Penangkapan Thomas Morton

Penangkapan Thomas Morton


Tiga Belas Anggota dan Anggota Kumpulan Geng Bom Darah Yang Didakwa Di Mahkamah Persekutuan Dengan Kes Rogol, Narkotik Dan Senjata Api

Preet Bharara, Peguam Amerika Syarikat untuk Daerah Selatan New York, William F. Sweeney Jr., Penolong Pengarah-Pengawal Pejabat Lapangan New York Biro Penyiasatan Persekutuan ("FBI"), dan James O ' Neill, Pesuruhjaya Jabatan Polis Kota New York ("NYPD"), hari ini mengumumkan pembatalan penyitaan Dakwaan yang mengenakan sejumlah 13 anggota dan rakan sekumpulan kumpulan Blood Hound Brims ("BHB" atau "Gang"), subkumpulan geng jalanan nasional, dengan pelbagai kesalahan pemerasan, narkotik, dan senjata api, termasuk tiga percubaan pembunuhan.

Peguam AS Manhattan Preet Bharara berkata: "Seperti yang diduga, geng Blood Hound Brims dibangun untuk jenayah, dengan struktur kepemimpinan, subkelompok yang dikenal sebagai 'silsilah,' sistem untuk menerapkan disiplin, dan iuran yang dibayar untuk menutup senjata penjara, dadah, komisaris dana, dan yuran peguam. Kekacauan jenama Blood Hound Brims yang didakwa merangkumi dadah, senjata api, dan keganasan mempengaruhi beberapa kawasan kejiranan di New York City dan Westchester dan sampai ke Pennsylvania. Terima kasih atas kerja FBI dan NYPD, hari ini kami menangkap dan meletakkan tuduhan persekutuan pada tiga belas anggota dan rakan sekutu geng ganas ini, termasuk pengasas dan pemimpinnya. "

Penolong Ketua Pengarah FBI William F. Sweeney menyatakan: "Keganasan yang menyertai perdagangan dadah tidak hanya memberi kesan kepada anggota geng yang membuat pilihan untuk mengambil senjata api dan mengarahkannya kepada pesaing mereka, atau diduga dalam kes ini , pada rakan sekumpulan mereka. Sering kali orang yang tidak bersalah terperangkap dalam kebakaran semasa perang. Pasukan Petugas FBI NY Metro Safe Streets bekerja setiap hari untuk mengesan pelaku kekerasan ini dan mengeluarkan mereka dari komuniti yang mereka mengganas. "

Seperti yang didakwa dalam Dakwaan yang ditutup hari ini di mahkamah persekutuan Manhattan[1]:

BHB adalah syarikat jenayah yang beroperasi terutama di wilayah New York, dari sekurang-kurangnya tahun 2005 hingga dan termasuk tahun 2016. BHB adalah puak kumpulan jalanan Bloods, yang beroperasi di seluruh negara, dan berada di bawah Tentera Darah Brim New York ("NYBBA"). BHB beroperasi di dalam dan di sekitar pelbagai lokasi di New York, termasuk New York City, Westchester County, Elmira, dan di Pennsylvania, serta dalam dan luar sistem persekutuan dan negeri.

BHB menggunakan struktur hierarki yang diatur, sebagian, oleh wilayah New York City, dan yang dikekalkan, sebagian, melalui pembayaran iuran. Pengasas dan pemimpin Gang adalah LATIQUE JOHNSON, dan anggota dan rakan sekutu BHB yang lain menyebut JOHNSON sebagai "Godfather." Gang dibahagikan kepada beberapa "silsilah", masing-masing mempunyai struktur kepemimpinannya sendiri yang disetujui oleh JOHNSON. Kedudukan kepemimpinan dalam silsilah termasuk, antara lain, bendahara yang mengumpulkan dana dari anggota silsilah tertentu, dan individu yang melakukan fungsi keselamatan dan tatatertib untuk silsilah tersebut. Selain JOHNSON, GREEN, SANCHEZ, MURRAY, MORTON, CHERRY, KAID, GRAYSON, ROSATIO dan EVANS semuanya memegang jawatan kepimpinan dalam Gang pada masa yang berbeza.

Anggota BHB mengadakan pertemuan berkala, kadang-kadang disebut "pow wow" atau "9-11s", di mana para anggota diminta membayar iuran. Beberapa perjumpaan adalah antara anggota silsilah tertentu, dan pertemuan lain adalah untuk semua anggota Perusahaan. Berita pertemuan disebarkan melalui pesan teks, dari mulut ke mulut, dan brosur. Perniagaan BHB, termasuk persaingan dengan geng lain, penembakan, penangkapan anggota geng, senjata api, dan dadah, sering dibincangkan dalam pertemuan ini. "Kitty dues" - wang yang membayar dana komisen, peguam, senjata api, dan ubat-ubatan, dan yang berfungsi sebagai penghormatan kepada JOHNSON - dikumpulkan pada pertemuan-pertemuan ini. BHB mengekalkan peraturan dan perlembagaannya sendiri yang perlu dipelajari oleh ahli baru. Anggota BHB juga menggunakan kata-kata kod dan frasa rahsia untuk berkomunikasi antara satu sama lain ketika berada di penjara dan di jalanan untuk mengelakkan pengesanan oleh penguatkuasa.

Salah satu objektif utama BHB adalah menjual pangkalan kokain, yang biasanya dikenali sebagai "kokain retak", kokain serbuk, dan heroin, yang dijual oleh anggota dan rakan sekutu BHB di seluruh wilayah New York dan di Pennsylvania.

Anggota dan rakan sekerja BHB terlibat dalam pelbagai tindakan keganasan terhadap kumpulan gandingan. Tindakan keganasan ini termasuk serangan dan percubaan pembunuhan, dan dilakukan untuk melindungi wilayah dadah Gang, untuk membalas dendam terhadap anggota kumpulan geng yang telah menceroboh wilayah yang dikuasai oleh BHB, dan untuk mempromosikan kedudukan dan reputasi Gang terhadap - kumpulan geng lawan. Tindakan keganasan ini juga termasuk serangan dan percubaan pembunuhan terhadap anggota dan rakan sekutu BHB itu sendiri, sebagai bagian dari perebutan kuasa dalaman dalam Gang.

Sebagai contoh, pada atau kira-kira 3 April 2009 di Greenburgh, New York, CHERRY dan MORTON cuba membunuh KAID semasa perebutan kuasa di BHB, di mana MORTON menembak dan mencederakan KAID, yang selamat dari penembakan tersebut. Kemudian, pada atau sekitar 28 Januari 2012 di Bronx, New York, JOHNSON dan MURRAY cuba membunuh dua anggota geng saingan ketika JOHNSON melepaskan tembakan ke restoran ayam goreng, mencederakan dua individu yang terselamat dalam penggambaran. Keganasan berlanjutan, dan pada atau kira-kira 26 September 2012 di Bronx, New York, JOHNSON, KAID dan CANNON cuba membunuh dua anggota kumpulan gandingan lain di mana KAID melepaskan tembakan.

Hitung Salah satu Tuduhan Tuduhan LATIQUE JOHNSON, BRANDON GREEN, INES SANCHEZ, DONNELL MURRAY, THOMAS MORTON, DAVID CHERRY, SAEED KAID, ERIC GRAYSON, MARQUES CANNON, MANUEL ROSARIO, MICHAEL EVANS, dan RUARI

Count Two menuduh JOHNSON dan MURRAY dengan serangan dan percubaan pembunuhan dan konspirasi untuk melakukan pembunuhan sebagai bantuan pemerasan berkaitan dengan 28 Januari 2012 menembak anggota geng saingan.

Count Three mendakwa JOHNSON, KAID dan CANNON dengan serangan dan percubaan pembunuhan dan konspirasi untuk melakukan pembunuhan sebagai bantuan pemerasan berkaitan dengan 26 September 2012 menembak anggota geng saingan.

Count Four of the Dakwaan menuduh JOHNSON, HIJAU, MURRAY, MORTON, CHERRY, KAID, GRAYSON, CANNON, ROSARIO, EVANS, dan PATRICK DALY dengan mengambil bahagian dalam konspirasi narkotik untuk menyebarkan kokain retak, kokain serbuk dan heroin.

Hitung Lima daripada dakwaan Tuduhan HIJAU, MURRAY, MORTON, CHERRY, KAID, GRAYSON, CANNON, ROSARIO, EVANS dan PINKNEY, dengan kesalahan senjata api yang berkaitan dengan konspirasi pemerasan dan narkotik yang masing-masing dikenakan di Count One and Four.

Tuduhan Enam dan Tujuh Dakwaan menuduh JOHNSON dengan kesalahan senjata api sehubungan dengan konspirasi pemerasan dan narkotik masing-masing yang didakwa di Count One and Four, dan dengan penggunaan senjata api yang berkaitan dengan serangan dan percubaan pembunuhan sebagai bantuan pemerasan berkaitan dengan Count Dua.

