Operasi Moses (Israel / Ethiopia 1980-an)

Operasi Moses (Israel / Ethiopia 1980-an)


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Operasi Musa

Ini adalah operasi rahsia untuk menyelamatkan ribuan Yahudi Etiopia Hitam atau Falahas dari kelaparan dan menerbangkan mereka ke Israel. Pangkalan Israel untuk operasi itu tersamar tipis sebagai pusat percutian di Laut Merah, pada saat ia ditutup pada Januari 1986, mereka telah menyelamatkan 18,000 orang Yahudi, 13,000 secara langsung melalui operasi Laut Merah dan 5.000 melalui jet sewa khas. Operasi itu sangat berjaya dan menimbulkan kemarahan di Dunia Arab, ia akan menyelamatkan lebih banyak tetapi kebocoran akhbar memaksanya ditutup. Untuk maklumat lebih lanjut mengenai operasi rahsia Israel, lihat Operasi Tersembunyi Israel.

Setelah bertahun-tahun menunggu, orang Yahudi Ethiopia tiba di Israel

Pada 3 Disember, 316 orang Yahudi dari Ethiopia tiba di Lapangan Terbang Ben Gurion sebagai sebahagian daripada Operasi Rock of Israel (Tzur Israel). Seratus lagi pendatang akan tiba pada 4 Disember. Secara keseluruhan, pemerintah bertekad untuk membawa 2,000 anggota masyarakat ke Israel, setelah bertahun-tahun menunggu di kem peralihan di Addis Ababa dan Gondar di Ethiopia.

Yang pertama melangkah keluar dari pesawat adalah pemimpin agama dari masyarakat, meniup tanduk domba, seperti dalam tradisi Yahudi pada masa penebusan. Sebilangan besar pendatang mengibarkan bendera Israel. Sebilangan penumpang mencium tanah ketika tiba, juga merupakan tradisi ketika pertama kali sampai di Tanah Suci.

Ketibaan baru disambut di lapangan terbang oleh Perdana Menteri Benjamin Netanyahu, Menteri Luar Negeri Gabi Ashkenazi, Menteri Pertahanan Benny Gantz, Ketua Badan Yahudi Isaac Herzog dan pegawai kanan kerajaan lain. Bagi banyak orang, pemandangan perayaan ini mengingatkan pada gelombang besar imigran Ethiopia yang dibawa ke Israel pada tahun 1980-an dan 1990-an.

"Saya tidak ingat sangat terharu dengan pemandangan Zionisme yang menjengkelkan yang menunjukkan semua sifat kami. Pemandangan olim [pendatang] turun dari pesawat membawa bakul seperti yang saya ingat sejak kecil saya - menyentuh tanah Tanah Israel , seorang ibu mencium tanah - ini adalah intipati kisah Yahudi dan Zionis dan oleh itu, saudara-saudari, kami sangat gembira untuk menyambut anda di sini. Selamat datang ke Negara Israel.… Komuniti Ethiopia kembali ke tanah air, langkah demi langkah, "kata Netanyahu. Dia kemudian menulis tweet, "Saudara-saudari kita, pendatang dari Ethiopia, kami sangat teruja untuk menyambut anda di sini. Selamat datang ke Israel!"

Ketika berbicara di jalan raya, Netanyahu juga berjanji akan meneruskan usahanya untuk membawa pulang Avera Avraham Mengistu Israel-Ethiopia, yang dipegang oleh Hamas di Semenanjung Gaza sejak 2015. Mengistu menderita masalah kesihatan mental.

Menteri Penyerapan dan Imigresen Pnina Tamano-Shata tiba ke Ethiopia minggu lalu untuk menyiapkan operasi, dan menemani pendatang dalam penerbangan. Dia tiba di Israel dari Ethiopia sebagai seorang anak dengan Operasi Moses pada tahun 1984, yang membawa lebih dari 6,000 orang Yahudi Ethiopia ke negara itu melalui Sudan.

Gantz memanggil Tamano-Shata beberapa jam sebelum berangkat dari lapangan terbang di Addis Ababa untuk menyatakan sokongannya terhadap operasi itu, dengan tweet, "Politik harus diketepikan. Besok Menteri Pnina Tamano-Shata akan kembali ke Israel dengan ratusan pendatang dari Ethiopia. Setelah bertahun-tahun berlengah, mereka akan dapat bersatu dengan anak-anak, saudara dan saudari mereka, yang selama ini mereka tidak berjumpa. Mereka akhirnya dapat bersatu - kali ini di Israel. Saya sangat terharu dengan ini. Ini adalah kebanggaan. Pnina - Saya sangat bangga dengan anda. Syabas! "

Di landasan, Gantz mengingatkan bahawa sebagai pegawai Angkatan Pertahanan Israel, dia telah berpartisipasi dalam Operasi Solomon yang diam-diam di tentera pada tahun 1991 untuk membawa 14,000 orang Yahudi Ethiopia ke Israel. Operasi lain pada tahun 2013 membawa 7,000 pendatang dari Ethiopia.

