Battle of the Plane Tree Pass, 218 SM

Battle of the Plane Tree Pass, 218 SM


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Battle of the Plane Tree Pass, 218 SM

Pertempuran Pass Plane Tree berlaku semasa Perang Syria Keempat, antara Empayar Seleucid di bawah Antiochus III the Great dan Ptolemaic Mesir. Sebilangan besar pertempuran dalam perang ini melibatkan pengepungan, kerana Antiochus menangkap serangkaian titik kuat Ptolema. Pertempuran Plane Tree Pass adalah salah satu dari beberapa pertunangan di medan perang, dan datang ketika Antiochus maju ke pesisir Phoenicia.

Ptolemy IV telah mempercayakan pembelaan Coele-Syria kepada Nicolaus, seorang jeneral Aetolian. Dia telah diperkuat oleh armada yang berisi 30 kapal perang di bawah komando laksamana Perigenes. Mereka berusaha menghentikan Antiokhus antara Berytus dan Sidon, di mana lebar dataran pantai dikurangkan oleh Gunung Libanus. Nicolaus mencipta posisi pertahanan yang kuat antara lereng gunung dan pantai, sementara armada sedekat mungkin ke pantai untuk menghadirkan garis pertahanan berterusan.

Antiochus melakukan serangan serampang empat mata di garis Mesir. Dia juga didukung oleh armada, di bawah komando Diognetus, yang menggunakan armada Mesir. Di darat ia membelah tentaranya menjadi tiga sayap, satu menyerang di sepanjang pantai, satu di seberang tanah berbatu antara pantai dan gunung dan satu di sepanjang kaki gunung itu sendiri. Kekuatan terakhir ini dipercayakan kepada Theodotus, seorang mantan jenderal Mesir yang telah berpihak, nampaknya setelah percubaan pembunuhan yang gagal di pihak Ptolemy. Kekuatan inilah yang memenangi pertempuran. Walaupun sebagian besar tentera Seleucid tidak dapat membuat kemajuan melawan garis pertahanan Mesir, Theodotus dapat menerobos dekat dengan gunung itu.

Ini sekarang menempatkannya dalam posisi yang sangat kuat, di atas garis Mesir, dan dia memanfaatkannya, mengisi kedudukan utama Mesir dari atas. Keluar, garis Mesir runtuh dan melarikan diri kembali ke keselamatan Sidon. Polybius melaporkan kerugian Mesir sebagai 2.000 terbunuh dan 2.000 ditawan. Melihat kekalahan tentera, Perigenes menghentikan pertempuran laut, yang masih belum diputuskan, dan armada melarikan diri ke Sidon.

Selepas pertempuran itu, Antiokhus meneruskan kebijakannya untuk menawan kota-kota yang dipegang Mesir di Coele-Syria. Ini akhirnya memberi masa kepada Ptolemy dan penasihatnya untuk mengumpulkan tentera yang kuat. Tahun berikutnya tentera baru akan mengalahkan Antiokhus pada pertempuran Raphia (22 Jun 217). Semua usaha teliti di Coele-Syria akan sia-sia.


Garis Masa Seluruh Dewa Amerika Akhirnya Dijelaskan

Neil Gaiman mempunyai bakat untuk mitologi. Untuk novelnya tahun 2001 Dewa Amerika, penulis menarik cerita dari pelbagai budaya di seluruh dunia dan menjadikannya permadani yang indah dengan latar belakang Amerika tengah. Pertunjukan Starz yang dihasilkan dari novel Gaiman tidak kurang hebatnya dalam kemampuannya untuk menghidupkan halaman mitologi tersebut di skrin. Perebutan kuasa antara dewa-dewa kuno (dewa-dewa yang telah dibawa oleh pendatang Amerika selama berabad-abad) dan penguasa dunia baru (televisyen, internet, dan teknologi) masih kuat dengan musim ketiga di rangkaian , yang bermaksud alam semesta dewa Gaiman semakin besar.

Siapa sebenarnya tuhan-tuhan ini, lama dan baru? Dan bagaimana mereka sesuai Dewa Amerika'Jalan cerita pusat, yang menampilkan Shadow Moon (Ricky Whittle) dan rakan perjalanan daratnya yang penuh misteri, Encik Rabu (Ian McShane)? Dewa Amerika"Jalan adalah jalan yang pelik dan berliku, tetapi kami telah menyelesaikan semua yang perlu anda ketahui untuk memahami jalan itu.

Amaran spoiler untuk kedua-dua siri Starz dan novel ini berkuat kuasa sepenuhnya.


Seperti permainan P-47 yang lain, pesawat ini harus dimainkan terutamanya dengan menggunakan taktik Boom dan Zoom. Anda mungkin perlu melakukan pendakian sisi untuk masuk ke posisi yang layak, memandangkan pesawat bersekutu akan berada di ketinggian yang lebih tinggi daripada jumlah yang anda miliki. Sangat disyorkan untuk tidak mencuba dan membelok dengan pesawat yang anda ikuti, kerana ini adalah bagaimana anda akan cepat kehilangan tenaga dan menjadi pilihan yang mudah. Sebaliknya, setelah hantaran pertama anda, mulailah pendakian yang agak curam. Ini akan membolehkan anda sekali lagi memanfaatkan kelebihan ketinggian pada musuh, yang selanjutnya akan memberi lebih banyak peluang untuk BnZing. Namun, ketika naik ke atas, perhatikan pesawat yang berada di sekitarnya. Anda pada dasarnya adalah pembunuh percuma bagi sesiapa sahaja di sekitarnya jika anda tidak menyedari apa yang ada di sekitarnya.

Varian P-47 ini tidak menawarkan pilihan muatan, jadi menggunakannya dalam peranan CAS (Tutup Udara) mungkin tidak begitu efektif berbanding varian P-47 yang lain.

Di Simulator / Enduring Confrontation, pesawat yang lebih besar yang menderita AB & amp RB bersinar dan tentu saja termasuk P-47. Duduk di BR 3.7, BR terendah untuk peringkat 3 EC, ia dapat memberi respon tanpa batas yang menjadikannya platform pembelajaran yang hebat untuk pemain EC baru. Di Sim, P-47 mempunyai pengendalian kawalan yang stabil, penglihatan tanpa halangan sepanjang masa dan kelajuan pantas. Namun, seperti yang disebutkan di atas, P-47 Jerman ini tidak memiliki persenjataan yang ditangguhkan, yang membatasi penggunaannya untuk memintas pengebom, pertempuran BnZ tradisional dan mungkin berdebar.

Berhati-hatilah ketika memburu pengebom, kerana dengan kawalan Sim (sama ada kayu bedik tetikus atau tongkat sebenar) pesawat akan bergerak lebih lembut, menjadikan dirinya sasaran yang baik untuk penembak pengebom. JANGAN mengikuti di belakang pengebom 6 kecuali anda pasti bahawa penembak ekornya tidak sedar. Mengejar pengebom membuat diri anda cukup diam untuk penembak ekor, dan anda akan dihujani peluru. Enjin radial besar P-47 biasanya akan rosak. Sebaliknya, sebelum melancarkan serangan, dapatkan kelebihan ketinggian berbanding pengebom dengan terbang sekitar 2 km di atasnya. Pengebom hanya boleh mengisi sekitar 1/6 penglihatan anda. Posisi terbaik untuk serangan adalah pada tahap tinggi pengebom sehingga anda dapat menyesuaikan pendahuluan dengan lebih mudah. Menyelam pengebom, tetapi tidak secara langsung, cubalah meramalkan di mana anda berdua akan terhempas dengan membayangkan diri anda sebagai peluru berpandu, di sinilah anda seharusnya bertujuan (menembak pesongan). Untuk memaksimumkan kerusakan, lebih baik mengarahkan sayap dan mesin mereka, kerana badan pesawat biasanya menyerap beberapa peluru. Hanya tembak ketika pengebom melintas di depan senjata anda. Jendela pendek ini nampaknya tidak mencukupi untuk melakukan apa-apa, tetapi 8 MG pada P-47 sebenarnya cukup merosakkan, kerana kadang-kadang hanya memerlukan satu peluru untuk menetapkan sasaran.

Adapun pertempuran anjing, kerana hampir semua pertempuran udara di Sim berlaku di bawah 3.000 m, P-47 dapat dengan mudah naik ke ketinggian ini dan mengumpulkan banyak kecepatan sebelum melakukan pertempuran. Taktiknya serupa dengan RB di atas. Sekiranya, sayangnya, anda mendapati diri anda dikejar pada usia 6 dan anda tidak tahu bagaimana melakukan manuver pertahanan, lakukan belokan yang besar dan lancar ke arah lapangan terbang mesra terdekat untuk mengelakkan pendarahan terlalu cepat. Kemudian selam dangkal menuju lapangan terbang anda. P-47 dengan mudah dapat mengalahkan lawan seperti I-16 atau IL-2, tetapi mungkin berjuang untuk mengalahkan F6F, P-38 atau P-47 yang lain. Cara lain untuk melepaskan diri adalah dengan melakukan split-S secara tiba-tiba untuk mengelak di bawah pengejar. Rata-rata pemain Sim sekarang akan mencuba dan melihat ke mana anda pergi, jika tidak segera menjejaki anda. Anda kemudian boleh berlari ke lapangan terbang atau pendakian cetek untuk serangan lain.