Sembilan daripada 13 defendan, INES SANCHEZ, THOMAS MORTON, DAVID CHERRY, ERIC GRAYSON, MANUEL ROSARIO, MICHAEL EVANS, dan TERRELL PINKNEY dibawa ke tahanan persekutuan semalam atau pagi ini dan akan dihadapkan di hadapan Hakim Majistret Amerika Syarikat Henry Pittman hari ini. MARQUES CANNON ditangkap di Daerah Utara New York dan dihadapkan ke hadapan hakim majistret. PATRICK DALY ditangkap di Daerah Barat New York dan dihadapkan ke hadapan hakim majistret. SAID KAID kini dipenjarakan atas tuduhan lain, dan akan dikemukakan kemudian. LATIQUE JOHNSON sudah berada dalam tahanan persekutuan atas tuduhan sebelumnya dan akan dikemukakan mengenai tuduhan baru itu di kemudian hari. BRANDON GREEN dan DONNELL MURRAY tetap menjadi buruan. Kes dari Amerika Syarikat lwn Latique Johnson, et al, S1 16 Cr. 281 (PGG) telah ditugaskan kepada Hakim Daerah A.S. Paul G. Gardephe.

Carta yang mengandungi nama, umur, tempat tinggal, caj, dan hukuman maksimum untuk defendan dinyatakan di bawah. Hukuman maksimum yang berpotensi dalam kes ini ditetapkan oleh Kongres dan disediakan di sini untuk tujuan maklumat sahaja, kerana setiap hukuman para defendan akan ditentukan oleh hakim.

Bharara mengucapkan terima kasih kepada FBI dan NYPD, serta Penyiasat Jenayah di Pejabat Peguam Negara Amerika Syarikat, atas kerja penyiasatan mereka.

Kes ini diadili oleh Unit Jenayah Kekerasan dan Organisasi Pejabat. Penolong Peguam Amerika Syarikat Abigail S. Kurland, Jared Lenow dan Max Nicholas bertugas dalam pendakwaan.

Tuduhan yang terkandung dalam Dakwaan itu hanyalah tuduhan, dan defendan dianggap tidak bersalah kecuali dan sehingga terbukti bersalah.


Pranksters dan Puritan

Hilang dari narasi Kesyukuran tradisional & musim sejuk yang kejam diikuti dengan penuaian berlimpah & mdashis wabak mengerikan yang melanda masyarakat Asli Amerika selama tiga tahun tepat sebelum kedatangan tahun 1620 Bunga May. Kotoran tikus di tapak kaki dipercayai membawa bakteria mematikan dari kapal Eropah yang berlabuh di sepanjang garis pantai New England ke kampung Asli. Apa pun sifat penyakitnya yang tepat, penyakit ini bekerja dengan kecekapan yang kejam selama tahun 1616 hingga 1619. & ldquoLaju kematian pasti menakutkan, & rdquo Peter Mancall menulis dalam Percubaan Thomas Morton, bukunya mengenai bab yang tidak banyak diketahui dalam penyelesaian New England di Eropah. & ldquoBanyak wabak penyakit, walaupun penyakit berjangkit seperti wabak, biasanya meninggalkan mangsa yang selamat. Tetapi siri jangkitan ini nampaknya telah membunuh hampir semua orang.

Penduduk asli yang terhindar dari penyakit itu mengalami bencana lain pada tahun 1637, yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Perang Pequot tetapi lebih tepatnya pembunuhan. Penjajah menangkap dengan pelbagai dalih untuk menyembelih 1.500 Orang Asli dalam dua bulan, termasuk wanita dan kanak-kanak di sebuah kampung di Sungai Mystic yang mereka sengaja bakar. & ldquoIa adalah pemandangan yang menakutkan untuk melihat mereka menggoreng dalam api, & rdquo, pemimpin Jemaah Haji William Bradford menulis tentang kekejaman itu, & juga aliran darah yang sama. & rdquo Sekali lagi, Bradford mengucapkan terima kasih kepada Tuhan yang telah disediakan kerana menolong orang-orangnya, & ldquothus untuk merangkul musuh-musuh mereka di tangan mereka dan memberi mereka kemenangan yang cepat sehingga sangat bangga dan menghina musuh. & rdquo

Tetapi ada cabaran lain untuk percubaan utopia Pilgrims & rsquo rapuh, dan ke koloni Puritan yang lebih duniawi dan berjaya di Massachusetts Bay, yang ditubuhkan pada tahun 1630, yang akhirnya menyerapnya. Ancaman ini timbul dari sesama orang Inggeris, yang kebanyakannya menganggap Jemaah Haji, dengan pandangan pemisah mereka yang sesat yang membawa mereka ke Belanda dan kemudian ke New England, dan orang Puritan yang lebih sederhana, yang ingin mereformasi penganiayaan Gereja Anglikan, dengan rasa tidak sedap hati. 1 Akan sukar untuk membayangkan seseorang yang lebih menjijikkan daripada penjajah yang saleh daripada Thomas Morton, seorang petualang, seorang yang bebas, pencinta dunia semula jadi, dan pengagum (dan kekasih) orang Asli Amerika yang bersemangat. Seorang Anglikan yang setia kepada raja dan gereja kebangsaan, Morton juga semacam pengacara, dan juga penyair. Sir Toby Belch dalam kehidupan nyata ini, dari markasnya di perkampungan Merrymount yang tepat bernama, tampaknya sangat senang mengusir Jemaah, kemudian orang Puritan, dari benak mereka.

Ini adalah sifat yang tepat dari ancaman & mdashor, sebaliknya, ancaman & mdashposed oleh Morton yang menarik minat Mancall dalam bukunya yang pendek, tajam, dan menyenangkan. Untuk menunjukkan apa yang dipertaruhkan dalam penilaian Morton yang tepat, Mancall menarik epigrafnya dari novel Philip Roth & rsquos 2001 Haiwan yang Mati, di mana pencerita, seorang profesor sastera yang memangsa pelajar perempuannya, membuat tuntutan luar biasa (dan tidak berminat):

Wira Amerika terawal kami adalah penindas Morton & rsquos: Endicott, Bradford, Miles Standish. Merry Mount & rsquos dikeluarkan dari versi rasmi kerana ia & # 39; t cerita bukan tentang utopia yang baik tetapi utopia yang terang-terangan. Namun ia & rsquos Morton yang wajahnya harus diukir di Gunung Rushmore.

Sudah tentu, tidak ada penghormatan yang akan datang, walaupun Gabenor Deval Patrick dari Massachusetts telah mengumumkan 1 Mei 2011, Hari Thomas Morton, mendesak & meminta semua warga Komanwel untuk mengetahui peristiwa ini dan ikut serta dalam peringatannya. & Rdquo

Halangan utama untuk memahami karier kacau Morton & rsquos ialah kita tidak banyak mengetahui tentangnya. & ldquoPerincian yang sangat berharga mengenai kehidupan Morton & rsquos bertahan, & rdquo Mancall mengakui. & ldquoTidak ada potret yang diketahui, tidak ada arkib makalahnya, dan kuburnya, jika ada, tidak mempunyai penanda. & rdquo Mancall & rsquos sketsa kehidupan awal Morton & rsquos dilindungi dengan kelayakan. Dia & ldquoprobably dilahirkan sekitar 1575 atau 1576, & rdquo & ldquopossossible di Somerset. & Rdquo Mengenai kerjaya sahnya di London, & ldquoMorton berkemungkinan di Clifford & rsquos Inn & rdquo pada tahun 1590-an. Pada tahun 1620, tahun yang sama Bunga May berlabuh di Cape Cod, Morton mengahwini seorang janda dan pelanggan bernama Alice Miller, dan segera terlibat dalam tuntutan ganas, dengan laporan tentang perkelahian dan tindakan luar angkasa lain, yang dibawa oleh anak tirinya (yang juga disebut oleh Mancall, dengan membingungkan, sebagai anaknya- mertua).

Mancall percaya bahawa pengalaman yang diperoleh Morton dalam pertengkaran undang-undang ini menolongnya dengan baik dalam tindakan sivil kemudian yang melibatkan tuntutan tanah di New England, di mana dia & ldquolikely & rdquo melakukan perjalanan pertamanya pada tahun 1622, nampaknya meninggalkan isteri dan keluarganya. Morton menyukai apa yang dilihatnya. Dia sangat terkesan dengan orang-orang India yang kelihatan santai, yang & # 39; t memberi kehidupan yang lebih bahagia dan lebih bebas, menjadi pengawal, yang menyusahkan minda begitu banyak orang Kristian & rdquo: Kumpulan & ldquoAdventurer, & rdquo yang tidak dapat dipertikaikan seperti Bradford memanggil mereka, menetap tiga puluh batu dari Plymouth, berhampiran Quincy sekarang, di sebuah kampung yang dinamakan sebagai pengasasnya, Kapten Wollaston, yang sejak itu telah memindahkan pangkalan operasinya ke Virginia Colony. Setelah melintasi Atlantik untuk kali kedua sekitar tahun 1624 (sekali lagi, catatan sejarahnya tipis), Morton mengambil kepimpinan & mdashto sejauh mana komuniti yang anarkik dan suka bersenang-senang ini boleh dikatakan mempunyai pemimpin & mdashof penyelesaian dan menamakannya sebagai Ma-re Mount, bermaksud gunung dengan pemandangan laut, atau kuda betina. 2 Namun demikian adalah reputasi tempat untuk moral yang tidak bersenang-senang dan longgar sehingga ia dikenali sebagai Merry Mount atau Merrymount.