Aktivis Israel-Ethiopia telah berdemonstrasi dalam beberapa tahun terakhir tanpa henti, menuntut agar pemerintah berhenti menarik kaki dalam melaksanakan keputusan 2015 untuk membawa semua keturunan Yahudi Etiopia yang tersisa ke Israel dalam lima tahun. Menurut penilaian para aktivis, antara 7,000 dan 12,000 orang Yahudi Ethiopia masih ketinggalan di Ethiopia, beberapa di antaranya telah menunggu selama bertahun-tahun untuk bersatu kembali dengan keluarga mereka. Aktivis semakin bimbang dengan nasib orang-orang di kem peralihan, kerana Ethiopia berhadapan dengan pemberontakan ketidakamanan dan kemiskinan. Selama bertahun-tahun, sebilangan pemimpin ultra-Ortodoks menimbulkan keraguan terhadap Yahudi pendatang. Netanyahu berjanji sebelum pilihan raya terakhir untuk membawa mereka pulang sebagai sebahagian daripada operasi penyatuan keluarga.


Sejarah Imigresen Yahudi ke Israel (Aliyah)

Sementara Herzl dan yang lain meletakkan dasar di luar Palestin untuk sebuah negara, banyak orang Yahudi bergerak ke sana dari Eropah dengan gelombang yang disebut aliyot. Gelombang pertama, yang dikenal sebagai "Aliyah Pertama," terjadi sebelum Zionisme politik, pada akhir tahun 1800-an. Sebilangan besar pendatang baru ini berasal dari Rusia dan Yaman, dan mendirikan bandar-bandar termasuk Petah Tikvah, Rishon LeZion dan Zikhron Ya'akov. Aliyah Kedua, sebelum Perang Dunia I, hampir secara eksklusif terdiri dari Yahudi Rusia, mengikuti pogrom dan anti-Semitisme di negara mereka. Diilhamkan oleh Sosialisme dan nasionalisme Yahudi, kumpulan ini memulakan kibbutz pertama dan menghidupkan semula bahasa Ibrani.

Selepas Perang Dunia I dan hingga tahun 1923, Aliyah Ketiga datang ke Israel. Kumpulan ini juga berasal dari Rusia, tetapi mereka tiba setelah terbentuknya Mandat British ke atas Palestin dan Deklarasi Balfour dan berusaha mewujudkan ekonomi pertanian Yahudi yang lestari dengan memperkuat dan membangun gerakan kibbutz dan institusi-institusi pendukungnya. Aliyah Keempat, yang berlangsung dalam jangka waktu pendek dari 1924 hingga 1929, kebanyakannya terdiri dari orang-orang Yahudi yang ingin melarikan diri dari anti-Semitisme di Poland dan Hungaria. Sebilangan besar pendatang ini terdiri dari keluarga kelas menengah yang mendirikan perniagaan kecil dan mewujudkan ekonomi yang lebih bulat.

Aliyah Kelima bertepatan dengan kebangkitan Nazisme di Jerman dan nasionalisme ekstrem di seluruh Eropah Timur dan termasuk jumlah pendatang terbesar hingga kini - hampir satu perempat juta orang Yahudi memasuki Mandat Palestin antara tahun 1929 dan awal Perang Dunia II. Kumpulan pendatang ini termasuk profesional, doktor, peguam dan artis. Mereka menciptakan pemandangan seni dan seni bina yang berkembang maju, dan dengan penubuhan Pelabuhan Haifa, ekonomi yang berkembang maju. Sebilangan besar tiba sebelum tahun 1936, ketika British mula mengenakan sekatan keras terhadap imigrasi Yahudi sebagai akibat dari meningkatnya kemarahan dan keganasan dalam masyarakat Arab Palestin. Pada tahun 1939, British mengeluarkan Kertas Putih tahun 1939, yang sangat melarang imigrasi Yahudi, menyebabkan banyak orang Yahudi Eropah semasa Holocaust tidak dapat pergi lagi. Imigresen haram, walaupun berbahaya, menjadi keperluan. Pada saat PBB bersetuju untuk memisahkan Palestin menjadi negara Yahudi dan Arab, sebuah masyarakat Yahudi yang teratur dan hidup telah terbentuk di sana.

Pelarian Arab-Yahudi

Ketika perang meletus antara Israel dan negara-negara Arab pada tahun 1948, banyak orang Yahudi yang tinggal di negara-negara Arab melarikan diri ke Israel di bawah ancaman penganiayaan dan keinginan untuk memenuhi impian Zionis. Ketika anti-Zionisme dan anti-Semitisme meningkat di dunia Arab, penghijrahan Yahudi berterusan sehingga awal tahun 1970-an. Banyak yang terpaksa meninggalkan harta benda dan harta benda mereka sebelum pergi. Hari ini, hanya tinggal beberapa komuniti Yahudi yang sangat kecil di Timur Tengah di luar Israel.

Operasi Musa dan Operasi Salomo

Orang Yahudi Ethiopia (anggota suku Beta Israel) mula berpindah ke Israel seawal tahun 1934, namun tidak sampai akhir tahun 1970-an-awal 1980-an mereka berimigrasi secara beramai-ramai. Pada tahun 1979, aktivis aliyah mula meyakinkan orang Ethiopia untuk melarikan diri dari Ethiopia dan menuju ke Sudan, di mana mereka dapat dipindahkan dari kem pelarian ke Israel. Ini menyebabkan dua operasi rahsia besar - Musa pada tahun 1984 dan Solomon pada tahun 1991 - yang membawa hampir seluruh suku ke Israel.