Untuk menumbuk tanah, menyelam dengan sudut yang dangkal untuk mendekati sasaran, cobalah untuk sedekat mungkin tetapi jangan sampai jatuh ke tanah. 8 MG sangat sesuai untuk membunuh trak, senapang AA dan artileri kerana mempunyai banyak peluru. Walau bagaimanapun, sentiasa perhatikan keadaan sekeliling anda, terutama yang tinggi untuk musuh yang masuk.

  • Me 264 (pertempuran campur aduk): Raksasa ini adalah salah satu dari beberapa pengebom yang mendapat udara di Sim, jadi biasanya terbang lebih tinggi daripada yang anda fikirkan. Selain itu, Me 264 dilengkapi dengan senapang mesin dan meriam berkaliber besar di seluruhnya, oleh itu ekor 264 pada dasarnya bunuh diri kecuali semua penembak mereka tersingkir. Anda boleh memperlakukan 264 hampir seperti B-29 atau B-17 kerana ia sangat serupa dengan kemampuan reka bentuk dan pertahanan. Sebaik-baiknya gunakan 264 jika anda boleh dengan mudah melumpuhkan juruterbang kerana hidungnya yang berkaca-kaca sambil juga mengalami kerosakan minimum. Namun, pengebom itu tidak memiliki turret ventral di perutnya, sehingga memudahkan menangani kerosakan dari bawah, tetapi berhati-hatilah dengan meriam bawah 20 mm yang menghadap ke bawah di dekat ekor. Cara paling selamat untuk menyerang adalah dari ketinggian yang lebih tinggi, menyelam pada sudut serong dan menumpukan api pada sayap dan hidung. Jangan sekali-kali terlibat jika anda tidak mempunyai kelebihan ketinggian.
  • Bf 110, Ki-45, A-26: Seperti yang telah disebutkan sebelumnya, pesawat enjin berkembar tersebut merupakan ancaman besar kerana kekurangan kemampuan manuvernya dibandingkan dengan pesawat tempur mesin tunggal diminimumkan di Sim. Mereka biasanya bersenjatakan senjata berat & meriam amp di hidung, sehingga letupan tepat akan merobek mana-mana pesawat, termasuk P-47. Manuver P-47 agak perlahan dan anda mungkin keluar dari pejuang berat itu, jadi libatkan mereka dengan kelebihan ketinggian atau kelajuan untuk mengelakkan menjadi sasaran. Sekiranya mereka tidak bergerak dengan agresif, arahkan sayap atau mesin mereka. Sekiranya pertarungan berlangsung sengit dan anda tidak dapat melicinkan tujuannya, hanya meletup di mana sahaja selagi anda memukulnya, peluru 12.7 mm akan merosakkan model penerbangan mereka sedikit.

Kawalan Enjin Manual

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Kebaikan dan keburukan

  • Hebat semasa menyelam dan Boom & amp Zoom
  • Kelajuan yang mengagumkan, prestasi enjin yang hebat melebihi 6,000 m
  • Pembinaan yang sangat lasak dapat membuat pesawat terbang walaupun mengalami kerosakan
  • Senjata api mengagumkan 8 x 12.7 mm M2 Browning senapang mesin dengan kolam peluru yang juga mengagumkan
  • Sangat pantas untuk pangkatnya
  • Kos pembaikan yang rendah
  • Masa putaran yang mengerikan (kemampuan bergerak keseluruhan) pada ketinggian rendah / kelajuan rendah
  • Prestasi pendakian biasa-biasa saja (pendakian sisi disarankan)
  • Sasaran besar, lebih besar daripada rata-rata pejuang
  • Keupayaan yang sangat terhad pada sasaran pound tanah, terhad pada sasaran yang lebih lembut yang boleh ditembusi oleh senapang 12 mm

West Point dan Kerjaya Ketenteraan Awal

Ketika Sherman berusia 16 tahun, John Ewing mendapat kedudukannya di Akademi Tentera A.S. di West Point. Di sana dia bertemu dan berteman dengan beberapa pemimpin tentera masa depan yang akan dia perjuangkan bersama & # x2013 dan menentang & # x2013 semasa Perang Saudara.

Sherman lulus pada tahun 1840, menduduki tempat keenam di kelasnya. Dia cemerlang dalam bidang akademik dalam latihannya, tetapi menolak set peraturan dan kekurangan yang ketat dari West Point, sifat yang akan dia bawa sepanjang karier ketenteraannya.

Dia ditempatkan di Georgia dan Carolina Selatan, dan bertempur dalam Perang Seminole Kedua di Florida. Pengenalan pertama kehidupan di Selatan ini meninggalkan kesan yang baik.

Tidak seperti banyak rakan sekelas West Pointnya, Sherman tidak melihat aksi dalam Perang Mexico-Amerika. Sebaliknya, dia ditempatkan di California Utara, yang berada di ambang California Gold Rush. Dia menghabiskan beberapa tahun di sana sebagai pegawai pentadbiran, akhirnya naik ke pangkat kapten.

Tetapi dengan sedikit pengalaman bertempur, Sherman menyedari kemajuan masa depan tidak mungkin. Dia melepaskan jawatannya pada tahun 1853, tetapi tetap tinggal di California bersama keluarganya yang sedang berkembang.


Pembangunan

Zon sebelum Bencana

Sebelum World of Warcraft: Bencana, dua versi zon Hyjal hadir dalam permainan. Yang pertama dari segi kronologi pengetahuan adalah peta yang digunakan untuk contoh Caverns of Time "Battle for Mount Hyjal". Peta ini, bagaimanapun, adalah versi zona retouched yang sudah ada dalam permainan sejak awal tetapi tidak dapat diakses dengan cara biasa. Walaupun begitu, biasanya untuk mengaksesBencana zon, hanya dikenali sebagai Hyjal, melalui Winterspring dengan beberapa panjat tebing yang mahir, atau kesalahan yang memungkinkan anda mati dekat pintu masuk zon kemudian bangkit di seberang. & # 9125 & # 93 Walau bagaimanapun, selepas patch 2.1.2, Blizzard melaksanakan teleport "& # 32 & # 91 No Man's Land & # 93" yang mengeluarkan pemain dari zon. Masih mungkin bagi seorang dukun untuk melakukan rantaian & # 32 & # 91 Penglihatan Jauh & # 93 dari zon tetangga seperti Winterspring untuk melihat di dalam Hyjal.

Runtuhan pangkalan Perikatan dan Gerombolan dari Pertempuran Gunung Hyjal tidak muncul di Bencana-era Hyjal, kemungkinan besar disebabkan oleh retconning atau mekanik permainan. Di tempat bekas markas Perikatan adalah Grove Aessina dan Shrine of Goldrinn, dan Verdant Thicket terletak di tempat bekas markas Horde.

Pada awal awal, Hyjal dianggap sebagai "zon serbuan tingkat tinggi", dipenuhi dengan setan dan naga yang saling bertarung. Tantangannya adalah untuk menyucikan kembali Perigi Keabadian, dengan "kerangka biasa yang dirantai ke batu" di dekatnya. & # 9126 & # 93

Zon "Hyjal" seperti yang muncul sebagai sebahagian dari Kalimdor hingga Bencana.

Zon "Hyjal Summit" seperti yang muncul semasa Caverns of Time contohnya Battle for Mount Hyjal.

Peta Hyjal Summit dalam contoh Battle for Mount Hyjal.

World of Warcraft: Bencana

Penerangan dari laman web rasmi

Dalam World of Warcraft: Cataclysm, pemain akan berpeluang untuk menjelajahi Gunung Hyjal yang baru dibuka sebagai pahlawan Azeroth, dengan bantuan Ysera, Malfurion Stormrage dan Hamuul Runetotem, diminta untuk mendorong pasukan tentera Firelord, mengusir Ragnaros ke Elemental Plane dan membuang sampah ke kubu naga senja di Darkwhisper Gorge yang berdekatan. Zon 78-82 tahap serba baru ini akan mempunyai pelbagai hub pencarian, medan bertahap dan garis pencarian, portal ke zon mikro di dalam Firelands, penjara bawah tanah serba baru, dan banyak lagi.