Mengenai kejadian di Ma-re Mount, kami terutama mempunyai laporan mengenai antagonis marah seperti Bradford, pemimpin sekular yang berpendidikan tinggi dan ahli mitologi dari syarikat Pilgrim. Menjelang tahun 1628, perayaan-perayaan nampaknya sudah mencapai puncaknya, ketika Morton dan kumpulannya mendirikan tiang lapan puluh kaki, latihan kafir yang sangat menjijikkan orang Puritan. Menurut Bradford, penduduk tempatan menghabiskan beberapa hari minum dan berkeliaran di sekitar tiang, & mengajak wanita India untuk berkonsultasi, menari dan berpusing bersama seperti peri, atau kemarahan, amalan yang lebih buruk dan buruk. & Rdquo Morton mendahului monumen phallic dengan tanduk rusa dan melekatkan puisi cabul kepadanya. Ketika mereka mengelilingi tiang, Morton & rsquos riang pranksters menyanyikan lagu yang sah:

Minum dan bergembira, riang, gembira
Biarkan semua kegembiraan anda dalam kegembiraan Hymens
Kembali ke Hymen, sekarang hari sudah tiba,
Mengenai Selamat Maypole, ambil Roome & hellip.
Lasses pada jubah berang-berang hilang,
Yee akan diterima oleh kami malam dan siang.

Tingkah laku cabul seperti itu terlalu banyak bagi para Jemaah Haji yang tegang, yang bimbang penularan itu mungkin merebak ke kampung mereka sendiri. Tetapi ada lebih banyak lagi. Morton secara terbuka menjual senjata kepada orang India untuk bulu. Pertukaran tersebut merupakan kecederaan dua kali bagi Jemaah Haji, yang menginginkan bulu roma untuk diri mereka sendiri dan menganggap India bersenjata merupakan ancaman serius. Pada akhir tahun 1628, Jemaah Jemaah di bawah Bradford & mdash yang percaya bahawa mereka menghadapi bahaya besar dari & ldquothis kru yang jahat dan rendah diri kerana dari orang-orang buas itu sendiri & rdquo & mdash telah menentukan bahawa tindakan tegas adalah perlu. Mereka menghantar penguat kuasa tentera mereka, Myles Standish, untuk menangkap Morton, yang terlalu mabuk untuk memberikan tentangan. Standish membuang Morton di Isles of Shoals yang terpencil, berhampiran Portsmouth masa kini, New Hampshire. Sebulan kemudian, dibantu oleh orang India, Morton dijemput oleh kapal Inggeris dan diangkut kembali ke England. Pada tahun berikutnya, lengkungan Puritan John Endecott (juga dieja Endicott) dari Salem & mdashnotorious kerana penganiayaannya terhadap & ldquopestilent & rdquo Quakers dan (dalam frasa sejarawan Bernard Bailyn & rsquos) & juga diberi kesempatan untuk bertengkar sesekali dan serangan yang bersemangat pada orang India dapat menangkis serangan dicincang.

Erich Lessing / Sumber Seni

Replika dari Bunga May, Plymouth, Massachusetts

Bradford dan Endecott mungkin lebih baik dilayan dengan meninggalkan Morton dan tiang mayatnya sendirian. Sebaik sahaja kembali ke England, Morton entah bagaimana mendapat perhatian Sir Ferdinando Gorges, seorang veteran bangsawan dan tentera yang syarikat pelaburannya memegang hak untuk mendarat di utara Plymouth Colony, wilayah di mana para Jemaah Haji, dalam pencarian mereka untuk mencari tempat yang sempurna untuk penempatan mereka , nampaknya telah menceroboh. Dengan pengetahuan langsungnya mengenai penjajah Inggeris, tanah, dan orang India, Morton nampaknya sangat sesuai untuk mengadili tuntutan Gorges & rsquos. The quo waranto, proses undang-undang untuk menentukan & ldquoby apa waran & rdquo penjajah menduduki tanah yang dipertikaikan, mengambil masa bertahun-tahun untuk menarik perhatian raja yang terganggu, Charles I, yang sedang berhadapan dengan pemberontakan Puritan yang lebih dekat dengan rumah, yang akhirnya akan menanggung kepalanya. Tetapi raja akhirnya memerintah di Gorges & rsquos, menuntut, dalam surat rasmi, pengembalian hak paten kerajaan, dokumen fizikal yang berisi tanda tangan dan meterai raja, yang merupakan bukti hak penjajah & rsquo ke tanah. Dengan kembalinya piagam, Gorges akan menjadi gabenor wilayah yang sah. Sebagai pendahuluan kepada pembangkangan kolonial di masa depan, orang Puritan dari Massachusetts Bay, dalam apa yang disebut oleh Mancall sebagai perisytiharan kemerdekaan pertama mereka, & rdquo menolak untuk mengembalikan hak tersebut.

Morton mencuba satu lagi strategi untuk mengatasi orang Puritan yang dibenci. Dia menulis sebuah buku khas, Canaan Inggeris Baru, di mana dia meraikan semua yang berasal dari New England & mdasha & ldquoRich, Hopefull dan sangat cantik Negara, layak untuk Judul Natures Masterpeece & rdquo & mdashand mencerca penjajah Inggeris sebagai spesies invasif. Menggabungkan prosa yang sangat metafora dengan ayat sporadis, disertai dengan petikan yang dipelajari dari Ovid dan Cicero, banyak buku Morton & rsquos terdiri dari pemeriksaan rasa ingin tahu yang luas. Burung kolibri itu & ldquono lebih besar daripada Beetle yang hebat, & rdquo dia menulis di bahagian yang dikhaskan untuk keajaiban semula jadi. & ldquoFethersnya mempunyai glosse seperti silke, dan, seperti hee stirres, mereka menunjukkan warna chaingable. & rdquo Berang-berang dikatakan menghasilkan & ldquoa sudut maskulin untuk kemajuan Priapus & rdquo (Morton mungkin ada di dalam pikiran kantung kastor haiwan & rsquos, digunakan untuk wilayah scenting), sementara bulunya & komoditi terbaik yang dapat dijumpai. & rdquo

Bahagian lain adalah penerangan etnografi yang bersemangat mengenai Orang Asli, kadang-kadang membetulkan apa yang dianggap Morton sebagai laporan palsu. Dia memuji kecerdasan mereka yang halus (& ldquo) Orang-orang ini bukan, seperti yang difikirkan oleh beberapa orang, orang yang bodoh, atau cerdik, tetapi sangat cerdik & rdquo), rasa penglihatan dan bau mereka yang luar biasa, dan penghormatan mereka yang luar biasa terhadap orang tua mereka (yang memalukan & negara-negara yang memalukan beradab & rdquo). Pada bagian ketiga dan terakhir, Morton dengan penuh perhatian menceritakan serangan para Jemaah, pertama kali melihat melalui mata Asli yang cemas, sebagai penglihatan di firdaus duniawi. & ldquoTidak mengetahui apa itu, atau sama ada mereka adalah freindes atau musuh, dan berkeinginan untuk membeli freindship mereka, & rdquo Orang Asli berharap dapat & # 39; memberi jaminan yang lebih baik untuk berdiam diri dengan mereka. & rdquo Tindak balas damai seperti itu, dalam Morton & rsquos memberitahu, berulang kali bertemu dengan permusuhan dan keganasan, nasib yang dialaminya sendiri di tangan para Jemaah dan Puritan. & ldquoSaya telah menemui orang India Massachussets yang lebih penuh dengan kemanusiaan daripada orang Kristian, & rdquo dia menyimpulkan. 3

Sekali lagi, orang Puritan berusaha untuk mengurangkan tiang mayat, sehingga boleh dikatakan, menghantar ejen ke London, pada tahun 1632 atau 1633, untuk menyekat penerbitan buku Morton & rsquos, yang akhirnya diterbitkan di Amsterdam pada tahun 1637. Morton & rsquos tahun-tahun terakhir, seperti permulaannya, adalah diselubungi misteri. Dengan kecewa, dia kembali ke Massachusetts Bay sekali lagi, pada tahun 1643, dan segera dipenjarakan, kemudian diasingkan ke Maine, seorang lelaki yang patah, pada tahun berikutnya. Dia & ldquod hilang dari catatan sejarah selepas 23 Mei 1643, & rdquo dan meninggal, menurut kronologi Mancall & rsquos, di & ldquo1646 / 1647. & rdquo

Mancall bukanlah orang pertama yang mendakwa bahawa Morton adalah sejenis proto-persekitaranis atau bahawa, pada masanya, secara mengejutkan bersimpati dengan orang India, berharap untuk & ldquoa pelbagai jenis usaha kolonial & rdquo daripada kubu Puritan yang bermusuhan. 4 Dia menyebut, berulang kali, bahawa Morton melobi untuk & ldquocoexistence & rdquo dengan orang-orang India, walaupun sifat sebenar dari apa yang wujud seperti wujud bersama masih belum jelas. Ketika penaungnya, Gorges, membahagikan tanahnya di Maine, pembahagian, seperti yang diakui oleh Mancall, & memberi penghargaan kepada rakan dan sekutu Inggerisnya, bukan orang Asli. & Rdquo