Menjelang tahun 1984, beribu-ribu orang Yahudi Ethiopia telah melarikan diri ke Sudan, dengan keadaan yang sangat berbahaya - dianggarkan bahawa 4.000 mati di sepanjang jalan. Sudan secara diam-diam mengizinkan Israel untuk mulai mengangkut pelarian, sampai berita keluar dan tekanan luar memaksa mereka untuk menghentikan operasi. Banyak pelarian ditinggalkan, dengan beberapa diasingkan tidak lama kemudian dalam operasi yang dipimpin AS.

Pada tahun 1991, ketika keadaan semakin buruk di Ethiopia, pemerintah Israel tahu bahawa ia harus bertindak cepat, sebelum pemberontak mengambil alih, untuk mengevakuasi seluruh wilayah Beta Israel. Dalam Operasi Solomon, mereka berjaya mengevakuasi lebih dari 14.000 orang Ethiopia (hampir dua kali lebih banyak dari yang dilakukan dalam Operasi Moses) di 34 pesawat El Al dengan tempat duduk ditanggalkan untuk memaksimumkan kapasitas. Keseluruhan operasi berlangsung selama 36 jam.

Imigresen Rusia

Semasa Perang Dingin, orang Yahudi di Kesatuan Soviet tidak dibenarkan mengamalkan agama mereka dan banyak yang dinafikan hak untuk berhijrah. Kerana sentimen anti-agama di Kesatuan Soviet, banyak yang dibesarkan di rumah-rumah sekular dan hampir 1/3 tidak dianggap Yahudi, walaupun mereka dapat berhijrah di bawah Hak Kembali. Di bawah pemerintahan Mikhail Gorbachev yang lebih liberal pada awal 1990-an, orang Yahudi diizinkan berhijrah dan mereka melakukannya secara beramai-ramai - hampir 1 juta orang Yahudi Rusia berpindah ke Israel pada tahun 1990-an.


Operasi Moses (Israel / Ethiopia 1980-an) - Sejarah


Operasi rahsia oleh operasi Israel yang menyeludup Yahudi Ethiopia ke Israel telah dimulakan seawal tahun 1980. Pada akhir tahun 1982, kira-kira 2,500 orang Yahudi Ethiopia telah ditempatkan semula di Israel dan selama tahun 1983, 1.800 lagi meninggalkan Sudan dengan berjalan kaki. Untuk beroperasi dengan lebih cepat, ejen Israel mula menggunakan pesawat pengangkutan Hercules masing-masing dengan kapasitas penampung 200 pendatang setiap penerbangan.

Sebilangan besar orang Yahudi yang menyeberang dengan berjalan kaki ke Sudan mengambil korban jiwa yang mengerikan dan menimbulkan keadaan berbahaya di kem pelarian. Ejen Israel menyedari bahawa operasi berskala besar perlu dilakukan. Oleh itu, operasi Moses dimulakan pada 21 November 1984. Para pelarian dibawa terus dari kem Sudan ke lapangan terbang tentera berhampiran Khartoum. Di bawah kerahsiaan yang dibuktikan oleh pemadaman berita, mereka kemudian diangkut terus ke Israel. Antara 21 November 1984 dan 5 Januari 1985, kira-kira 8,000 orang Yahudi Ethiopia pulang ke Israel.

Kebocoran berita mengakhiri Operasi Moses sebelum waktunya, ketika negara-negara Arab menekan pemerintah Sudan untuk melarang Yahudi Ethiopia menyeberangi wilayah Sudan. Kira-kira 1,000 orang Yahudi ditinggalkan di Sudan, dan puluhan ribu lagi tinggal di Ethiopia. Babu Yakov, seorang pemimpin masyarakat menyimpulkan situasi tersebut dengan mengatakan bahawa banyak dari mereka yang tertinggal adalah orang yang tidak dapat melakukan perjalanan berbahaya di Sudan - wanita, kanak-kanak dan orang tua. Dia melanjutkan, "Mereka yang paling tidak mampu mempertahankan diri mereka sekarang menghadapi musuh mereka."

Pada tahun 1985, Wakil Presiden George Bush ketika itu memulai tindak lanjut CIA yang disebut Operasi Joshua untuk membawa 800 dari 1.000 yang tinggal di Sudan ke Israel. Walau bagaimanapun, dalam tempoh lima tahun akan datang, rundingan untuk meneruskan operasi tidak dapat dilakukan oleh pihak pentadbiran Mariam.

Di Israel, orang Yahudi Ethiopia mula belajar bahasa Ibrani dan memulakan proses penyerapan dan penyatuan yang panjang ke dalam masyarakat Israel, menghabiskan antara enam bulan hingga dua tahun di pusat penyerapan. Pendatang Ethiopia memulakan latihan untuk mempersiapkan diri untuk hidup dalam masyarakat industri.