Pokok Dunia

Pemain akan dapat memasuki Hyjal melalui Moonglade, untuk melakukan siri pencarian peringkat tinggi di lokasi bersejarah di samping beberapa pahlawan Azeroth yang paling terkenal. Dengan persaingan lama antara kepemimpinan peri malam yang mengancam akan melemahkan kempen menentang Deathwing, pemain akan cepat mengetahui tugas mempertahankan Nordrassil lebih menakutkan daripada yang mereka jangkakan. Untuk berjaya, mereka mesti meminta pertolongan sekutu yang sangat kuat: Orang-orang Kuno.

Orang-orang dahulu

Untuk melindungi Nordrassil dan menyembuhkan kehancuran yang ditimbulkan oleh unsur api yang menyerang di Gunung Hyjal, pemain mesti terlebih dahulu merebut kembali kuil dewa serigala Goldrinn. Raksasa yang mengelilingi kuil tidak akan pergi dengan damai, tetapi merebut kuil itu akan memberi peluang kepada pemain untuk pertama kali menyusup masuk ke Firelands dan menutup sebuah portal Twilight utama, memperlahankan kemajuan Twilight's Hammer yang berdekatan di Hyjal. Dengan portal pertama dibongkar, pemain akan segera dicari oleh semangat belantara Aessina untuk membantu membersihkan dan menyembuhkan hutan berdekatan, akhirnya mengembalikan tanah itu ke bekas kemegahannya. Kemenangan kecil ini, bagaimanapun, tidak cukup untuk menghalangi Sisa-Sisa Twilight daripada berusaha membakar hutan sekali lagi. Semasa anda berusaha untuk menjaga musuh-musuh ini, anda juga perlu menolong Guardians of Hyjal - sebuah puak netral baru dari puak-puak dan penyembah orang-orang Ancien - menghuni hutan dengan kehidupan binatang. Bahkan dikhabarkan bahawa Malorne telah terlihat di padang belantara. Mungkin siasatan lebih lanjut diperlukan. Di tengah kekacauan, Druids of the Talon akan memerlukan bantuan pemain untuk membangkitkan dewi makhluk bersayap. Pemain memulakan proses dengan membantu membunuh sekumpulan naga hitam dan menutup portal Firelands kedua dari dalam. Tepat ketika anda berfikir bahawa keadaan mungkin semakin panas, anda perlu bertempur melalui kota peri malam yang membara untuk menutup portal ketiga dan terakhir dengan bantuan dewa penyu, Tortolla.

Darkwhisper Gorge

Kejayaan anda di Hyjal akhirnya akan membawa anda ke perhimpunan orang-orang Ancien, yang telah mengatur rancangan untuk membawa sekutu dan demigod yang kuat kembali ke alam ini. Namun, sebelum perkara itu dapat terjadi, anda perlu menyusup Darkwhisper Gorge yang menyamar sebagai pengikut Twilight's Hammer, bertindak dengan pantas untuk menaburkan perselisihan di dalam puak yang kuat, melemahkannya untuk perjuangan yang akan datang. Hanya masa yang akan memberi tahu apakah rancangan Ancients itu berjaya - tetapi anda perlu melakukan peranan anda sekiranya ada harapan untuk menyelamatkan Gunung Hyjal dari naga senja, Ragnaros, dan anak buahnya dari Elemental Plane. & # 9127 & # 93


PM Jamaica: CARICOM berisiko

Bruce Golding, Perdana Menteri Jamaica telah memberi amaran bahawa CARICOM berisiko.

Ketika dia melanjutkan dengan mengatakan, "Ada sejumlah hal yang sedang terjadi sekarang yang tidak stabil dan mengancam keberadaan CARICOM," dan itu, "Integrasi politik yang sedang dilakukan oleh Trinidad dan sejumlah negara di Timur Caribbean mungkin sangat terpuji, tetapi saya percaya bahawa ini merugikan pendalaman dan pengukuhan CARICOM, "ini adalah petunjuk yang jelas bahawa ada sesuatu yang salah.

Memberi amaran terhadap sokongan dari organisasi saingan, Golding berkata: "Saya percaya bahawa keanggotaan ALBA (Alternatif Bolivarian untuk Amerika), yang kini melibatkan tiga negara CARICOM, akan memberi kesan yang tidak stabil pada CARICOM. Ini akan mengalihkan perhatian , ia akan melencong dan itu adalah sesuatu yang saya percaya bahawa pemimpin CARICOM perlu diteliti. "

Yang mengejutkan mengenai pernyataan ini adalah kenyataan bahawa Perdana Menteri menganggapnya pantas untuk mengemukakan pandangan ini pada majlis umum dan bukan dalam pertemuan peribadi atau dengan rakan pemimpin CARICOM. PM dapat merasakan, seperti begitu banyak dari kita Caribbean, bahawa agenda Caribbean berjalan lancar. Ini adalah permintaan terdesak dan terpuji oleh Perdana Menteri Jamaika kepada rakan-rakannya di CARICOM bahawa kapal Caribbean, jika tidak tenggelam, paling tidak berlayar ke arah yang salah. Atau adakah ia berusaha untuk berlayar terlalu banyak arah sekaligus!

Dalam kesimpulannya, Perdana Menteri menyampaikan pemerhatiannya yang paling memalukan ketika dia berkata, "Saya tidak percaya bahawa ada di antara kita yang boleh percaya bahawa kita akan lebih baik berenang di laut Caribbean ini sendiri, tetapi sudah waktunya untuk kita berhenti bermain permainan, untuk kita berhenti mengucapkan integrasi dan menyatakan komitmen kita terhadap proses ini apabila demonstrasi pragmatik komitmen itu sering kali tidak diungkap ke depan. "

Oleh itu, saya juga setuju dengan semua yang dikatakan oleh PM Golding. Sebagai pelajar pascasiswazah Perhubungan Antarabangsa - Globalisasi dan Tadbir Urus, dan sebagai seseorang yang telah bekerja di peringkat Wilayah EU selama enam tahun terakhir, saya merasa sangat sukar untuk memahami apa-apa kaitan atau penjajaran antara segudang integrasi serantau inisiatif yang sedang dijalankan oleh rantau Caribbean pada masa ini. Hari ini pemacu utama penyatuan wilayah Caribbean nampaknya CARICOM, OECS, OECS + T&T, CSME dan ALBA.

Setiap komen saya untuk BBC Caribbean atau rangkaian Berita Caribbean yang lain telah menunjukkan kekeliruan bagi warga Caribbean untuk memahami semua inisiatif yang berbeza ini. Sebagai orang kanan polis, saya rasa ini sangat mengelirukan dan terputus. Maka bagaimana rata-rata warga Caribbean dapat memahami hal ini?

Bahaya yang jelas dengan semua inisiatif yang berlainan ini bukan hanya fakta sederhana bahawa mereka semua menempuh jalan yang berlainan dan bukan menuju tujuan atau objektif bersama, tetapi hakikat bahawa sumber-sumber wilayah yang terbatas harus disebarkan terlalu tipis dalam melayani semua inisiatif ini.

Oleh itu, tidak ada inisiatif yang menerima sumber daya dan tumpuan yang cukup untuk benar-benar mewujudkan integrasi sebenar untuk Caribbean. Kerana penyebaran antara dan seluruh CARICOM, OECS, OECS + T&T, CSME dan ALBA, tidak ada cukup masa dan tenaga yang tersedia untuk benar-benar memperdalam mana-mana ini untuk mencapai integrasi sebenar.

Oleh itu, kita ditinggalkan dengan wilayah Karibia yang dikepung dengan banyak niat integrasi serantau yang baik tetapi tidak ada zat dan kepemimpinan yang nyata untuk memungkinkan integrasi sebenar. Pernyataan kebijakan yang melancarkan inisiatif serantau baru ditambah dengan percobaan sembarangan dalam penyampaian yang tidak terpecah-pecah tidak menebus strategi / dasar integrasi wilayah yang sebenarnya.

Saya harus tahu kerana saya telah menjadi Pengurus Strategi Ekonomi Wilayah di sebuah Badan Pembangunan Wilayah UK selama enam tahun terakhir - sekarang sebagai Penasihat Perancangan dan Prestasi Kanan, yang meliputi wilayah dengan 5.2 juta orang dengan anggaran 5 tahun sebanyak £ 2.2billion.

Artikel di atas ditulis dengan petikan dan petikan dari Jamaican Observer - Rabu, 10 Jun 2009.


Hannibal di Gates menambah dua Pertempuran Sejarah baru: Pertempuran Cannae (216BC) dan Pertempuran Zama (202BC). Kedua-dua pertempuran itu menandakan poin penting dalam Perang Punic ke-2, dengan Cannae mewakili titik tinggi pencerobohan Hannibal ke Itali, dan Zama menandakan selesainya kemenangan dan penguasaan Rom ke atas Carthage.