Tetapi Mancall percaya bahawa kerjaya pelik Morton & rsquos mengungkap kebenaran sejarah yang penting, walaupun kurang mengenai dirinya daripada musuh-musuhnya. Mengapa, Mancall bertanya-tanya, apakah Jemaah Haji dan Puritan bertindak begitu histeris terhadap tindakan Morton & rsquos, berulang kali menangkapnya, mengusirnya ke England, dan berusaha menekan bukunya? Apa sebenarnya yang mereka perlu takut? Mancall mempunyai jawapan yang menarik: & ldquoThomas Morton menimbulkan bahaya kerana kejayaan Pilgrims & rsquo dan Puritans & rsquo, bertentangan dengan penjelasan penentang & rsquo, tidak menentu. & Rdquo Tuntutan mereka terhadap tanah mereka mengesyaki permusuhan mereka terhadap Orang Asli menyebabkan konflik berterusan dan bukan keselamatan semua orang tanah jajahan mereka berkongsi pandangan tegas. Sekiranya acara dimainkan sedikit berbeza & mdashif Charles saya telah bertindak lebih pantas dan tegas pada quo waranto, sebagai contoh, dengan itu membolehkan pihak berkuasa Inggeris untuk & menyerahkan penjajah baru dengan piagam baru untuk menggantikan & rdquo orang Puritan & perjalanan sejarah mungkin mengambil arah yang lain.

Lelaki jenis apakah Thomas Morton? Adakah dia seorang perancang utopis, dalam usaha memusatkan perhatian kepada susunan sosial yang toleran agama dan pelbagai kaum yang tidak sesuai dengan ideal Puritan? Atau apakah dia seorang rapscallion yang mabuk, mengumpulkan kru yang cerdik sesama drifters dan debauchees, dan merayu atau memperkosa wanita Asli? Sambil bersandar pada penglihatan inklusif daripada Lord of Misrule, Mancall seorang ahli sejarah terlalu teliti untuk mencipta profil psikologi yang masuk akal, watak yang boleh dipercayai, untuk Morton. Walau bagaimanapun, catatan dokumentari yang tipis telah membuktikan tempat yang subur untuk penulis fiksyen bergegas di mana para sejarawan takut untuk melangkah. Sosok penghinaan & rdquo sebelum Revolusi Amerika, Morton memberi inspirasi, satu abad kemudian, & ldquoa urat pemikiran kontroversi yang bergerak ke arus perdana dalam karya-karya pengarang yang menjadi sebahagian daripada kanun sastera Amerika. & rdquo

Washington Irving, Lydia Maria Child, dan Catharine Maria Sedgwick (yang menggambarkan Morton sebagai & ldquoreputed gila & mdashas, ​​tidak diragukan lagi, dia! & Rdquo) adalah antara penulis awal abad kesembilan belas yang terlibat sebentar dengan Morton. Tetapi Nathaniel Hawthorne, dalam kisah klasiknya & ldquoThe May-Pole of Merry Mount & rdquo (1836), yang menubuhkan Morton, tidak disebutkan namanya dalam kisah itu, sebagai tokoh penting dalam sejarah popular New England. & ldquoJoliti dan kesuraman bersaing untuk sebuah empayar, & rdquo Hawthorne menulis tentang konflik antara & orang suci ldquogrisly & rdquo dan & ldquogay orang berdosa. & rdquo Hawthorne mendapati kesalahan dengan kedua-dua ekstrem itu, mengabaikan kehebatan para penceramah sebagai & ldquothe kebebasan untuk mengalahkan kebebasan & kebebasan pandangan yang kabur, dari pekerjaan keras, khutbah dan mazmur, selama-lamanya. & rdquo John Endecott, & ldquothe Puritan of Puritans, & rdquo memotong tiang mayat dengan pedang & ldquokeen & rdquo dan mencadangkan bahawa jawatan cambuk & ldquomight itu diistilahkan sebagai Puritan May-Pole, & rdquo. dia menyelamatkan pasangan muda di pusat perayaan, Tuan dan Puan May, yang menunjukkan tanda-tanda bahawa mereka menyedari bahawa perkahwinan yang mereka laksanakan adalah jalan yang sukar untuk mereka jalani. & rdquo Dalam kisah Hawthorne yang lain , & ldquoEndicott dan Palang Merah, & rdquo Endecott menggunakan pedang tajamnya untuk memotong salib merah kepausan dari bendera Inggeris, & ldquothe fi pertanda kebebasan yang disempurnakan oleh bapa kita. & rdquo 5

Tidak ada penegasan perkahwinan tradisional yang dapat digoda dari catatan sejarah mengenai Merrymount, atau penulis abad kedua puluh mengikuti Hawthorne & rsquos memimpin sederhana. Bab dalam William Carlos Williams & rsquos Dalam Bijian Amerika, sesuatu sejarah alternatif atau bahkan melarang Amerika Syarikat, dikhaskan untuk Morton. Williams mengambil tuntutannya tentang & ldquoharmless mirth yang dibuat oleh younge men & rdquo pada nilai muka, bermain & ldquoProteus (dengan bantuan Priapus). & Rdquo Seperti Mancall, dia melihat di Puritans & rsquo berlebihan sebagai tanda ketidakamanan mereka sendiri:

Dipaksa oleh Morton & rsquos peccadillo mereka mengatasi dengan keganasan & neraka yang hebat. Semasa Morton meletakkan tangannya, kira-kira mungkin tetapi dengan penuh kasih sayang, pada daging orang-orang India yang taatnya, jadi orang Puritan meletakkan mereka dengan niat jahat, dengan iri hati, gila-gilaan, bukan hanya pada dirinya, tetapi juga & mdashone perkara yang membawa kepada orang lain & mdashupon orang-orang Quakers yang tidak bersalah.

Tanpa kepercayaan pengalaman manusiawi, tidak tahu apa yang harus difikirkan, mereka menjadi gila, hilang arah.

& ldquoIni Puritan sialan ini gila, & rdquo kata David Kepesh, profesor sastera yang terkenal di Philip Roth & rsquos Haiwan yang Mati. Mengadopsi sikap yang serupa dengan Williams & rsquos mengenai Morton & rsquos & ldquoharmless mirth & rdquo dan & ldquopeccadillos, & rdquo dia mempertahankan hasutan bersiri pelajar kolejnya sendiri sebagai penegasan nilai tradisional Amerika. Bagi Kepesh, Morton adalah pembebasan seksual yang hebat dari sejarah Amerika awal, alternatif & bapa yang mendirikan kebebasan peribadi. & Rdquo Kepesh menarik garis lurus antara Morton dan revolusi seksual tahun 1960-an:

Pertembungan antara Plymouth dan Merry Mount, antara Bradford dan Morton, antara pemerintahan dan kesalahan & pertanda penjajah pergolakan nasional tiga ratus tiga puluh tiga tahun kemudian ketika Morton & rsquos Amerika dilahirkan akhirnya, salah faham dan semuanya.

Roth, mungkin agak bertahan, memberitahu seorang penemuduga untuk Penjaga, & ldquoPerhatian ini adalah Kepesh & rsquos, bukan milik saya. & rdquo

Adakah terdapat cara untuk mendamaikan penilaian Mancall & rsquos tentang kepentingan sejarah Morton & rsquos & mdashas pencinta alam sekitar dan penyokong hidup berdampingan secara damai dengan orang India & mdash dengan nabi anarki cinta bebas yang diraikan oleh Williams dan Roth? Dalam perenggan terakhirnya, Mancall mencatat bahawa pembunuhan beramai-ramai Pequot dan peristiwa tidak baik lainnya pada tahun 1630-an & mengingatkan kita bahawa tujuan penjajahan, tidak kira seberapa aspirasi kepada mereka yang mencadangkannya, juga dapat membenarkan kekerasan dan perampasan. Ini adalah pandangan Morton & rsquos, & rdquo dia menyimpulkan, & ldquoandalah satu sebab mengapa kisahnya terus bergema. & Rdquo Mungkin lebih tepat untuk mengatakan bahawa ini adalah wawasan Mancall & rsquos, sesuai dengan ketidakpercayaan kita sendiri mengenai cita-cita imperialis abad ke-21, kebimbangan kita mengenai perubahan iklim, dan simpati kita terhadap hak-hak masyarakat Orang Asli. Dengan semangat, kebijaksanaan, dan wawasan, Mancall telah menggoda karier Morton & rsquos yang menunjukkan alternatif yang menarik untuk beberapa realiti suram dari sejarah Amerika awal. Sebagai saksi terbaru di Morton & rsquos yang sedang berlangsung & ldquotrial, & rdquo, dia telah melancarkan pembelaan yang kuat, walaupun tidak memihak, terhadap seorang lelaki yang rumit.