Halangan yang ditimbulkan oleh perbezaan sosial dan budaya sukar diatasi oleh banyak pihak. Pelarian Yahudi Ethiopia berasal dari negara membangun dengan ekonomi luar bandar, menjadi negara barat dengan ekonomi pasaran berteknologi tinggi. Kesepaduan dan kesamaan sosial sering kali melarikan diri dari pendatang baru dan masalah yang melibatkan status agama, pekerjaan, pendidikan dan perumahan mereka kekal hingga hari ini. Imigrasi membawa perubahan dalam kehidupan keluarga, kehidupan masyarakat dan corak status sosial. Asimilasi dan akulturasi berkaitan dengan tradisi keagamaan dan lisan, amalan sosial dan budaya dan bahasa turut mempengaruhi mereka. Oleh itu, kegembiraan untuk kembali ke & quotZion & quot & quot; diwarnai oleh banyak orang dengan kegelisahan dan kemurungan perpisahan dan perpisahan. Kira-kira 1.600 kanak-kanak Ethiopia menjadi & quot; orang-orang & quot; keadaan & quot; & quot; dipisahkan dari ibu bapa, saudara, saudara perempuan dan keluarga besar mereka yang ditinggalkan.


19 Filem Cannes Kami & # 039 Tidak Akan Melihat, Dari & # 039BlacKkKlansman & # 039 hingga & # 039Solo & # 039 (Foto)

Festival Filem Cannes 2018 akan mempamerkan 21 filem dalam persaingan, 16 lagi dari persaingan, 18 di Un tertentu Regard, lebih daripada dua lusin di Cannes Classics dan yang lain di bahagian Fortnight and Critics ’Week Pengarah bebas. Antara kekayaan, berikut adalah beberapa yang menonjol.

"BlacKkKlansman"
Lonjakan Lee
(Pertandingan Utama)
Pengarah yang menurutnya dirompak oleh Palme d'Or untuk "Do the Right Thing" pada tahun 1989 kembali berjalan dengan kisah benar seorang lelaki kulit hitam yang menyusup ke KKK pada tahun 70-an - tetapi rakaman awal menunjukkan komik nada, dan penerbit Jason Blum mengatakan bahawa tujuannya adalah "untuk menunjukkan apa bozos" Klan itu.

"Tiga Muka"
Jafar Panahi
(Pertandingan Utama)
Panahi, yang tidak diizinkan meninggalkan Iran dan secara resmi dilarang membuat filem, bagaimanapun telah menghabiskan beberapa tahun terakhir untuk membuat serangkaian filem cerdas dan cerdas tentang kehidupan di bawah pemerintahan totaliter, memuncak dengan "Teksi" pada tahun 2015. Apa-apa filem Panahi baru adalah acara, dan yang pertama mendarat di pertandingan utama di Cannes telah menjadikannya kegemaran pertaruhan untuk Palme d'Or.

"Rumah yang Dibina oleh Jack"
Lars von Trier
(Tidak dapat bersaing)
Matt Dillon sebagai pembunuh bersiri dalam jangka masa 12 tahun cukup menarik. Tetapi Lars von Trier kembali ke festival yang menyatakannya sebagai "persona non grata" untuk komen pada sidang akhbarnya mengenai Hitler pada tahun 2011 - itu adalah kisah yang menarik.

"Buku Imej"
Jean-Luc Godard
(Pertandingan Utama)
Kami tahu pengarah mungkin tidak akan muncul, dan kami tahu filemnya akan mencabar dan sukar difahami. "The Book Book" dilaporkan merupakan esei mengenai filem yang muncul tepat 50 tahun setelah Godard yang dipolitikkan membantu menutup festival Cannes 1968 sebagai solidariti dengan tunjuk perasaan di seluruh Perancis.

"Whitney"
Kevin Macdonald
(Tayangan Tengah Malam)
Pengarah filem naratif berdasarkan fakta ("The Last King of Scotland") dan dokumentari ("One Day in September") mengalihkan pandangannya kepada seni gemilang dan kehidupan tragis Whitney Houston untuk salah satu daripada sebilangan kecil dokumentari di Barisan Cannes.

"Yomeddine"
A.B. Curang
(Pertandingan Utama)
Kali terakhir penampilan sulung pengarah dipilih untuk pertandingan utama Cannes adalah tahun 2015, ketika "Son of Saul" Laszlo Nemes membuat potongan dan akhirnya memenangi Hadiah Utama Cannes dan Oscar untuk Filem Bahasa Asing Terbaik. Berharap untuk mengikuti jalan yang menakutkan itu: Drama kedatangan usia Shawky yang dibiayai oleh orang ramai mengenai seorang pemuda yang meninggalkan koloni kusta di mana dia ditinggalkan ketika masih kecil.

"Perang Dingin"
Pawel Pawlikowski
(Pertandingan Utama)
Filem terakhir Pawlikowski, "Ida," memenangi Oscar berbahasa asing, dan gambar dari filem ini mempunyai penampilan hitam-putih yang cantik dan nisbah aspek hampir tidak tentu. Ini adalah kisah percintaan di Eropah selepas Perang Dunia II.

"Solo: Kisah Star Wars"
Ron Howard
(Tidak Ada Persaingan)
Tidak, itu hampir tidak ada kaitan dengan jenis filem yang menjadi nadi festival ini. Tetapi, siapa yang tidak mahu melihat ini?

