement of people matched the increasingly free trade in goods and capital. About 65 million people took advantage of this greater freedom of movement between 1840 and 1914, before the First World War began.

Modern Barriers to the Freedom to Move

But with the coming of the First World War, governments reinstituted passport and other restrictions on the freedom of movement. With the rise of the totalitarian ideologies in the years following the end of the First World War, the freedom to move was increasingly abolished. Communism, fascism, and Nazism all worked from the premise that the individual was subordinate to and lived and worked only for the advancement of the interests of the state. As an “object” owned by government, the individual stayed put or was forcibly removed to some other location under the brutal orders of the political authority.

Even outside the totalitarian systems of the 20th century, barriers to migration have been logical extensions of the emergence and growth of the interventionist-welfare state. When the government influences the direction of production, has responsibility for both the amount and types of employment in the society, and is the paternalistic administrator of a redistribution of wealth and income for retirement, health care, unemployment, housing, and education, it is inevitable that the same government will be concerned about and responsible for the amount, types, and demographics of any individuals or groups desiring to move into a country under that government’s jurisdiction.

The growth and development of the regulated economy, in other words, has provided the rationale for barriers to free migration. They stand as legal and political walls far higher than the Berlin Wall in preventing people from passing freely and unmolested from one part of the world to another. The passport that each and every one of us is forced to apply for and carry on our person whenever traveling outside the territorial jurisdiction of our own country, and which we must present upon our attempt to return to our own land, clearly shows that we are all in fact subjects under — not citizens above — the political authorities controlling our lives.

The German free market economist Wilhelm Röpke once pointed out in an article titled “Barriers to Migration” (1950):f

Modern nationalism and collectivism have, by the restriction of migration, perhaps come nearest to the “servile state.”… Man can hardly be reduced more to a mere wheel in the clockwork of the national collectivist state than being deprived of the freedom to move… Feeling that he belongs now to his nation, body and soul, we will be more easily subdued to the obedient state serf which nationalist and collectivist governments demand.

It has become a cliché that the world, every day, becomes a little smaller. Methods of global transportation improve the quality of travel and reduce the time between any two points around the world. Computer technology — the internet and email — has made virtually everything written, said, or photographed a simple and almost instantaneous “click” away. The expanding worldwide network of business, trade, and capital markets is increasingly making the globe a single market for commerce and culture.

On this 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, we should remember all that it represented as a symbol of tyranny under which the individual was marked with the label: property of the state. He not only was controlled in everything he did and publicly said, but his every movement was watched, commanded, or restricted.

Freedom in all its forms — to speak, write, associate, and worship as we want to pursue any occupation, profession, or private enterprise that inclination and opportunity suggests to us and to visit, live, and work where our dreams and desires lead us to look for a better life — is a precious thing.

The history of the Berlin Wall and the collectivist ideology behind it should remind us of how important a loss any of our freedoms can be, as we determine in what direction — toward greater individual liberty and free enterprise or more government command and control — we wish our country and the world to move in the 21st century.


When was the Berlin Wall built and why?

Topic of Study [For H2 and H1 History Students]:
Paper 1: Understanding the Cold War (1945-1991)
Section A: Source-based Case Study
Theme I Chapter 2: A World Divided by the Cold War – Manifestations of the global Cold War: Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

What is the Berlin Wall?
The German Berliner Mauer is a man-made barrier that surrounded West Berlin. It was established to built by the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) on 13 August 1961 to prevent defections from East to West.

Why did the Germans flee from East to West Germany?
Following the end of World War Two, the signing of the Yalta and Potsdam Agreements led to the division of Germany into four occupation zones. The Soviet Union controlled the eastern zones, while the United States, Great Britain and France occupied the western part. Due to the deteriorating living conditions, most people moved from East to West Germany.

As difficult as life was in Berlin, refugees came to the city from Eastern Europe and other parts of Germany. Conditions were even worse in their hometowns, and they hoped they might have better luck surviving in Berlin.

Food was scarce across the city – a condition made worse by the Soviets. Before leaving the other sectors of Berlin, the Soviets had stolen 7,000 cows along with machinery and pipes from buildings. The Soviets also limited access to farms in the Soviet zone outside Berlin. The Soviets wanted the food for their troops in Germany. Still some Berliners managed to reach farms in the countryside.

An excerpt from “The Berlin Airlift: Breaking the Soviet Blockade” by Michael Burgan.

To prevent the departure of Berliners in the East, Stalin ordered the imposition of a Soviet blockade of West Berlin in 1948. In response, the Allies launched the Berlin Airlift that demonstrated their resolve to oversee the post-war recovery of the Western zones. More than 2.3 million tons of fuel and food were sent to West Berlin. A year later, the Berlin Blockade was lifted.

The Berlin Crisis
After the Berlin Wall was built, none could move from East to West Berlin, except through three checkpoints. “Checkpoint Charlie” (at Friedrichstrasse) was a site of flashpoint in October 1961.

On 22 October, a senior US diplomat in West Berlin was stopped by the East German border guards. General Lucius D. Clay ordered the deployment of American tanks to Checkpoint Charlie.

Moscow interpreted the move as an alarming threat. In retaliation, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev sent Russian tanks to the checkpoint as well. Both parties had military forces facing each other for nearly sixteen hours.

Fortunately, American President Kennedy opened communications with the Soviet government to de-escalate tensions. Eventually, both forces withdrew.

[Khrushchev] believed the peak of confrontation with the United States had passed, a perception that did not change during the October 26-27 tank stand-off in Berlin at Checkpoint Charlie. Khrushchev, tipped off by erroneous Soviet intelligence, believed that Lucius Clay, a commander of the U.S. forces in West Berlin, was ready to storm the Wall by force. Persuaded that Kennedy was not personally behind the ploy, the Soviet leader contacted him and the confrontation was quickly resolved.

An excerpt from “Khrushchev and the Berlin Crisis (1958-1962)” by Vladislav Martinovich Zubok.

What can we learn from this article?
Consider the following question:
– How far do you agree that the Soviet Union was responsible for the Berlin Crisis of 1961?

Join our JC History Tuition and learn more about the Cold War and other topics. We conduct H2 and H1 History tuition for JC1 and JC2 students to get ready for the GCE A Level examination. Learn how to organise your content awareness and writing for essay and source based case study questions.

We have other JC tuition classes, such as GP Tuition, Economics Tuition, JC Chemistry Tuition, JC Math Tuition and China Studies in English Tuition. For Secondary Tuition, we provide Secondary English Tuition, Secondary Math tuition, Secondary Chemistry Tuition and Secondary Economics Tuition. Call 9689 0510 to learn more.


Tonton videonya: berlīnes krīze 1961