Dilahirkan di Charlton, Massachusetts, William T. G. Morton adalah anak lelaki James Morton, seorang pelombong, dan Rebecca (Needham) Morton. William menjumpai pekerjaan sebagai kerani, pencetak, dan jurujual di Boston sebelum memasuki Baltimore College of Dental Surgery pada tahun 1840. Pada tahun 1841, dia mendapat ketenaran kerana mengembangkan proses baru untuk menyisipkan gigi palsu ke atas piring emas. [2] Pada tahun 1842, dia meninggalkan kuliah setelah lulus [3] untuk belajar di Hartford, Connecticut dengan doktor gigi Horace Wells, dengan siapa Morton berkongsi perkongsian singkat. Pada tahun 1843, Morton berkahwin dengan Elizabeth Whitman dari Farmington, Connecticut, keponakan bekas anggota Kongres Lemuel Whitman. Ibu bapanya membantah profesion Morton dan hanya bersetuju untuk menikah setelah dia berjanji untuk belajar perubatan. Pada musim luruh tahun 1844, Morton memasuki Harvard Medical School dan menghadiri kuliah kimia Charles T. Jackson, yang memperkenalkan Morton kepada sifat anestetik eter. Morton kemudian meninggalkan Harvard tanpa lulus. [4]

Pada 30 September 1846, Morton melakukan pencabutan gigi tanpa rasa sakit setelah memberikan eter kepada pesakit. Setelah membaca akaun surat khabar yang baik mengenai peristiwa ini, pakar bedah Boston Henry Jacob Bigelow mengatur demonstrasi eter yang terkenal sekarang pada 16 Oktober 1846 di teater operasi di Massachusetts General Hospital, atau MGH. Pada demonstrasi ini John Collins Warren tanpa rasa sakit mengeluarkan tumor dari leher Mr Edward Gilbert Abbott. Berita mengenai penggunaan eter ini tersebar dengan cepat di seluruh dunia, dan penggunaan eter yang pertama direkodkan di luar Amerika Syarikat adalah di London, England, oleh doktor gigi James Robinson semasa mencabut gigi di rumah Francis Boote, seorang doktor Amerika yang pernah mendengar demonstrasi Morton's dan Bigelow. [5] Teater MGH dikenali sebagai Ether Dome dan telah dipelihara sebagai monumen peristiwa bersejarah ini. [6] Setelah tunjuk perasaan itu, Morton cuba menyembunyikan identiti bahan yang dihirup oleh Abbott, dengan menyebutnya sebagai "Letheon", tetapi segera didapati sebagai eter. [7]

Sebulan selepas demonstrasi ini, sebuah paten dikeluarkan untuk "letheon", [8] walaupun pada masa itu telah diketahui secara meluas bahawa penyedut itu adalah eter. Masyarakat perubatan secara amnya mengecam paten itu sebagai tidak adil dan tidak adil dalam profesion yang berperikemanusiaan dan saintifik. [9] Morton assured his colleagues that he would not restrict the use of ether among hospitals and charitable institutions, alleging that his motives for seeking a patent were to ensure the competent administration of ether and to prevent its misuse or abuse, as well as to recoup the expenditures of its development. Morton's pursuit of credit for and profit from the administration of ether was complicated by the furtive and sometimes deceptive tactics he employed during its development, as well as the competing claims of other doctors, most notably his former mentor, Dr Jackson. Morton's own efforts to obtain patents overseas also undermined his assertions of philanthropic intent. Consequently, no effort was made to enforce the patent, and ether soon came into general use. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

In December 1846, Morton applied to Congress for "national recompense" of $100,000, but this too was complicated by the claims of Jackson and Wells as discoverers of ether, and so Morton's application proved fruitless. He made similar applications in 1849, 1851, and 1853, and all failed. He later sought remuneration for his achievement through a futile attempt to sue the United States government. The lawyer who represented him was Richard Henry Dana Jr. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

In 1852, he received an honorary degree from the Washington University of Medicine in Baltimore, which later became the College of Physicians and Surgeons. [10]

In the spring of 1857, Amos Lawrence, a wealthy Bostonian, together with the medical professionals and influential citizens of Boston, developed a plan to raise $100,000 as a national testimonial to Morton, receiving contributions from both public and private citizens. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

Morton's notoriety only increased when he served as the star defense witness in one of the most notable trials of the nineteenth century, that of John White Webster, who had been accused of the murder of George Parkman. Morton's rival, Dr Jackson, testified for the prosecution, and the residents of Boston were anxious to witness these nemeses in courtroom combat. [11]

Morton performed public service yet again in the autumn of 1862 when he joined the Army of the Potomac as a volunteer surgeon, and applied ether to more than two thousand wounded soldiers during the battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and the Wilderness. [12]

Morton was in New York City in July 1868. He was riding in a carriage with his wife when he suddenly demanded the carriage to stop, and he ran into the lake in Central Park "to cool off". This peculiar behavior was because he had suffered a major stroke (cerebrovascular accident) which proved fatal soon after.

Morton was taken to nearby St. Luke's. It is reported by his wife that upon recognizing Morton, the chief surgeon made the following remark to his students:

Young gentlemen, you see lying before you a man who has done more for humanity and for the relief of suffering than any man who has ever lived. [13]

She then produced three medals, saying that the medals were all he had ever received for his work.

Before whom, In all time, Surgery was Agony

By whom, pain in surgery was averted

Since whom, science has control over pain

In 1871, a committee of those involved in raising the aforementioned national testimonial published The Historical Memoranda Relative to the Discovery of Etherization to establish Morton as the inventor and revealer of anesthetic inhalation and to justify pecuniary reward to Morton's family for the "fearful moral and legal responsibility he assumed in pursuit of this discovery." [15]

Morton's life and work were later to become the subject of the 1944 Paramount Pictures film The Great Moment (based on the 1940 book Triumph Over Pain by René Fülöp-Miller).

The first use of ether as an anesthetic is commemorated in the Ether Monument in the Boston Public Garden, but the designers were careful not to choose sides in the debate over whom should deserve credit for the discovery. Instead, the statue depicts a doctor in mediaeval Moorish robes and turban. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

Morton's first successful public demonstration of ether as an inhalation anesthetic was such a historic and widely publicised event that many consider him to be the "inventor and revealer" of anesthesia. However, Morton's work was preceded by that of Georgia surgeon Crawford Williamson Long, who employed ether as an anesthetic on March 30, 1842. Although Long demonstrated its use to physicians in Georgia on numerous occasions, he did not publish his findings until 1849, in The Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. [16] These pioneering uses of ether were key factors in the medical and scientific pursuit now referred to as anesthesiology, and allowed the development of modern surgery. Spread of the news of this "new" anesthetic was helped by the subsequent feud that developed between Morton and Horace Wells and Charles T. Jackson. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

His son William J. Morton was a noted doctor and authority in electrotherapeutics.