"Gadis Matahari"
Eva Husson
(Pertandingan Utama)
Golshifteh Farahani, terakhir kali dilihat di Cannes dengan "Paterson" Jim Jarmusch memainkan watak sebagai batalion wanita Kurdi, dan pemenang pelakon terbaik Cannes, Emmanuelle Bercot adalah wartawan tertanam dalam debut Cannes dari "Bang Gang (A Love Love Story) ”Pengarah Husson.

"2001: Odyssey Angkasa"
Stanley Kubrick
(Cannes Classics)
Ini mungkin filem berusia 50 tahun yang kita semua pernah lihat berkali-kali sebelumnya, tetapi persembahan Christopher Nolan mengenai cetakan 70mm yang "tidak terkawal" ini akan membuktikan bahawa sebuah filem klasik dapat menemukan cara baru untuk bergema setengah abad kemudian .

"Membakar"
Lee Chang-dong
(Pertandingan Utama)
Filem Lee Chang-dong "Poetry" dan "Secret Sunshine" memenangi anugerah di Cannes, yang memberi tekanan untuk misteri ini berdasarkan kisah penulis Jepun Haruki Murakami. Ini adalah filem pertama dalam lapan tahun untuk pengarang Korea.

"Di bawah Tasik Perak"
David Robert Mitchell
(Pertandingan Utama)
Mitchell mendarat di bahagian Critics 'Week dengan filem terakhirnya, filem seram yang dipuji secara meluas "It Follows," dan kali ini dia membuat drama filem noir yang mendapati Andrew Garfield mencari jiran yang hilang (Riley Keough) melalui perut Los Angeles.

"Fugue"
Agnieszka Smoczynska
(Minggu Pengkritik)
Filem pertama Smoczynska, "The Lure," ditransplantasikan "The Little Mermaid" ke kelab malam logam Polandia yang seterusnya, "Deranged," akan menjadi opera sci-fi untuk muzik David Bowie. Di antara dia membuat "Fugue," tentang seorang wanita yang telah kehilangan ingatannya, dan bagaimana mungkin itu tidak menarik?

"Kemuncak"
Gaspar Noe
(Fortnight Pengarah)
Dalam tahun yang kaya bagi provokator (Godard, von Trier…), pengarah Argentina Noe mungkin yang paling provokatif dari semua, biasanya menimbulkan kemarahan dan kemarahan dalam ukuran yang sama. Dan memandangkan kecenderungannya untuk seksualiti dan gambaran halusinasi, sebuah filem Noe berjudul "Climax" pasti menimbulkan keributan.

"Paus Fransiskus - Seorang Lelaki dari Firman-Nya"
Wim Wenders
(Pemeriksaan Khas)
Tajuknya terdengar terlalu menghormati, bahkan mungkin membosankan. Tetapi Wenders, yang memenangkan Palme d'Or untuk "Paris, Texas" lebih dari 30 tahun yang lalu, adalah seorang pengarah penyidik ​​dan sensitif yang bertujuan untuk membuat filem dengan pontiff, bukan tentang dia.

"Artik"
Joe Penna
(Tayangan Tengah Malam)
Anda mungkin mengenali pengarah Brazil itu sebagai MysteryGuitarMan YouTube, tetapi dia membuat penampilan sulungnya dengan kisah pengembaraan yang penuh es yang dibintangi oleh Mads Mikkelsen sebagai pukulan paling sukar yang pernah dia lalui.

"Rafiki"
Wanuri Kahiu
(Tidak pasti)
Beberapa minggu selepas filem Kahiu menjadi filem Kenya pertama yang menjalani tayangan perdana Cannes, filem itu dilarang di negara asalnya kerana hubungan lesbian yang digambarkannya. Larangan itu harus menjadikannya lebih mustahak.

"Jiwa Mati"
Wang Bing
(Pemeriksaan Khas)
Untuk meminjam ungkapan dari Eugene O'Neill dan dari filem Bi Gan yang diputar di Un tertentu Regard tahun ini, ini adalah perjalanan panjang seharian ke malam. Pengarah China Wang Bing terkenal dengan dokumentari sepanjang epiknya, dan Dead Souls adalah penerokaan Revolusi Kebudayaan China selama 8 jam dan 15 minit, lebih dari dua kali lipat panjangnya dalam pilihan rasmi.

"Lelaki yang Membunuh Don Quixote"
Terry Gilliam
(Malam tutup)
Dalam pertikaian selama 19 tahun dalam pembuatannya, ini mungkin merupakan produksi filem yang paling bermasalah dalam sejarah - dan lebih banyak yang mesti dilihat daripada filem penutup malam terakhir, dengan anggapan penayangannya tidak dibunuh oleh tuntutan mahkamah.

Festival tahun ini & # 8217 akan membawa filem kontroversial, auteurs di bahagian atas permainan mereka dan sekurang-kurangnya satu mega-blockbuster ke Croisette

Festival Filem Cannes 2018 akan mempamerkan 21 filem dalam persaingan, 16 daripada persaingan lagi, 18 di Un tertentu Regard, lebih daripada dua lusin di Cannes Classics dan yang lain di bahagian Minggu Pengarah Fortnight and Critics ’. Antara kekayaan, berikut adalah beberapa yang menonjol.