Sebagai tambahan kepada Carthage dan Rome yang hebat, pemain dapat melawan Perang Punic ke-2 sebagai tiga puak baru: Arevaci, Lusitani dan Syracuse, masing-masing mempunyai ciri-ciri faksi, ciri-ciri, unit unik dan kedudukan permulaan kempennya sendiri. Sekiranya Hannibal di Gates dimiliki, puak-puak ini juga boleh dimainkan dalam Kempen Besar ROME II.

The Arevaci
Perluasan imperialis telah membawa Carthage dan Rom ke pintu Arevaci, walaupun Hannibal yang kini berbatasan dengan suku Celtiberia yang berperang. Ketika kempen dimulakan, Arevaci bersikap berkecuali tetapi mempunyai pilihan yang jelas di hadapan mereka: bersatu dengan Hannibal dan berisiko membalas dendam dari orang Rom, atau tetap berpakat dengan Rom dan menghadapi kepastian kemarahan Carthaginian. Walaupun mereka tahu tentang medan dan kehebatan pertempuran yang luar biasa, Arevaci tidak dapat menguasai kedua-dua kuasa besar itu sekaligus. Buat masa ini, mereka tetap berkecuali, tetapi tidak dapat bertahan lama. Seseorang mesti menguasai semenanjung Iberia, mungkinkah itu Arevaci?
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Lusitani
Lusitani tinggal di Iberia jauh sebelum Carthage atau Rom mengganggu wilayah itu. Mereka, seperti sepupu mereka yang jauh dari Suebi, bukan satu klan tetapi satu kumpulan puak yang lebih kecil, bekerja sama untuk pertahanan dan keuntungan bersama Pahlawan sengit dan tangkas, Lusitani sangat cocok untuk perang gerila. Ketika tentera Carthaginian Hannibal bergerak melalui tanah yang sebelumnya dikendalikan oleh Rom, ada peluang bagi Lusitani untuk meluaskan batas mereka dan menuntut kembali Iberia dari penjajahnya. Namun, walaupun mungkin ada kehati-hatian dengan hati-hati, bahkan persaudaraan dengan musuh pada awalnya, akhirnya mereka harus diusir dari tanah!
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Syracuse
Negara kota Syracuse terkenal di seluruh dunia kuno sebagai pusat budaya dan sains. Ia juga kaya dengan Syracuse dari kedudukan utamanya di tengah Mediterranean. Serangkaian tiran menguasai sejarahnya, mempertahankan otonomi kota terhadap sesama Yunani, Carthaginian dan ancaman dari dalam. Pada tahun 218 SM, Rom dan Carthage ingin sekali melihat Syracuse berada di bawah kawalan mereka untuk selamanya. Ketika kedua-dua kuasa besar itu berperang lagi, ia akan berada di jurang - akankah Syracuse menempa nasibnya sendiri atau jatuh ke dalam kekaburan sebagai milik penjajah yang lain?
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6 Sempronius Densus, 69 Masihi

"Tidak ada seorang pun yang menentang atau menawarkan diri untuk membela diri, kecuali seorang sahaja, seorang centurion, Sempronius Densus, satu-satunya lelaki di antara beribu-ribu orang yang dilihat matahari pada hari itu bertindak pantas terhadap kerajaan Rom, yang, walaupun dia tidak pernah menerima nikmat dari Galba, namun karena keberanian dan kesetiaan berusaha untuk mempertahankan takhta. "
- Plutarch, Hidup

Sempronius Densus adalah seorang veteran perang tua yang keliru yang mengambil tugasnya sebagai Pengawal Imperial Rom dengan sangat serius. Oleh itu, dia tidak akan lari ketika melihat beberapa ribu tentera Rom pemberontak berbaris di istana bersiap-siap untuk menghukum Kaisar. Penting untuk diingat bahawa Densus tidak memiliki kesetiaan tertentu kepada Kaisar Galba. Dia baru tahu bahawa perihal pekerjaannya meminta dia meletakkan nyawanya untuk menyelamatkan anak jalang, dan dia tidak main-main ketika dia berada di tempat kerja. Oleh itu, Densus berjalan ke arah massa, mengacungkan Centurion Whacking Stick - tongkat pendek yang biasa digunakan oleh pegawai Rom untuk menjatuhkan hukuman mati secara paksa kepada tentera yang tidak bertugas - dan memerintahkan orang-orang yang maju untuk berhenti.

Melihat bahawa haus darah, pedang yang membawa gerombolan seramai 1,000 orang tidak mendengarkan orang yang menggunakan tongkat, Densus menariknya pugio- keris pendek kira-kira separuh dari ukuran pedang Rom standard. Memikirkan yang seharusnya menunjukkan seberapa banyak perniagaan yang dimaksudkannya, Densus sekali lagi menjerit kepada mereka untuk berhenti. Sekali lagi, mereka terus berjalan. Memastikan bahawa mereka dapat mendengarnya pada kali terakhir, Densus mengangkat bahu, mungkin berkata, "Anda memintanya," dan mengejar pagar betis.

Sepenuhnya dikelilingi, Densus memerangi seluruh tentera dengan sendirinya untuk mempertahankan seorang lelaki yang hampir tidak dikenalnya. Dengan bertahun-tahun bertempur, dia menembus tentera, seperti yang dikatakan oleh Plutarch, "untuk beberapa waktu." Pendiriannya yang berani berakhir ketika dia diturunkan oleh pukulan ke bahagian belakang lutut dan dibunuh dengan bersemangat oleh orang ramai. Malangnya bagi lelaki yang dijaganya, orang-orang yang mengendalikan gerbongnya sangat terpesona oleh bola raksasa Densus sehingga mereka menurunkan peralatan mereka dan berlari ke arahnya, menghadap Maharaja di padang. Galba dibunuh, dipenggal dan kepalanya diarak di sekitar bandar dengan tombak. Plutarch gagal menyebutkan apa yang dilakukan oleh massa dengan badan Sempronius Densus, walaupun kita harus membayangkannya melibatkan perarakan yang sangat sedikit, dan banyak yang menjauhkan diri. Oleh kerana filem slasher akan terus mengajar kita, jangan sekali-kali menganggap anda benar-benar membunuh orang yang boleh membunuh banyak orang hanya dengan pisau.

Plutarch. Kehidupan. Trans. John Dryden. Little, Brown, 1905.

Kakitangan, Wellesley K. Tahun Empat Maharaja. Routledge, 2003.

Tacitus. Sejarah. Kessinger, 2004.

Berkaitan: Gear Up Seperti Bos Untuk Hari Presiden


Batu Bata yang dihasilkan secara besar-besaran & # xA0

Tapak arkeologi di Mari, Syria (Tell Hariri moden) yang merupakan sebuah bandar kuno Sumeria di tebing barat sungai Euphrates. & # XA0

Jean-Michel Coureau / Gamma-Rapho / Getty Images

Untuk mengatasi kekurangan batu dan kayu untuk membangun rumah dan kuil, orang Sumeria membuat cetakan untuk membuat batu bata dari tanah liat, menurut Kramer. Walaupun mereka pertama kali menggunakan tanah liat sebagai bahan binaan, & # x201Inovasi adalah keupayaan untuk menghasilkan batu bata dalam jumlah besar, dan menyatukannya dalam skala besar, & # x201D Jones menerangkan. Bangunan mereka mungkin tidak tahan lama seperti bangunan batu, tetapi mereka dapat membangun lebih banyak dari mereka, dan membuat kota-kota yang lebih besar.


Perang Punic Kedua: Perang Hannibal & # 8217 di Itali

Tentera yang kuat siap untuk menyeberangi Sungai Ebro ke utara Sepanyol, yang terdiri daripada tentera dari banyak bangsa dan budaya. Namun heterogen sebagai kekuatannya, kebanyakan mereka adalah veteran selama dua dekad perang berterusan. Itu adalah tentera yang kohesif yang dibina untuk kepantasan dan kejutan, dan pasukan itu menjawab kepada seorang lelaki dan satu akan & # 8212 Hannibal dari Carthage. Berkuda ringan dari dataran padang pasir Numidia menyaring badan utama dari mata ingin tahu atau bermusuhan. Melepasi halangan ini, tentera meluas sejauh bermil-mil: skuadron berkuda Iberia dan tentera balar tentera laut Balearic, dilatih sejak kecil dalam seni lelaki pemanah sling dari lembah-lembah gajah perkasa Afrika Utara yang bergerak maju seperti tombak veteran Libya menara pengawal bergerak & # 8212 lebih daripada 80,000 lelaki semuanya memberitahu.