  1. ^ Fenster, J. M. (2001). Ether Day: The Strange Tale of America's Greatest Medical Discovery and the Haunted Men Who Made It . New York, NY: HarperCollins. ISBN978-0-06-019523-6 .
  2. ^
  3. Biographical sketch of Dr. William T. G. Morton. Philadelphia and London: J. B. Lippincott Company. 1901. p. 475.
  4. ^
  5. Concord, N.H. (1896). Biographical sketch of Dr. William T. G. Morton. Concord, N.H.: Concord, N.H. p. 2.
  6. ^
  7. Concord, N.H. (1896). Biographical sketch of Dr. William T. G. Morton. Concord, N.H.: Concord, N.H. p. 3.
  8. ^
  9. Boote F. (1847). "Surgical operations performed during insensibility produced by the inhalation of sulphuric ether". Lancet. 49 (1218): 5–8. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)88271-X.
  10. ^
  11. "National Historic Landmarks Program: Ether Dome, Massachusetts General Hospital". Archived from the original on 2011-06-05 . Retrieved 2010-11-02 .
  12. ^
  13. " " Letheon" Inhaler" . Retrieved 2009-05-01 .
  14. ^ U.S. Patent No. 4848, November 12, 1846, Improvement in surgical operations.
  15. ^
  16. Smith, Stephen (1862). "The Ether Patent". Medical Times. 4 (January to July): 83–84.
  17. ^
  18. Pinsker, Sheila Harding, Robert S. (1986). "The Morton Family Collection 1849–1911" . Retrieved 2008-12-02 .
  19. ^
  20. Sullivan, Robert (1971). The Disappearance of Dr. Parkman . Little, Brown, and Company.
  21. ^
  22. Biographical sketch of Dr. William T. G. Morton. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Concord, N.H. 1896. CS1 maint: others (link)
  23. ^
  24. "Dr. Morton's Death". McClure's Magazine. 7: 318. 1896.
  25. ^
  26. Smith, Arthur Ervin (1921). Block Anesthesia and Allied Subjects: With Special Chapters on the Maxillary Sinus, the Tonsils, and Neuralgias of the Nervous Trigeminus for Oral Surgeons, Dentists, Laryngologists, Rhinologists, Otologists, and Students. Kimpton. pp. 13–14.
  27. ^
  28. Committee of Citizens of Boston (1871). Historical Memoranda Relative to the Discovery of Etherization and to the Connection with it of the Late William T.G. Morton. Boston: Rand, Avery, and Frye. William T.G. Morton.
  29. ^
  30. Edward J. Huth T. J. Murray (1 January 2006). Medicine in Quotations: Views of Health and Disease Through the Ages. ACP Press. pp. 1–. ISBN978-1-930513-67-9 . Retrieved 22 July 2012 .
  • Alper M. H. (1964). "The Ether Controversy Revisited (Morton WT), (Jackson CT)". Anesthesiology. 25 (4): 560–3. doi:10.1097/00000542-196407000-00017. PMID14192801.
  • Andreae H. (1969). "The discoverer of ether anesthesia, dentist Morton, born 150 years ago" [The discoverer of ether anesthesia, dentist Morton, born 150 years ago]. Zahnärztliche Praxis (dalam bahasa Jerman). 20 (23): 276. PMID5263393.
  • Asbell M. B. (1970). "William Thomas Green Morton". Worcester Medical News. 35 (2): 15–8. PMID5277344.
  • Ash H. L. (1985). "Anesthesia's dental heritage (William Thomas Green Morton)". Anesthesia Progress. 32 (1): 25–9. PMC2175398 . PMID3888002.
  • Deranian H. M. (1997). "The great Morton-Jackson debate". Journal of the Massachusetts Dental Society. 46 (2): 24–5. PMID9540719.
  • Figuier, Louis (1851). "Expérience d'Horace Wels à l'hôpital de Boston avec je gaz hilarant". Exposition et histoire des principales découvertes scientifiques modernes (dalam bahasa Perancis). 1. Paris: Masson. hlm. 212. OCLC312611474. Contains an account, in French, of the discovery of anaesthesia with ether by Morton and Jackson and of its reception in Europe.
  • Heynick F (2003). "William T. G. Morton and 'The Great Moment ' ". Journal of the History of Dentistry. 51 (1): 27–35. PMID12641171.
  • Keys T. E. (1973). "William Thomas Green Morton (1819–1868)". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 52 (2): 166. doi:10.1213/00000539-197303000-00004. PMID4572338.
  • Leonard A. G. (1985). "Stamp recognition for William Morton". British Dental Journal. 158 (9): 345. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.4805605. PMID3890908. S2CID2357056.
  • Morton, William T. G. (1847). Remarks on the Proper Mode of Administering Sulphuric Ether by Inhalation (PDF). Boston: Button and Wentworth. OCLC14825070 . Retrieved 22 July 2009 .
  • Morton W. T. (1996). "SMW 100 years ago. William Thomas Green Morton and the discovery of anesthesia" [SMW 100 years ago. William Thomas Green Morton and the discovery of anesthesia]. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift (dalam bahasa Jerman). 126 (47): 2040–2. PMID8984612.
  • Pavlovskiĭ L. N. (2005). "Dentist William Morton is a founder of general anesthesia" [Dentist William Morton is a founder of general anesthesia]. Likars'ka Sprava (in Russian) (1–2): 111–5. PMID15916010.
  • Rozar L. B. (1975). "Dr. William T. G. Morton D.D.S., discoverer of surgical anesthesia". CAL. 39 (1): 6–8. PMID795512.
  • Shampo M. A., Kyle R. A. Kyle (1987). "Morton: pioneer in the use of ether". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 62 (1): 56. doi:10.1016/s0025-6196(12)61524-9. PMID3540476.
  • Vandam L. D. (1994). "Benjamin Perley Poore and his historical materials for a biography of W.T.G. Morton, M.D". Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 49 (1): 5–23. doi:10.1093/jhmas/49.1.5. PMID8151115.
  • Vandam L. D. (1996). "The last days of William Thomas Green Morton". Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 8 (6): 431–4. doi:10.1016/0952-8180(96)00125-0. PMID8872680.
  • Westhorpe R (1996). "William Morton and the first successful demonstration of anaesthesia". Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 24 (5): 529. doi: 10.1177/0310057X9602400502 . PMID8909661. S2CID37209555.
  • "Wimmiam McLintock Morton, T.D., L.D.S". British Dental Journal. 146 (4): 128. 1979. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.4804211. PMID367405. S2CID2182221.
  • "Two tormented lives. Horace Wells and William Morton" [Two tormented lives. Horace Wells and William Morton]. Boletin de Información (in Spanish). 15 (117): 17–21 passim. 1971. PMID5283677.
  • "William T.G. Morton (1819–1868), demonstrator of ether anesthesia". JAMA. 194 (2): 190–1. 1965. doi:10.1001/jama.194.2.190. PMID5319582.
  • "William Thomas Green Morton". Revista Española de Anestesiología (in Spanish). 3 (4): 380–3. 1956. PMID13389978.
  • "William Thomas Morton". Find a Grave . Retrieved 2008-12-02 .
  • "Boyhood Home Sign in Charlton, Massachusetts".
  • "Centennial of First Man to Employ Anesthetic". Miami Herald Record. July 13, 1919.
  • "Men Who Have Eased the World's Pain". Kansas City Star. December 29, 1913.
  • "Surgery Was Agony". Worcester Daily Spy. April 23, 1893.

Read Victory over Pain by Betty MacQuitty for evidence that Dr. Charles T Jackson was not the discoverer of Ether as an anesthetic.


Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Morton, Thomas (d.1646)

MORTON, THOMAS (d. 1646), author of 'New English Canaan,' was an attorney of Clifford's Inn, London, who appears to have practised chiefly in the west of England ( Young , Chronicles of Massachusetts, hlm. 321). He was a man of good education and an able lawyer, but he bore an evil reputation, ill-used his wife, and was even suspected of having murdered his partner (Mass. Hist. Coll. 3rd ser. viii. 323). The allusions in his book show that he was passionately fond of field sports and travelled much. In June 1622 he landed at New England with Thomas Weston's company, and remained for about three months, taking a survey of the country, with which he was delighted. In 1625, having bought a partnership in Captain Wollaston's venture, he again sailed for Massachusetts Bay. His leader fixed the plantation at 'Mount Wollaston' (now Braintree), on the shores of the bay. Wollaston soon left for Virginia with most of the servants, ​ and Morton established himself in the summer of 1626 in control over the remainder at 'Mare-Mount' (Merry Mount), as he called the place. In the spring of 1627 he erected the maypole, and on May day, in company with the Indians, held high revel, greatly to the disgust of the Plymouth elders. The business methods which he pursued were, however, a more serious matter. In trading for furs with the Indians, he not only sold them guns and ammunition, but instructed them in their use. He was thus acting in violation of the law. When in 1625 the Plymouth people found their way into Maine, and first opened a trade with the Indians there, Morton was not slow in following them. In 1628 the Plymouth settlers established a permanent station on the Kennebec yet in 1627, if not in 1626, Morton had forestalled them there, and hindered them of a season's furs. The Plymouth community ultimately resolved to suppress Merry Mount, which was rapidly developing into a nest of pirates. After endeavouring to reason with Morton, they sent Captain Miles Standish [q. v.] to arrest him. He was taken at Wessagusset (now Weymouth), but managed to escape in the night to Mount Wollaston, where, after offering some resistance, he was recaptured. He was sent back to England in 1628, in charge of Captain John Oldham (1600?-1636) [q. v.], with letters from Governor William Bradford [q. v.], addressed respectively to the council for New England and Sir Ferdinando Gorges [q. v.], requesting that he might be brought 'to his answer' (ib. 1st ser. iii. 62). In the meantime John Endecott [q. v.], as governor of the chartered new Massachusetts Company, had jurisdiction over Morton's establishment. He ordered the maypole to be cut down, and changed the name of the place to 'Mount Dagon.'

Morton managed to ingratiate himself with both Oldham and Gorges. Bradford's complaints were accordingly ignored. He also made himself useful to Isaac Allerton in his efforts to obtain a charter for the Plymouth colony. Allerton, when he returned to New England in August 1629, scandalised Plymouth by bringing Morton back with him, lodging him in his house, and for a while employing him as his secretary. Morton subsequently returned to Mount Wollaston, and encouraged the 'old planters' in their resistance to the new Massachusetts Company. He refused to sign articles which Endecott had drawn up for the better government and trade of the colony, and set his authority at defiance. There is reason to suppose that he was employed by Gorges to act as a spy, and was anticipating the arrival of John Oldham at the head of an expedition to be despatched by Gorges. He continued to deal with the Indians as he saw fit, though not in firearms. In August or September 1630 he was arrested, and after being set in the stocks was again banished to England, and his house was burned down. He had a long and tempestuous passage, and was nearly starved. For some time he was imprisoned in Exeter gaol, but by 1631 was at liberty, and busily engaged in Gorges's intrigues for the overthrow of the Massachusetts charter. A petition was presented to the privy council on 19 Dec. 1632 asking the lords to inquire into the methods through which the charter had been procured, and into the abuses which had been practised under it. The various allegations were based on the affidavits of Morton and two other witnesses. On 1 May 1634 he wrote to William Jeffreys, an 'old planter' at Wessagusset, triumphantly informing him that as a result a committee, with Laud at its head, had been appointed, which was to make Gorges governor-general of the colony (Mass. Hist. Kol. 2nd ser. vi. 428-30). In May 1635 Morton was appointed solicitor to the new organisation, and successfully prosecuted a 'suit at law for the repealing of the patent belonging to the Massachusetts Company.' In March 1636, while against the company, he seems to have been in the pay of George Cleaves, a man subsequently prominent in the early history of Maine (ib. 4th ser. vi. 127). In August 1637 Gorges wrote to Winthrop that Morton was 'wholely casheered from intermedlinge with anie our affaires hereafter' (ib. 4th ser. vii. 331) but in 1641, when Gorges, as 'lord of the province of Maine,' granted a municipal charter to the town of Acomenticus (now York), Morton's name appears as first of the three witnesses. The whole scheme failed for want of funds.