Artikel berkaitan

Walaupun usaha rasmi berakhir, aliyah Ethiopia tetap diteruskan

Pendatang terakhir dari tanah Ethiopia di Israel, mengakhiri kisah 30 tahun

Sejarah perkauman panjang Israel: Apa sebenarnya yang ditunjuk oleh orang Israel Ethiopia?

Salah satu pendatang baru yang menarik perhatiannya adalah Zehava Mahari, seorang gadis cantik berusia 3 tahun yang mustahil untuk diabaikan. Bacher menemuinya di pusat penyerapan Mikhmoret di tengah Israel. Dia tiba di sana bersama ibunya pada tahun 1985, di akhir perjalanan yang berbahaya dan mengerikan dari Ethiopia ke Israel.

Kisah Mahari adalah bagian dari mozek kisah peribadi yang disajikan dalam pameran "Operation Moses: 30 Years After," yang dibuka di Beit Hatfutsot (Muzium Orang Yahudi) di Tel Aviv pada 25 Mei.

"Imigrasi dari Ethiopia adalah perkara yang sangat baru, dan orang tidak tahu bagaimana memproses 'orang Yahudi kulit hitam ini.' Hatfutsot. Ketika dia memotret Mahari, seseorang dari tingkap di bangunan bersebelahan melemparkan oren ke arahnya. Dia berjaya menangkapnya dengan gaunnya, yang dia angkat sedikit dengan dua tangan. Bacher mengatakan bahawa walaupun sekarang, tiga dekad kemudian, dia tidak dapat melupakan ekspresi menawannya dan wajah polos yang menyembunyikan mata besar itu dan senyuman malu.

Gambar Mahari kekal di arkib foto Beit Hatfutsot di Tel Aviv dan selama bertahun-tahun menjadi ikonik. Ini menonjol dalam artikel, buku dan pameran, tanpa Zehava tahu tentang kemasyhuran yang telah dia dapatkan. Selama bertahun-tahun, Bacher berusaha mengesannya, tetapi sia-sia. "Saya mencarinya selama 30 tahun," katanya.

Poster girl: Zehava Mahari pada usia 3. Dia pindah ke Amerika Syarikat pada tahun 1991, enam tahun setelah berhijrah ke Israel. Doron Bacher

Tiga tahun yang lalu, menjelang ulang tahun ke-30 Operasi Moses, Neta Harel - seorang seniman grafik dari Pusat Dokumentasi Visual Beit Hatfutsot - mempunyai idea untuk pameran baru. Dia sudah biasa dengan koleksi foto langka 10.000 gambar - buah karya Bacher - yang disimpan di arkib muzium. Dia secara rawak mengeluarkan beberapa gambar dan mencadangkan agar Bacher mencuba mencari subjek.

Orly Malessa, pembuat filem bebas dan anggota komuniti Ethiopia-Israel, juga memberikan bantuan kepada projek ini. Bersama-sama, mereka melancarkan halaman Facebook dengan nama "Mencari diri kita sendiri 30 tahun selepas itu," dan mengundang subjek foto untuk mengenal pasti diri mereka dalam gambar yang dimuat ke halaman tersebut.

Dalam waktu yang singkat, mereka berhasil menutup banyak lingkaran. Oleh itu, pada akhir tahun 2014, Bacher mendapat hak istimewa untuk bertemu kembali dengan Zehava Mahari, yang telah berkembang dari menjadi gadis kecil itu menjadi ibu dengan anak-anaknya sendiri. Barulah Bacher menyedari mengapa dia gagal mencarinya di Israel. Terjadi bahawa pada tahun 1991, enam tahun setelah berhijrah ke Israel, dia pindah ke Amerika Syarikat. Dia kini tinggal di Sacramento, California.

Ketika Mahari melihat fotonya ketika masih kecil, dia menangis. Mengenai kamera Malessa untuk sebuah filem yang menyertainya, dia berkata dalam bahasa Ibrani, dengan aksen Amerika, "Mataku tidak berubah. Dan hidung saya seperti dulu. Yang benar adalah bahawa orang itu tidak berubah. Dia berkembang, tetapi selalu menjadi orang yang sama. "

Namun, tiga puluh tahun sebelumnya, dia hampir tidak selamat dalam perjalanannya ke Israel. “Saya sangat kecil. Saya hampir tidak makan dan menderita kekurangan zat makanan, ”katanya dalam filem itu. "Ada saat di Sudan bahawa ibu saya hampir kehilangan saya kerana kami tidak mempunyai makanan atau air. Itu adalah masalah untuk bertahan hidup, tetapi kami bertahan. "

Dalam pertukaran e-mel dengan Haaretz, Mahari menambah: “Saya merindui pengalaman masa kecil saya di Israel - tempat di mana saya mengalami untuk pertama kalinya rumah pertama, hari lahir, percutian, sekolah, basikal pertama dan rakan pertama.

"Saya tidak mempunyai kenangan dari Ethiopia kerana saya meninggalkan pada usia muda, sebagai balita," katanya. "Israel selalu menjadi rumah bagi saya, walaupun saya tinggal di tempat lain."

Dia pindah ke Amerika Syarikat untuk bergabung dengan ayahnya, yang tidak pernah datang ke Israel kerana dia percaya Amerika adalah pilihan yang lebih baik, katanya. Di sana, di seberang lautan, dia memenuhi impian ibu bapanya dan menghadiri universiti, memperoleh gelar MA dalam bahasa Inggeris dengan pengkhususan dalam pelbagai budaya. Dia mendapat pekerjaan dan membesarkan keluarga.