Hannibal Barca dari Carthage telah membawa tentera ini ke tebing Ebro pada tahun yang menentukan, 218 SM. Sepuluh tahun sebelumnya, Senat dan orang-orang Rom telah melarang orang Carthagin untuk menyeberangi sungai itu kerana menderita perang. Sekarang tiada apa yang dapat menggembirakan Hannibal. Jeneral muda itu bertekad bukan hanya untuk menyeberangi Ebro tetapi juga melakukan perarakan epik melintasi Pyrenees, melalui Gaul, ke pergunungan Alpen dan ke Itali untuk mengancam Rom itu sendiri.

Orang Rom kemudian percaya bahawa ayah Hannibal, Hamilcar Barca, telah mewariskan rancangan ini untuk menyerang Itali kepada anaknya. Jeneral hebat itu melancarkan kempen gerila melawan pasukan Rom di barat Sicily selama tujuh tahun terakhir Perang Punic Pertama. Tidak terkalahkan di darat, Hamilcar telah dipaksa oleh kekalahan tentera laut untuk menyerahkan Sicily ke Rom pada tahun 241 SM. Tetapi berakhirnya perang itu tidak memberikan jeda kepada Carthage, yang segera diancam oleh pemberontakan tentera upahan yang berdarah. Hamilcar akhirnya mengalahkan pemberontak pada tahun 238, tetapi Rom merebut peluang untuk mencaplok Sardinia dan Corsica. Tindakan pencerobohan telanjang itu, Pemerkosaan Sardinia sebagaimana yang disebut oleh Carthaginians, meyakinkan Hamilcar bahawa kota asalnya tidak akan pernah tahu kedamaian selagi kuasa Rom tetap tidak terkendali.

Setelah pemberontak dihancurkan, Hamilcar memulai ekspedisi baru ke Iberia untuk mengukir sebuah kerajaan yang akan menggantikan sumber daya yang hilang di Sicily dan Sardinia. Sebelum meninggalkan Carthage, dia membawa puteranya yang berusia 9 tahun, Hannibal ke sebuah kuil untuk berjanji & # 8216 tidak pernah menjadi teman Rom. & # 8217 Hamilcar berkempen di Iberia selama sembilan tahun, sehingga dia terbunuh dalam pertempuran pada tahun 229 SM. Perintah Iberia diserahkan kepada menantunya, Hasdrubal the Splendid, tetapi Hasdrubal yang dipaksa orang Rom pada 228 SM untuk menandatangani perjanjian yang berjanji untuk tidak pernah menyeberangi Ebro dengan senjata. Hasdrubal meneruskan pengembangan empayar Barcid di Iberia selama lapan tahun lagi sehingga dia dijatuhkan oleh pisau pembunuh pada tahun 221. Tentera Carthagin kemudian memuji Hannibal, walaupun dia baru berusia 25 tahun, sebagai komandan barunya. Oleh itu, kepada Hannibal, bersama adik-adiknya Hasdrubal dan Mago, untuk melaksanakan rancangan ayah mereka.

Hannibal tidak membuang masa. Dalam dua tahun berkempen keras, dia menggabungkan pegangan Carthaginian di selatan Iberia dan menyempurnakan tenteranya. Pertikaian dengan kota Saguntum, bersekutu dengan Rom tetapi di selatan Ebro, memberikan dalih yang dia perlukan untuk memprovokasi perang baru. Pada tahun 219 SM ia mengepung Saguntum, dan setelah lapan bulan ia jatuh. Rom menghantar duta ke Carthage untuk menuntut penggantian dan penyerahan Hannibal & # 8217. Ketika majlis Carthaginian menolak, diplomat Rom menawarkan cabaran perang & # 8212 dan Carthaginians diterima. Perang Punic Kedua, atau Perang Hannibalic, telah bermula.

Di Iberia, Hannibal menghantar tenteranya ke kawasan musim sejuk dan membebaskan pasukannya di Iberia untuk cuti pulang sebelum memulakan perarakan besar menentang Rom. Mata-mata dan duta-duta dihantar ke depan untuk mengetahui semula laluan dan berunding dengan pemimpin suku. Emas dan perak membantu membuka jalan. Kunci rancangan Hannibal & # 8217 adalah perikatan yang dijangkakan dengan Boii dan Insubres dari lembah Sungai Po. Puak-puak Celtic ini mengalahkan penaklukan mereka oleh Rom baru-baru ini dan dengan bersemangat menerima pakatan yang menjanjikan balas dendam dan kebebasan. Bagi Hannibal, mereka menawarkan pangkalan di Itali Utara dan tenaga kerja.

Hannibal menggerakkan tiga tentera untuk perang pembalasannya. Untuk mempertahankan diri dari pencerobohan Rom yang dijangkakan, dia membawa tentara Afrika ke Iberia sambil mengirim 13.850 askar kaki Iberia, 1.200 penunggang kuda dan 870 selempang Balearic untuk pertahanan Afrika. Tambahan 4.000 infanteri berpangkalan di Carthage, bersama dengan armada rumah sekitar 100 kapal perang. Hannibal designated his brother Hasdrubal to hold Iberia in his absence and provided him with the following forces: 11,850 Libyan spearmen, 500 Balearic slingers, 300 Ligurian infantry, 1,800 Numidian light cavalry, 450 Libyan heavy cavalry, 300 Iberian horsemen, 21 war elephants and 57 warships.

Hannibal’s army in Iberia reportedly totaled 90,000 infantry and 12,000 cavalry, although those figures most probably included Hasdrubal’s forces as well as his own. The expeditionary force would still number as many as 75,000 foot soldiers and 9,000 horsemen. Hannibal departed New Carthage (Cartagena, Spain) in late May, marching 290 miles through friendly territory to arrive at the Ebro by late June. Accompanying him were Mago, his youngest brother Maharbal, his deputy Hasdrubal, the quartermaster general and Hanno, son of Bomilcar. That group of generals would prove to be one of history’s most talented and capable command teams.

Unlike with the Barcid invasion scheme, which had hatched over two generations, Rome hurriedly developed war plans in the crisis atmosphere engendered by the fall of Saguntum in 218 bc. Rome mobilized 64,000 infantry and 6,200 cavalry for the coming year. The Senate planned an offensive two-front war against Carthage. The two consuls elected for that year (who were both chief magistrates and generals) would each lead an invasion.

Publius Cornelius Scipio was assigned two legions (of 4,000 foot and 300 horse each), with 14,000 allied Italian infantry, 1,600 cavalry and 60 warships to do battle with Hannibal in Iberia. The Senate dispatched his colleague, Tiberius Sempronius Longus, to Sicily with a larger force of two legions, 16,000 allied Italian foot, 1,800 cavalry and 172 warships to prepare for invading Carthage, in Africa. Two additional legions with 10,000 allied foot soldiers and 1,000 cavalry were sent to Cisalpine Gaul to overawe the restless Celts.

By the time Hannibal’s army crossed the Ebro, the treaty violation it represented was of little consequence, as Carthage and Rome were already at war. Hannibal conducted a lightning campaign to conquer northern Iberia. Hard fighting subdued four major tribes. The coastal cities were bypassed rather than besieged — Hannibal needed to cross the Alps before winter.

He had expected to meet a Roman invasion army in northern Iberia, but none appeared by late summer. Hannibal decided to press on across the Pyrenees in August, having covered 180 miles since crossing the Ebro. He garrisoned the newly won region with a detachment of 11,000 troops. At the Pyrenees, he released another 11,000 Iberian troops who displayed reluctance to leave their homeland. Hannibal reportedly entered Gaul with 50,000 foot soldiers and 9,000 horsemen.Scipio had indeed hoped to be in Iberia by the summer. In anticipation of Hannibal’s arrival, however, the Boii and Insubres tribes rose in revolt and ambushed the Roman garrison army. The Senate ordered Scipio to dispatch one of his legions, along with 5,000 allies, to relieve the beleaguered force. His invasion had to wait.

Meanwhile, the Carthaginian advance into western Gaul had excited alarm and hostility among the indigenous Celtic tribes. Hannibal arranged a meeting with the Celtic chieftains, and after plying them with gifts, convinced them to allow his army to pass through their territory unmolested. Thereafter, the march from the Pyrenees to the Rhône River, another 180 miles, proceeded smoothly. Arriving at the Rhône in September, Hannibal’s army numbered 38,000 infantry, 8,000 cavalry and 37 elephants.

The Carthaginian army reached a point on the Rhône four days’ march from the sea. The Celtic tribe inhabiting the Rhône Valley, the Volcae, massed on the eastern shore to resist the crossing. Hannibal ordered his men to purchase all available canoes and craft from the Celts living on the west bank, and set about constructing even more boats.

As the multitude of hostile Volcae grew on the far bank, Hannibal realized that a direct assault would likely end in disaster. Therefore, on the third night after reaching the river, he secretly dispatched a detachment of his army, under the command of Hanno, led by native guides on a 25-mile forced march upriver to a suitable crossing point. Gathering a few boats, the column rapidly crossed the river. Many of the Iberians swam across, assisted by inflating the leather bags in which they carried their gear. Hanno pitched a camp on the far shore and allowed his men a day of rest.