In the summer of 1643 Morton, starved out of England, reappeared once more at Plymouth, and endeavoured to pass himself off as a Commonwealth man who was commissioned by Alexander Rigby, M.P., to act in his behalf for a claim of territory in Maine. Not succeeding, he is said to have gone to Maine in June 1644. A warrant for his arrest was at once despatched. In August he was in Rhode Island, promising grants of land to all who professed loyalty to the new governor-general ( Palfrey , Collections, ii. 147 n.) By 9 Sept. he was a prisoner at Boston. In November 1644 he was charged before the general court with libelling the colony before the privy council and in his book, and with promoting a quo warranto against it. His letter to Jeffreys was pro ​ duced in evidence. The proceedings failed for want of proof, and he was ordered to be imprisoned until fresh evidence was brought from England. In May 1645 he petitioned for his release. After enduring a cruel confinement for about a year, he was again called before the court, formally fined 100l., and set at liberty. He retired to Acomenticus, where he died in poverty in 1646 ( Winthrop , History of New England, ed. Savage, ii. 192).

Morton is author of 'New English Canaan, or New Canaan containing an Abstract of New England. Composed in three Bookes,' 4to, Amsterdam, 1637. His description of the natural features of the country and his account of the Indians are of interest and value, and he throws an amusing side-light upon the social history of the pilgrim and puritan colonies. Though printed in Holland in 1637, the book was entered in the 'Stationers' Register 'in London on 18 Nov. 1633, in the name of Charles Greene as publisher, and at least one copy is known bearing Greene's imprint, but without a date. It has been reprinted by Force in vol. ii. of his American tracts, and by the Prince Society, with an introduction and notes, by C. F. Adams, jun., 4to, Boston, 1883. Morton's career is the subject of John Lothrop Motley's novels, 'Morton's Hope,' 1839, and ' Merry Mount,' 1849, and of Nathaniel Hawthorne's short story, ' The Maypole of Merry Mount.'

[Adams's Introduction referred to Savage's Genealogical Diet. iii. 245 Winsor's Hist, of America, vol. iii. Nathaniel Morton's New England's Memorial A Few Observations on the Prince Society's Edition of the New English Canaan, reprinted from the Churchman, New York, 1883.]


Where to Look for Stanly County Arrest Records

Stanly County arrest records are presented on the sheriff&rsquos website. You can see records from the last 30 days, the last 60 days and the last 90 days. The details shown include the detainee&rsquos charges and mugshot. The sheriff&rsquos aim in revealing offender information is to promote public safety while adhering to the principle of freedom of information based on the North Carolina Public Records Act. Be advised, Stanly County arrest records will help you track a person&rsquos local incarceration history only. If you seek more extensive information that encompasses other counties as well, use the electronic offender search tool powered by the NC DPS. It presents inmate all across the state&rsquos correctional centers, including former inmates.


Safest Cities in New York

Are you planning a move to New York? Here are the safest cities in New York with the lowest crime rates. You chance of being a victim of a violent crime in New York is 1 out of 210. The lowest rate of violent crime is in Harrison Town and safest city to encounter a property crime is Cohocton Town.

City Crime Rate
Sherrill 3
Rye 4
Glen Cove 5
Port Washington 5
Brewster 6

The Capitol Siege: The Arrested And Their Stories

An explosion caused by a police munition is seen while supporters of then-President Donald Trump gather in front of the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., on Jan. 6.

Editor's note: This story was first published on Feb. 9, 2021. It is regularly updated, and includes explicit language.

The riot at the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6 has led to one of the largest criminal investigations in American history. The attack, which the Federal Bureau of Investigation views as an act of domestic terrorism, ended with five people dead, including a U.S. Capitol Police officer. Since that day, the government has brought charges against more than 500 individuals.

The stories of those charged provide clues to key questions surrounding the Capitol breach: Who exactly joined the mob? What did they do? Dan mengapa?

To try to answer those questions, NPR is examining the criminal cases related to the Capitol riot, drawing on court documents, public records, news accounts and social media.

A group this large defies generalization. The defendants are predominantly white and male, though there were exceptions. Federal prosecutors say a former member of the Latin Kings gang joined the mob, as did two Virginia police officers. A man in a "Camp Auschwitz" sweatshirt allegedly took part, as did a Messianic Rabbi. Far-right militia members decked out in tactical gear allegedly rioted next to a county commissioner, a New York City sanitation worker, and a two-time Olympic gold medalist.

Still, NPR's examination did identify certain commonalities.

There were those with connections to extremist groups or fringe ideas. At least 26 defendants appear to have expressed support for QAnon, the pro-Trump conspiracy theory.

At least 30 of the defendants appear to have links to the Proud Boys, a far-right group with a history of violent rhetoric and street violence. Their values have been widely described as racist, misogynist, anti-immigrant and hateful against other minority groups.

At least 18 of the defendants have alleged ties to the Oath Keepers, which the Anti-Defamation League calls an "anti-government right-wing fringe organization."

But a large majority of those charged have no known connections to established extremist groups. That has led researchers to raise concerns about how extremist ideologies have moved increasingly into the mainstream.

About This Story

This is a project from NPR's Investigations and News Apps teams. NPR's Tom Dreisbach, Meg Anderson, Dina Temple-Raston, Monika Evstatieva, Barbara Van Woerkom, Arezou Rezvani, Barrie Hardymon, Tim Mak, Austin Fast and Emine Yücel contributed reporting to this project NPR's Connie Hanzhang Jin and Alyson Hurt built the database and NPR's Emily Bogle and Di'Amond Moore identified photographs.

The presence of current and former law enforcement officers, as well as military service members and veterans, has especially alarmed government officials. NPR found at least 14% of those charged had possible ties to the military or to law enforcement.

An analysis from West Point and George Washington University found that the Capitol riot defendants included current or former service members from every military branch except the Coast Guard. That analysis also found that less than half (44%) of the defendants with military history had deployed overseas.

Experts say there's little evidence that current or former members of the military are more susceptible to radicalization than the general population. Still, Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin has called combating extremism in the ranks a top priority.

Lawmakers who supported impeaching former President Donald Trump argue that he "incited a violent mob to attack the United States Capitol." There is some evidence of that in court documents: Some who allegedly stormed the Capitol - at least 10% - explicitly said they were inspired by Trump.

"IF TRUMP TELLS US TO STORM THE F***IN CAPITAL IMA DO THAT THEN!" one defendant wrote. "I thought I was following my President," said yet another.

But, contrary to some expectations, most of those charged in the riot come from areas of the country that are not dominated by Trump supporters. According to an analysis from the Chicago Project on Security & Threats, a majority of the alleged rioters came from counties that President Joe Biden won in the 2020 election.

Most of the people charged in connection with the storming of the Capitol face allegations primarily related to breaching the building. But a smaller number face more serious charges and a greater threat of prison time if convicted.

At least 40 are accused of committing conspiracy, one of the most serious charges brought. At least 96 are accused of committing acts of violence, particularly against police. At least 42 are suspected of causing property damage, like breaking windows or doors to gain entry to the building. At least 30 are accused of theft, like the man photographed carrying House Speaker Nancy Pelosi's lectern or one woman who allegedly took a laptop from Pelosi's office.

NPR is also tracking the outcomes of these cases, such as plea agreements and convictions or acquittals at trial. No defendants have gone to trial yet for charges stemming from the attack on the Capitol. So far, among these cases, four defendants have pleaded guilty to charges, and the charges against one defendant were dismissed.

Explore the database below.

Correction Feb. 20, 2021

In an earlier version of this database, the summary for Vitali GossJankowski was mistakenly entered twice and appeared incorrectly for Cindy Sue Fitchett.


4 Bloody Family Feuds in American History

If you have a disagreement with your neighbor today, you might head to small-claims court to settle the dispute. But in rural parts of 19th-century America, such disagreements were often solved with the business end of a gun. Here are four bloody family feuds that could have used some mediation.

1. Grahams–Tewksburys: The Pleasant Valley War

Before their feud started in the 1880s, the Grahams and Tewksburys, both livestock ranchers in Pleasant Valley, Arizona, were actually friends and business partners. Granted, their business was stealing cattle from another rancher. So neither family was a pillar of the community from the start. Their falling out occurred around 1882, probably over the stolen cattle, though the over-grazing of land by the Tewksburys' sheep was also a point of contention. At the time, the feud resulted in the occasional fistfight or bout of name-calling, but little more.

Things got more violent in February 1887, when Thomas Graham shot a Tewksbury hired hand who had been herding sheep on contested grazing land. In retaliation, Graham was shot by Ed Tewksbury, who immediately went on the lam. Shortly after, the Grahams and their sympathizers laid siege to the Tewksbury cabin, engaging in a shootout that lasted for hours. The only cease fire was granted to Mrs. Tewksbury—so she could dig shallow graves for her son, John, and his friend, William Jacobs, who had been killed in the melee.