Mahari berusaha mengajak anak-anaknya bertutur dalam bahasa Ibrani, tetapi mengakui bahawa itu tidak mudah. "Di sini, di Amerika Syarikat terdapat komuniti ekspatriat Ethiopia dan, secara berasingan, sebuah komuniti Yahudi," katanya. "Anda hanya akan menemui komuniti Yahudi Ethiopia di Israel."

Impian hancur

Beberapa gambar dalam arkib Beit Hatfutsot menyoroti kisah-kisah sukar, seperti gambar penduduk Rehovot, Nane Negate, yang difoto Bacher di pusat penyerapan Ashkelon.

Ayahnya adalah seorang tokoh yang dihormati di kampungnya di Ethiopia, dan selama bertahun-tahun bermimpi berhijrah ke Israel. Namun, setelah memenuhi impiannya, dia terpaksa melihatnya hancur sedikit demi sedikit. Seorang pekerja yang rajin, dia tidak dapat mencari pekerjaan di Israel dan tidak mendapat penghormatan yang biasa dilakukannya. Dia akhirnya membunuh diri.

Nane Berunding di rumahnya di Rehovot. Roni Katznelson

"Kami memerlukan lapan bulan untuk mencuba dan bertemu dengan Nane," kata Michal Houminer, penyusun pameran bersama dengan Assaf Galai. "Sukar baginya untuk menceritakan kisah sukar ini, yang belum pernah diceritakan sebelumnya."

Kisah sedih lain terletak di sebalik gambar Amnon Sahlu, 52, seorang pencerai & bapa dan enam anak yang tinggal bersama ibu bapa lamanya di Yerusalem, di mana dia berkongsi bilik tidur dengan anak perempuannya, Bereishit, 6 tahun. Kehilangan tradisi dan nilai Etiopia telah mempengaruhi dirinya, dan juga fakta bahawa perkahwinannya gagal. Ketika dia melihat kehidupan perkahwinan orang tuanya bersama-sama, yang bertahan walaupun menghadapi masalah imigrasi dan penyerapan, dia merasa entah bagaimana dia terlepas kapal dan impiannya hancur.

Kisah-kisah lain dianggap terlalu menyedihkan untuk diteruskan. Sebagai contoh, gambar arkib yang menarik perhatian Malessa memaparkan seorang budak lelaki memegang bendera "dan kelihatan sangat gembira," katanya. "Ketika kami mengetahui bahawa dia telah meninggal, kami berhenti menyiasat."

Itzik Tamano, sekarang 39, di rumahnya di utara Tel Aviv. Roni Katznelson

Menyambung ke akar

Semasa pratonton pameran awal bulan ini, ketua kurator Beit Hatfutsot Dr. Orit Shaham-Gover mengatakan, “Kami lebih suka melepaskan kebiasaan orang Yahudi untuk melihat kembali dengan sedih dan melihat rusuhan, keputusan dan penganiayaan.

"Apabila kita melihat ke belakang, kita juga melihat banyak kreativiti dan pertumbuhan," tambahnya. "Moto saya adalah bahawa bukannya mengatakan 'Gevalt!' Tetapi kita katakan 'Hallelujah!'"

Salah satu kisah kejayaan pameran adalah Itzik Tamano, 39, di Tel Aviv. Tamano berhijrah dari Ethiopia pada usia 4 tahun, dan Bacher pertama kali mendokumentasikannya di sekolah rendahnya. "Saya ingat seorang jurugambar datang ke kelas di kelas satu," ingat Tamano sekarang. Pada mulanya dia tinggal bersama ibu bapanya di pusat penyerapan Atlit, dan mereka kemudian berpindah ke Sderot. Dia bertemu dengan bakal isterinya, Mor, di sekolah menengah.

“Kami adalah pasangan campuran. Dia adalah separuh Yaman dan setengah Sephardi, ”katanya. Ibu bapanya tidak mempunyai masalah dengan kenyataan bahawa dia ingin menikahi seseorang yang bukan anggota masyarakat Ethiopia, tetapi lebih sukar bagi ibu bapa isterinya.

"Pada mulanya, mereka enggan menerima saya dalam keluarga mereka - terutama kerana gambar yang dikaitkan dengan orang Ethiopia yang mereka tahu dari laporan televisyen negatif," katanya.

DJ profesional, Tamano memiliki syarikat muzik yang bekerja terutamanya di acara komuniti Ethiopia. Dia tinggal di kejiranan Tel Aviv utara Ramat Hahayal bersama isteri dan tiga anaknya.

"Pada mulanya [jiran] yakin saya adalah pekerja sanitasi," kenangnya. "Ketika mereka melihat saya di tingkap rumah saya, mereka berteriak dari jalan, dalam bahasa Inggeris," Bersih? Bersih? Mencari kerja? ”“ Dia mengatakan bahawa mereka sukar mempercayainya ketika dia mengatakan bahawa dia sebenarnya tinggal di sana.