Meanwhile, Hannibal openly prepared his army for an assault river crossing, fixing the attention of the Volcae Celts. On the morning of the fifth day, he observed the prearranged smoke signal he had been awaiting from Hanno and sent his men into the water. The largest boats were stationed upstream, to break the force of the current. The cavalry horses swam behind the boats, troopers in the stern of each craft holding their reins. Infantry crossed in canoes and other small craft.

Even with the large number of boats Hannibal had collected, only a fraction of his army could cross in the first wave. As the armada surged toward the opposite shore, the Volcae swarmed out of their camp to occupy the beach. From one bank the Carthaginian army shouted encouragement to their comrades in the water from the other the wild Celts issued their challenge to battle.

Just then Hanno’s detachment stormed into the rear of the Volcae host while a few of his units set fire to the Volcae camp. A few of the Volcae rushed back to save their camp, while the remainder remained focused on repelling the amphibious assault. Hannibal brought his first wave ashore and launched a vigorous attack. The Volcae, under attack from two directions, broke and scattered. Hannibal quickly brought most of his army across the river, save for a rear guard and the elephants. That evening, however, his scouts brought unexpected news — a Roman army had arrived at the mouth of the Rhône. Hannibal dispatched a squadron of 500 Numidian cavalry to reconnoiter the enemy force.

After detaching a legion to suppress the Boii and Insubres in Cisalpine Gaul, Scipio had hurriedly conducted another levy when he received the alarming news that Hannibal had not only crossed the Ebro but was advancing through the Pyrenees. Scipio decided to sail to the friendly Greek city of Massilia (modern Marseille), at the mouth of the Rhône, which he could use as a secure base to campaign against Hannibal in Gaul. Five days at sea brought his 24,200 men and 60 ships to Massilia. There, Scipio was shocked to learn that Hannibal’s army was just a few days’ march upriver. He had never expected the Carthaginians to march so far so quickly. Scipio sent a picked force of 300 cavalry, reinforced with Celtic mercenary horsemen, to scout out the reported enemy.

Getting their elephants across the Rhône posed special problems for the Carthaginians. The animals refused to board boats or small rafts for the crossing. Hannibal directed his pioneers to construct a number of large rafts, 25 feet square. These were lashed together in pairs, and eight pairs were attached to the bank, forming a pier 50 feet wide and extending 200 feet into the river. Two additional rafts were attached to this pier and connected with tow-lines to boats. The rest of the elephants had refused to venture onto boats in the river, so the pier was disguised as dry land, covered with dirt. The elephants were led by two compliant females across the pier and onto the raft. Then the rafts were cut free and towed across the river. The elephants panicked at first but eventually crowded toward the center of the raft and made the crossing safely. The process was repeated a number of times, and though a few of the frightened elephants fell into the water, even they managed to swim across.

Meanwhile, the reconnaissance forces dispatched by Hannibal and Scipio collided. A fierce battle ensued, which the Romans and their Celtic allies won, killing more than 200 Numidians while losing 160 of their own men. The Romans rode on to observe Hannibal’s camp, then hurried back the 50 miles to Scipio’s camp to issue a full report. Without hesitation, Scipio put his army in battle order and advanced to engage the Carthaginian host.

Hannibal briefly considered offering battle to Scipio’s army, but the arrival of Magilus, a chief of the Boii, convinced him to make all haste to cross the Alps. Magilus assured Hannibal that the Boii would rise up in full strength upon his arrival and would minimize his difficulties in crossing the Alps. Hannibal arranged a mass assembly of his army so that Magilus and his delegation could address the troops and encourage them with promises of aid and support in Italy. Hannibal then started his infantry marching north while his cavalry screened the rear.

Scipio’s army arrived at the Carthaginian crossing site to find an empty camp. Hannibal’s rear guard had departed three days earlier. Scipio was not keen to pursue the Carthaginians into the trackless wilderness, so he marched his army back to the coast. He now had to make some hard decisions. The Senate had ordered him to invade Iberia and engage Hannibal, but Hannibal was well on his way to Italy.

Scipio reached a strategic decision that proved to be one of the most important of the war. He dispatched the bulk of his army under the command of his older brother, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio, to carry on with the invasion of Iberia. Publius Scipio himself hastened back to Italy. He planned to take command of the Roman troops already in Cisalpine Gaul. With that army, he would engage Hannibal when, or if, he emerged from the mountains.

Meanwhile, Hannibal pressed on toward the Alps and his destiny. After marching four days, the army reached the confluence of the Rhône and Iskaras (either the modern Isere or Aygues) rivers. This area was known as the ‘island,’ hemmed in on two sides by rivers and on the third by mountains. There, Hannibal intervened in a local tribal succession dispute between two brothers. With Hannibal’s aid the elder brother, Brancus, became chief. In gratitude, Brancus provided the Carthaginian army with rations, cold-weather gear, guides and escorts. The next 10 days’ marching was uneventful. It had been 160 miles from the Rhône crossing to where the Carthaginians reached the Alps in mid-October. They now entered the territory of the fierce and powerful Allobroges Celts, who were vehemently opposed to allowing any foreign army into their lands.

The Allobroges occupied the high ground dominating the trail into the mountains. Hannibal halted his army and sent out his scouts. They discovered that the Allobroges only manned their outposts during daylight, returning to their villages each night. After dark, Hannibal dispatched light infantry to occupy the key positions. At dawn, as his army advanced into the ravine, the hostile Celts, scrambling to get into position, were dismayed to find Carthaginian infantry already occupying the high ground. The Allobroges hesitated, unsure of what course to follow. Nevertheless, when they observed the long column, strung out and vulnerable, they couldn’t resist launching an attack.

The Carthaginian column was thrown into turmoil, with many of the beasts of burden stampeding. Hannibal’s light troops counterattacked, routing the Allobroges below them, but that only added to the confusion. Both sides suffered heavy losses as men and beasts fell from precipitous cliffs or were trampled or crushed by falling rocks. Hannibal’s light infantry pursued the broken Allobroges back to their villages, capturing food and supplies to make good some of the losses.

Hannibal rested his army for one day and restored order. The Carthaginians were able to march on unmolested for the next three days. Then the elders of another mountain tribe came out to meet Hannibal with gifts and promises of aid. The general remained suspicious, but some of his fears were allayed when the Celts provided him food, hostages and guides to lead them through the next portion of the mountains. At first all seemed well, but the treacherous guides led the Carthaginians into a steep ravine where their warriors waited in ambush. Hannibal, having foreseen that possibility, had placed all his cavalry and baggage at the head of the column, while his infantry brought up the rear. When the ambush was sprung, the cavalry and baggage column got through with few losses. The infantry had some hard fighting, but it was the terrain itself, and the boulders rolled down from above, that resulted in the most casualties. Hannibal eventually brought his army through the ambush.

This proved to be the last major attack the Carthaginians faced, as the higher mountains were sparsely populated. Yet small bands continued to beleaguer his army with occasional raids and skirmishes. The elephants proved their worth during this leg of the march, as the tribal warriors feared to even approach the strange beasts wherever they were stationed along the column. From here on, however, nature itself became the enemy. Soldiers born and bred in the sunny lands of Africa and southern Iberia suffered horribly from the bitter cold, short rations and thinning air — and then the snow began to fall.

On the ninth day since entering the Alps, the army reached the summit and Hannibal set up a camp to rest his weary men for two days. Stragglers and pack animals continued to wander into this camp, following the column’s tracks. The snow was falling heavily, and the army was in low spirits. To restore courage and resolve in his men, Hannibal brought them forward to a point from which they could see the lush green plains of the Po Valley in Italy in the distance.

Though the going was now downhill, it did not become any easier for Hannibal’s tired, hungry troops. The slopes were actually steeper on the Italian side of the pass, and fresh-fallen snow on top of compacted ice made for extremely treacherous footing. Many exhausted soldiers fell and slid to the side of the trail. Some were too tired to get up at once, and many were never to rise again. Adding to the difficulty, a large portion of the trail had been blocked by a landslide. The Carthaginian scouts could discover no detour. Hannibal was forced to send his sappers to work. They cut through a great boulder, first heated with bonfires and then doused with wine and vinegar. A narrow trail was cleared in a day, and the horses and mules were rushed across to reach fodder below the tree line before they succumbed to starvation. Two more days of labor were required to widen the path enough for the elephants, and then the rest of the infantry followed.

The Carthaginians had covered another 140 miles on this last leg of the march through the Alps, bringing the total journey to nearly 1,000 miles. They finally reached Italy in late October, five months after departing New Carthage and 15 days after entering the Alps. Hannibal now took stock of his army. A mere 20,000 infantry and 6,000 cavalry remained, but these were the hardiest of men, veterans of brutal conflict with man and nature.