Over the next few years, between 20 and 50 men from both sides were killed, often by bands of masked men, which made arrests a rarity. However, the feud finally came to an end in 1892, when Tom Graham, Jr., the last surviving member of his family, was shot and killed in Tempe by the fugitive Ed Tewksbury, the last of his clan. Tewksbury was tried and convicted, but due to a legal technicality, his case was dismissed in 1895. Tewksbury died of natural causes in 1904 as the sole survivor of The Pleasant Valley War.

It wasn’t just the two families that were affected by the feud. For many years before the War started, Arizona had been vying for statehood. But since the feud remained unresolved for so long, many legislators in Washington saw it as proof that Arizona was not yet civilized enough to be a part of the Union. Some historians believe the War might have set back Arizona statehood for decades.

2. Turks-Joneses: The Slicker War of the Ozarks

The feud between the Turks and the Joneses, both of Benton County, Missouri, in the Ozark Mountain region, started like so many others at the time – on Election Day. Most men were given the day off from work so they could visit the polls, which meant they also spent a lot of time in the local saloon after casting their votes. A combination of whiskey and politics inevitably resulted in fistfights, such as the one in 1840 when Andy Jones and Jim Turk got into a scuffle that was soon joined by other members of their clans.

Later, a bounty hunter came into the region looking for a relative of the Joneses named James Morton. The County Sheriff wasn’t willing to help, but the Turks saw an opportunity to get back at their rivals, so they nabbed Morton and turned him over. Because of their actions, patriarch Hiram Turk was arrested for kidnapping, but the charges were later dropped. Feeling they’d been wronged, the Jones family got their revenge when Andy Jones allegedly shot and killed Hiram on July 17, 1841. Jones went to trial, but he was acquitted.

Feeling the justice system had failed them, the Turks publicly announced their intention to form a vigilante group to rid the area of counterfeiters, robbers, and murderers. Under the guise of public welfare, they rounded up people from the community, and went after these unwanted elements, which naturally included their enemies, the Joneses and their allies.

The group soon earned the nickname “Slickers,” based upon their usual mode of punishment, called “slicking”, which involved tying a person to a tree and whipping them with a hickory switch. In retaliation, the Joneses started “The Anti-Slickers,” who guarded their allies, and occasionally went after Slickers as well. The battle raged until the Slickers mistakenly went after an innocent farmer and nearly killed him, after which the Missouri government charged 38 of the Slickers with the crime. The arrests diminished the Slicker numbers significantly and led to the feud dissolving over the next few years.

Unfortunately, the Slickers' form of justice caught on with the people of Missouri, as more Slicker groups sprang up that had nothing to do with the Turk-Jones feud. Much like the Turks' Slickers, these groups were easily influenced by leaders with less-than-honest intentions, so many innocent people were accused, beaten, and even killed for crimes they did not commit.

3. The Lee-Peacock Feud

In August 1861, Bob Lee joined the Ninth Texas Cavalry of the Confederate Army, leaving behind his family in northeast Texas. While he was away, the Union League, a civil group created to promote loyalty to the Union and to protect blacks and Union sympathizers, set up a local chapter headed by Lewis Peacock. After the War, Lee returned home to find the League using their political weight to force the area to adopt what the community saw as unfair Reconstruction initiatives. Many of Lee's neighbors looked to him—a former Confederate—as the leader in the push back against this new form of Northern oppression.

To quash his new rival, Peacock rounded up his men and arrested Lee on trumped up charges of war crimes. Knowing he would be exonerated in court, Lee and his brother, who acted as a chaperone, went peacefully. But instead of taking Lee to the authorities, Peacock's men took the brothers into the wilderness and robbed them. They also forced both Lee brothers to sign a $2000 promissory note before setting them free. Alive but angry, Lee and his brother sued the leaders of the Union League and won. But instead of settling the matter, the 1867 judgment only escalated the bitterness between the two sides. When a relative of Peacock's later shot and wounded Lee, the first blood had been spilled in what would become a small-scale Civil War in Texas.

In the summer of 1868, after a year of ambushes and shootouts that resulted in the death of about 50 men, Peacock requested help from the Federal Government. Peacock's political allies arranged for a $1000 reward to be posted for Bob Lee—Dead or Alive. However, Lee had friends and family who helped him move safely about the countryside, allowing him to fight for another year before the Fourth United States Cavalry was sent in to settle the feud. With the pressure on, Lee decided to run to Mexico, but was shot and killed en route by the military. Lee's plan was betrayed by a former supporter, Henry Boren, who met his maker the next day at the hands of his own nephew, who saw his uncle as a traitor.

Even though Lee was dead, the battle wasn't over. His men scattered, but they continued to come back into the area for years to take shots at Peacock and his men. In fact, it was June 1871 before Lee sympathizers killed Peacock, finally ending the feud once and for all.

4. The Hatfields and The McCoys

While the most famous family feud, between the McCoys of Kentucky and the Hatfields of West Virginia, dates back to 1865, the feud's most deadly era began on Election Day in 1882. Three McCoy men killed Ellison Hatfield, stabbing him 26 times before finishing him off with a bullet to the chest. The next day, as the three young men were escorted to Pikeville, Kentucky, for arraignment, the Hatfield clan intercepted them, tied them up, and shot them in cold blood.

Twenty arrest warrants were issued for Hatfields, but no law enforcement bothered to serve them. Oddly, the McCoys didn’t seek immediate revenge, as it was understood that, in terms of social justice, the three boys got what they deserved. Still, animosity ran high, and minor skirmishes occurred in the ensuing years, showing that the feud was quiet, but not dead.

However, when business investors balked at putting money into a community that had a reputation for vendetta violence, the government decided it was time to step in. The State of Kentucky began serving the 20 outstanding Hatfield warrants, arresting two men within a matter of weeks. In order to stop the arrests, a small faction of the Hatfields decided to kill the head of the opposing family, Old Ranel McCoy, so that he couldn't testify in court against them.

So, early on the morning of January 1, 1888, nine members of the Hatfields set fire to Ranel McCoy’s cabin. As he and his family fled the flames, shots rang out, killing two adult McCoy children. When Mrs. McCoy ran to check on them, she was severely beaten, but survived. The Hatfields’ target, Ranel, escaped harm entirely by hiding in a pigpen. The attack was condemned by most members of the Hatfield clan, and, although there were two more deaths and the occasional scuffles for years to come, the majority of the feud fighters had decided that enough was enough.

In all, around a dozen people died during the feud. However, the two families eventually put aside their differences and now see their shared family history with a sense of humor. For example, in 1979, both clans made a week-long appearance on the nightly gameshow, Family Feud, where both sides took shots at each other with pistols loaded with blanks. In this feud, the McCoys were declared the winners, three games out of five.

In 2000, the clans shared the first of what has become an annual joint family reunion, now called the Hatfield and McCoy Reunion Festival, in a weekend full of events that take place in both Kentucky and West Virginia.


78 Arrests In 4-Day Prostitution Sting By Polk County Sheriff's Deputies In Florida (PHOTOS)

Some are married. Some had drugs on them. Some were porn stars. One was a police academy trainee. Another is a microbiologist. The 78 people arrested by Florida deputies between Jan. 10 and 13 all have one thing in common: they're all suspects in a massive prostitution investigation.

Undercover deputies with the Polk County Sheriff's Office spent just four days arresting the suspects, targeted through websites used to solicit prostitution, according to a press release.

"We seemed to have every thug and reprobate in central Florida under arrest," Polk County Sheriff Grady Judd told WFTV. "Let the word go forward, this is not our last operation, because we like it."

GALLERY: All 78 suspects (story continues below)

The arrestees varied in occupation, and some -- like a retired American Airlines pilot and an information technology manager out of Lakeland -- had reputable jobs.

One man even walked by two others being collared outside a hotel, yet still met with an undercover officer in her room, where he opened the blinds and watched the arrests, according to The Miami Herald.

The release states that of the 78 arrested:

  • 18 admitted they were married –one male and female suspect were married to each other
  • 31 have criminal arrest histories – 9 of whom are registered felons – and one of whom has 86 previous charges in the Tampa Bay area. Felons from this investigation have a combined total of 339 past charges of those, 42 prior violent crime charges, including Armed Robbery, Robbery, Aggravated Assault (with and without a deadly weapon), Aggravated Battery, Battery Domestic Violence, Stalking, Rape, Kidnapping, Child Abuse
  • 22 were charged with possession of drugs
  • 26 told detectives they were unemployed
  • 50 admitted to being employed – Job types included: information technology, microbiologist, health technician, city employees, laborers, mechanics, a retired airline pilot, a porn star, food servers, and a Law Enforcement Academy trainee due to graduate Wednesday, January 16, 2013.
  • 14 told detectives they were receiving government aid one suspect denied receiving aid, however had food stamps in her possession

"Anyone who breaks the law in Polk County will be arrested, regardless of what occupation they have or want to have," Judd said. "Whether it is on the street, or online, it is illegal and we will continue to investigate and arrest those involved in prostitution."

The charges range from prostitution to illegal drugs, aiding and abetting, assault on an officer, failure to register as a sex offender, and escape.


Tonton videonya: Tobaccoland u0026 Underground Heroin Clinic. VICE on HBO Season 1, Episode 7