In Rome, the Senate was stunned. All had expected to fight this war in Iberia and Africa, but now a Carthaginian army was in Italy. Hannibal had seized the initiative, and Rome’s leadership, unhinged by this bolt from the blue, could only react. They canceled the invasion of Africa and ordered Consul Sempronius to bring his army from Sicily as quickly as possible to reinforce Scipio.

While Hannibal’s army was approaching the Alps, Scipio had rushed to Cisalpine Gaul to take command of the two legions and allied troops stationed there. Scipio knew he was outnumbered but reasoned that Hannibal’s army must be in miserable condition after crossing the mountains. He also knew that any hesitation to engage the Carthaginians would lead the Celtic tribes into widespread defections, so he hastened toward Hannibal’s reported location. Near the Ticinus River, Scipio led out his 2,000 cavalry and 4,000 light infantry, seeking the enemy.

After a brief rest, the Carthaginians had recovered enough stamina to march once more. Before moving against the Romans, Hannibal staged a display of gladiatorial combat. He brought Celtic prisoners, taken in the Alps, before the army in chains. Hannibal asked the prisoners who would be willing to engage their fellow prisoners in mortal combat, the victor winning freedom and rich prizes, the loser finding an end to slavery in death. All the prisoners excitedly begged for the chance. A few pairs were chosen by lot and fought to the death before the assembled army.

Then Hannibal addressed his men, explaining that this display was a vivid representation of their own situation. They too were offered the same choice: victory or death in battle. Or did anyone think it would be possible to retreat the way they had come? Conquer or die, and the prize was the wealth of Italy laid out before them. The Carthaginians clamored to be led into battle, and Hannibal obliged them.

Hannibal preceded the column with his 6,000 cavalry and met Scipio’s force at the Ticinus. The Carthaginian cavalry was not in the best condition, but it still proved more than a match for Scipio’s conscript horsemen and light infantry. The Romans were routed, and Scipio himself was wounded and nearly captured. Only a heroic charge led by his 17-year-old son and namesake saved the wounded consul. That same youth would one day defeat Hannibal at Zama and earn the title ‘Africanus.’

Scipio fell back to high ground on the Trebbia River, awaiting the arrival of his colleague. Hannibal allowed Sempronius’ army to link up with Scipio’s on the Trebbia. He needed a decisive victory quickly, as it was already December and well past the usual campaigning season. For his part, Sempronius sought a glorious victory before his year as consul came to an end. Hannibal chose the time and the place for the coming battle. He first placed his brother Mago with a detachment in ambush. His soldiers ate an early breakfast, then warmed themselves before fires and rubbed down their limbs with heated oil. Hannibal sent out his Numidian cavalry to provoke the Romans, and Sempronius ordered his entire army out of camp — without breakfast. The Numidians led them back through the freezing waters of the Trebbia River and onto Hannibal’s chosen ground.

Hannibal’s army had grown to 28,000 foot soldiers and 10,000 horsemen as Celtic recruits streamed in. Sempronius’ army comprised 36,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry. The Roman legionaries, wet, cold and hungry, launched a frontal assault. Hannibal’s cavalry, spearheaded by elephants, quickly routed the outnumbered Roman horsemen, then flanked the Roman infantry while Mago’s picked force struck them in the rear. Hemmed in on all sides, the Romans fought on. Some 10,000 legionaries cut their way through the Carthaginian center and reached safety. Nearly all the remaining Romans were killed or captured. Hannibal had achieved the decisive victory he sought on the Trebbia, the culmination of his great march.Over the next two years Hannibal’s army would blaze a historic path of one glorious victory after another over the legions of Rome. Three consuls and a master of horse were humbled and tens of thousands of Romans were slain or captured at the Battles of Lake Trasimene, Geronium and Hannibal’s ultimate tactical masterpiece, Cannae.

Although the Carthaginians would ultimately lose the Second Punic War, for 16 years Hannibal’s army in Italy seemed invincible. His crossing of the Alps, which so unnerved the Romans at the start of the war, would also capture the imagination of generations to come. Hannibal had challenged not only Rome but nature itself, and even the Alps could not defeat his will.

This article was written by Daniel A. Fournie and originally published in the March/April 2005 issue of Military History majalah. Untuk artikel yang lebih hebat pastikan anda melanggan Military History majalah hari ini!


CHAPTER XI The Future Story of the Air

Since the days when the first man ascended into the clouds in a Montgolfier fire balloon, and since the days when the Wright brothers tried their first gliding experiments and proved that men might hope to soar with wings into the sky, many glorious chapters have been written in the story of the air.

Surely the most inspiring and significant achievement in aerial progress is the great trans-Atlantic flight made in the latter part of May, 1919, by a flying boat of the U.S. Navy. A force of fliers in three airships under Commander Towers attempted the flight from New York to Lisbon by way of Halifax and the Azores, in three “legs” or continuous flights, but on account of disastrous weather conditions, only one of these planes, the NC-4, under Lieutenant-Commander A. C. Read completed the trip successfully. The enthusiasm of the entire world was fired by this feat and it is difficult to estimate fully its epochal significance.

Simultaneous with this flight and even more daring in plan, was the attempt by an Englishman, Harry Hawker, to fly direct from St. Johns, Newfoundland, to England in a Sopwith biplane. Through an imperfect action of the water pump of his machine Hawker was forced to descend and was rescued twelve hundred miles at sea by a Danish vessel. However,[245] the highest honor is due to this man of the air who embarked on so brave an adventure.

The next trans-Atlantic flight was made about a month after the NC-4 had blazed the air route across the ocean. This was a non-stop, record-breaking trip of Capt. John Alcock and Lieut. Arthur W. Brown—an American—in the British Vickers-Vimy land plane from St John's, Newfoundland, to Clifden on the Irish coast. These daring pilots made the distance of 1900 miles in sixteen hours—an average speed of 119 miles an hour.

Although these achievements in heavier-than-air machines were of far-reaching importance, they did not fully solve the problem of trans-Atlantic air passage. It remained for the great dirigible experiment in July to demonstrate that in all probability the lighter-than-air craft will prove more effective for this hazardous game with the elements.

On July 2 the British naval dirigible, R-34, left East Fortune, Scotland, with thirty-one men on board under command of Major G. H. Scott, and made the journey of 3200 sea miles, by way of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, to Mineola, Long Island, in 108 hours. The fact that weather conditions during this trip were very unfavorable adds to the value of the accomplishment. The return trip was made a few days later in 75 hours.

The R-34 is indeed a mammoth of the air. At the time of its flight it was the largest aircraft in the world, having a length of 650 feet and a diameter of 78 feet. It has five cars connected by a deck below the rigid bag[246] and is propelled by five engines of 250 H.P. each. Its maximum speed is about sixty miles an hour.

The year following the Great War will go down in history as a marvelous period in aeronautic achievement. The Atlantic was for the first time crossed by aircraft and within ten weeks of its first accomplishment two trans-Atlantic flights were made, three widely differing types of aircraft being represented.

As a matter of fact we have but begun to explore the possibilities of aerial flight. During the last few years we have been thinking of the airplane solely as an instrument of war, and for that purpose we have bent our entire energies to developing it. When all the wealth of skill we have acquired during strenuous war times is turned to solving the problem of making the airplane useful in times of peace, there will be new and fascinating chapters to relate.

The war has done a lot for the airplane. It has raised up a host of aircraft factories in all the large countries, with thousands of skilled workers. It has given us a splendid force of trained pilots and mechanics. It has resulted in standardized airplane parts, instead of the endless confusion of designs and makes that existed a few years ago. And instead of the old haphazard methods of production it has made the building of an airplane an exact science.

People used to be afraid of the airplane and it seemed a long road to travel to the time when it would play any important rôle in everyday commerce or travel. The war has resulted in making the airplane[247] selamat,—so safe that it is apt to win the confidence of the most timid.

Yet the airplanes that we saw and read of so frequently in war time are not likely to be those which will prove the most popular and useful in the days to come. In war one of the great aims was for speed. Now we can afford to sacrifice some speed to greater carrying capacity. The swift tractor biplane may possibly give way to the slower biplane of the pusher type, which has greater stability. The big triplanes, such as the Russian Sikorsky and the Italian Caproni will come into their own, and yet bigger triplanes will be built, able to carry passengers and freight on long journeys over land and sea. The three surfaces of the triplane give it great lifting powers, and on this account it will be a favorite where long trips and heavy cargoes are to be reckoned with. We may expect in the near future to see huge air-going liners of this type, fitted out with promenade decks and staterooms, and with all the conveniences of modern travel.

There is a strong probability that the airship, rather than the airplane, may prove to be the great aerial liner of to-morrow. The large airship of the Zeppelin type, traveling at greater speed than the fastest express train, and carrying a large number of passengers and a heavy cargo, is apt before long to become the deadly rival of the steamship. A voyage across the Atlantic in such an airship would be far shorter, safer and pleasanter than in the finest of the ocean vessels. Gliding along smoothly far above the water, the passengers[248] would suffer no uncomfortable seasickness, nor would they be rocked and tumbled about when a storm arose and the waves piled up and up into mountains of water on the surface of the deep. Their craft would move forward undisturbed by the turbulent seas beneath. We can imagine these fortunate individuals of a few years hence, leaning over the railing of their promenade deck as we ourselves might on a calm day at sea, and recalling the great discomforts that used to attend a trans-Atlantic voyage. It is amusing to think that our steamships of to-day will perhaps be recalled by these people of the future about as we ourselves recall the old sailing vessels that used to ply the deep a generation or so ago.

The airplane, if it is to hold its own beside the airship as a large passenger vessel, will first have to overcome a number of natural handicaps. In the first place, it is not possible to go on increasing the size of the airplane indefinitely, as is practically the case with the airship. For remember that the lighter-than-air machine terapung in the air, and only requires its engine to drive it forward: whereas the heavier-than-air machine depends upon the speed imparted to it by its engine and propeller to keep it up in the air at all. Beyond a certain size the airplane would require engines of such enormous size and power to support it that it would be practically impossible to build and operate them. Modern invention has taught us that nothing is beyond the range of fancy, and we have seen many of the wildest dreams of yesterday fulfiled, yet it is safe to say[249] that the airplane which would in any way approximate an ocean liner will not be built for many a year to come. In the meantime, however, we will have huge machines like the Caproni and the Sikorsky triplanes, driven by two or more motors and able to make the trans-Atlantic voyage with a number of passengers, freight and fuel for the journey.

Indeed, though for purposes of long distance travel and commerce the airplane stands a chance of being superseded by the lighter-than-air machine, there are many other important missions that it can perform in the modern world. One for which it is particularly suited is that of carrying the mail. In 1911 a Curtiss airplane flew from Nassau Boulevard, Long Island to Mineola, bearing the Hon. Frank H. Hitchcock, Postmaster General of the United States, “with a mail bag on his knees.” As the machine swooped gently down over the big white circle that had been painted on the Mineola field, the Postmaster-General let fall his bag. That machine was the pioneer of a system of aerial mail which will soon reach every corner of the country. During the war a mail route was inaugurated between New York and Washington. Now, with many fast machines and trained pilots freed from war duties, a system of routes which will traverse our vast territory has been laid out.

It is for work such as this that the small, fast airplanes developed during the war may prove most successful. Traveling over 100 miles an hour, in a straight line from their starting point to their destination,[250] they will be able to deliver the mail with a speed almost equal to that of the telegraph, and far in excess of anything that can be accomplished by the express train. For not only has the express train much less actual speed, but it must thread its way through winding valleys, go far out of its course in order to avoid some impassable mountain district, climb steep slopes or follow river beds in order to reach its destination. The airplane has no obstacles to overcome. Mountains, rivers, impenetrable jungles present no difficulty to it. It simply chooses its objective and flies to it, practically in a straight line. It can jump the Rocky Mountains and deliver mail to the western coast with the greatest ease. Regions like Alaska, where letters from the States took weeks or even months to be delivered, and to which the steamship routes were closed for a portion of the year, will be brought closer home when mails are arriving and leaving every few days.

What use can be made of the large photographing planes that have been developed during the war to such a degree of perfection? In peace times they will have many interesting duties awaiting them. The motion picture producers will no doubt employ them very widely. Flying over our country from end to end they will bring back wonderful panoramic views. They will explore the beauties of the Yukon and show us the peaks of the Rockies in all their majestic grandeur. They will be taken to other continents and sent on photographing flights into regions that have scarcely been trod by human feet, and they will bring home to[251] us remarkable views of jungles where wild animals roam. Pictures which the motion picture man of to-day with his camera has often risked his life to secure, the nimble photographing plane will secure with the utmost ease.

And that suggests another possible rôle of the airplane in times of peace: that of exploration. As we think of Peary, pushing with his valiant party across the ice fields of the far North, struggling month after month to attain his goal, and returning to the same hard effort each time his expedition failed, we cannot help wishing for his sake that the airplane had reached its present state of development when his difficult undertaking of finding the North Pole began. Who knows but that Peary the pilot might have attained his objective many years before he did, providing of course he had had a machine of the modern type to fly in. Certainly one of the coming uses of the airplane will be that of penetrating into unknown quarters of the earth. Acting on the information which we can thus obtain we may be able to open up new stores of wealth and new territories to man.

The enormous boom that has been given to aircraft production by the war ought to have at least one happy result in peace times: it should reduce the cost of the airplane. When that is brought within the means of the average prosperous citizen, we may expect to see flying become a popular sport. The man who now sets forth on a cross country pleasure trip in his automobile, will find still greater enjoyment in a cross country[252] flight. High above the dusty country roads, he will be able to skim happily through the blue, enjoying his isolation and able to gaze out for many miles in all directions over the beautiful panorama of the earth. The plane which he pilots will no doubt be so designed as to possess unusual stability. It will to a large extent be “fool proof.” Its owner will enjoy the comfortable feeling which comes from a sense of security, and at the same time will have all the delightful sensations of an adventurer in the clouds. He will find the air at high altitudes invigorating, and so he will gain in health as he never could have done by motoring over the solid earth.

When men take to flying in large numbers no doubt we will have to have some sort of traffic regulations of the sky, but these will never need to be so strict as upon the ground, for the air is not a single track but a wide, limitless expanse, in which airplanes can fly in many directions and at many altitudes. There will never be any need of passing to the left of the machine ahead of you or signaling behind that you are slowing down for ten chances to one you will never encounter another plane directly in your line of flight, and if you do it will be a simple matter to dive below or climb over him, continuing your journey in a higher stratum of air. There will probably be laws controlling flights over cities and communities, where an accident to the flier might endanger the lives below. What is likely to happen is that certain “highways” of the air will be established legally, extending in many directions[253] over the country. In these directions the private airman will be permitted to fly for pleasure, while at certain intervals along the routes public landing grounds will be maintained.

Landing is still one of the most serious problems the air pilot has to face, and it is to be hoped that the aircraft builders of the near future will help him to solve this difficulty. The reason for it, as we have already seen, is that the airplane secures its buoyancy largely as a result of its speed. Wings which are large enough to support it when flying at 150 miles an hour are too small to hold it in the air when its speed is slowed down. The machine has to be landed while still moving forward at comparatively the rate of an express train, and this forward motion can only be checked after the wheels are safely on the ground. If the engine should be stopped while the airplane is still forty or fifty feet above the ground, the wings would be unable to support it and it would come crashing to the earth. But this situation of course makes matters very difficult for the airman who has not had long experience in landing his machine. He must come down on a small landing field and bring his plane to a full stop before he has crashed into the other machines which perhaps are standing about. His difficulty is added to by the fact that his propeller only works efficiently at the full speed for which it was designed. When he slows down in the air preparatory to landing, it may “slip” backward through the air, instead of driving his airplane forward at the rate necessary to[254] support its weight. In that case he is in danger of going into a spin, from which he may not have time to recover.

For these reasons it is to be hoped that the airplane of the future will have some form of telescoping wings and of variable pitch propeller. While these improvements in construction have not been worked out practically at the present moment, there is every reason to believe that they may be before long.

But whatever structural difficulties have yet to be overcome in connection with the airplane, certain it is that the big birds which we saw so often in the sky during the war, are going to be yet numerous in peace times. As for the purely military machines, let us hope that their work is over, and that they may never be called on to fight another battle in the air. Yet if other wars should come, it is certain that they would play a still more tremendous rôle than they have in the present struggle. We can imagine the war of the future being fought almost entirely above the clouds. The one great contest would be for victory in the air, since the nation which succeeded in driving its enemy from the sky would have complete control of the situation on the ground. All nations will continue to increase their aerial battalions until they possess formidable fleets, and it will be these, rather than armies or navies that will go forth to settle future disputes. It is largely to the aerial supremacy of the Allies that we have to give the credit for the winning of the present war against the Hun, and it will be by maintaining[255] their aerial supremacy that the great nations which have taken their stand for justice and humanity will succeed in enforcing the reign of Right in the world.

Thus we see man's dream of the conquest of the air become a noble thing, while the frail-winged birds his imagination pictured to him throughout so many centuries stand ready to bear him onward and upward to still greater achievements in his struggle to make the world a better and cleaner place in which to live.


Tonton videonya: The Triebflügel - Centripetal Farce