"Saya merasa Israel dalam segala hal," katanya. "Saya tidak pernah berasa berbeza. Perkauman di sini datang terutamanya dari orang yang tidak mengenali kita. Masyarakat Israel sekali lagi bertoleransi dan penyayang, tetapi berubah selama bertahun-tahun. "

Tamano enggan berbicara tentang "kejayaan" ketika dia merenungkan hidupnya. "Saya lebih suka menyebutnya pemenuhan diri," katanya. "Ini istilah yang nampak lebih sesuai untuk saya."

Pasangan campuran lain yang ditemui menerusi perburuan Facebook adalah Shay dan Efrat Yossef, yang tinggal di perkampungan Har Bracha di Tepi Barat bersama empat anak mereka. Bacher mengambil gambar Yossef dan keluarganya pada hari pertama mereka di Israel pada tahun 1984: Shay berusia 5 tahun ketika itu dan telah datang ke pusat penyerapan Ashkelon langsung dari lapangan terbang.

Yossef belajar kejuruteraan di Israel, tetapi pada mulanya hanya dapat mencari pekerjaan sebagai pengawal keselamatan di sebuah penempatan. Namun, kemudian, dia dinaikkan pangkat sebagai pengendali kualiti untuk sebuah syarikat makanan. Tidak lama kemudian, dia memberitahu Haaretz, dia akan memulakan pekerjaan baru di Kementerian Pertanian dan Pembangunan Luar Bandar.

Shay Yossef hari ini, bersama isteri Efrat dan keluarganya di penempatan Har Bracha di Tebing Barat. Roni Katznelson

Dalam filem Malessa, Yossef menunjukkan jurang budaya antara Ethiopia dan Israel di dapur, tempat dia memasak dan membersihkan. "Ini tidak akan terjadi di Ethiopia," dia tersenyum kepada isterinya.

Kisah kejayaan lain yang memberi inspirasi adalah kisah Redai Tessma, 46, dari Be’er Sheva. Tessma, berkahwin dengan empat anak, adalah pekerja sosial. Dia berhijrah ke Israel pada tahun 1984 "setelah perjalanan yang panjang, melelahkan, rumit" yang memakan waktu empat tahun, tetapi "penuh harapan." Dia muncul dalam gambar arkib sebagai seorang budak lelaki berusia 14 tahun yang terlambat meraikan bar bersama mitzvah dengan pemuda lain dari Ethiopia. Dia menerima nama baru di Israel, Ezra, tetapi setelah dinas ketenteraannya memutuskan untuk kembali ke nama yang diberikannya, Redai (yang bermaksud "untuk menolong").

Redai Tessma (kanan) terlambat meraikan mitzvah barnya pada hari ulang tahunnya yang ke-14 pada pertengahan 1980-an. Doron Bacher

"Saya menyedari bahawa seseorang yang tidak terhubung dengan akar, asal usul, latar belakang dan sejarah mereka dan komuniti mereka tidak dapat menyatu dengan budaya dan tempat baru," katanya. "Wahyu ini adalah latar belakang keputusan saya untuk kembali ke nama asal saya. Memang itu kisah saya dan ada sebab ibu bapa saya memberikan nama ini kepada saya. Ia mempunyai makna yang mesti saya kenali dan pelajari. Anda tidak boleh menghapus diri anda agar sesuai dengan tempat baru, "tambahnya.

Tessma memanfaatkan pengalaman penyerapannya sendiri sebagai pegawai kesihatan mental di simpanan tentera, terutama ketika menolong tentera dari keluarga yang berada dalam kesusahan. "Saya menggunakan pengalaman saya sebagai pendatang baru dengan tentera yang mengalami keadaan sukar dalam hidup," katanya. "Saya menjelaskan kepada mereka bahawa perubahan yang nyata dan berkekalan hanya akan terjadi ketika anda memikul tanggungjawab dan bercita-cita untuk terus maju. Saya memberitahu mereka bahawa walaupun ada had dan halangan, setiap orang masih dapat menyedari kemampuannya. "

Kematian, pengangguran, perkauman, rindu dan kesukaran lain dinyatakan dalam kisah di sebalik gambar. Namun, tidak ada yang mengingatkan demonstrasi ganas yang meletus setahun yang lalu ketika Israel Ethiopia memprotes diskriminasi dan perkauman di Israel.

"Setiap pahlawan kita bergerak ke arah yang berbeda, jadi pernyataan utama mencerminkan berbagai pengalaman," kata Malessa, sambil menambahkan, "Lagipun, komuniti ini, seperti setiap komuniti lain, adalah kumpulan individu, masing-masing mempunyai pengalaman yang berbeza. "

She herself prefers to see the glass as half-full. At age 1, she embarked on a long journey to Israel and after three years in a Sudanese refugee camp, arrived here in 1983.

“I started as a daughter of immigrants, a resident of the periphery and woman of African origin. The choice I make every day is to fight for my place, to work harder, create and defeat preconceived notions,” she says.

Orly Malessa. Spent three years in a Sudanese refugee camp before arriving in Israel in 1983. Roni Katznelson


Operation Moses (Israel/Ethiopia 1980s) - History

The US completed the airlift when it launched Operation Joshua in the same year.

In 1991, Israel launched Operation Solomon and airlifted 15,000 Ethiopian Jewish people.

There are now around 80,000 Jewish people from Ethiopia living in Israel, but they have faced difficulties assimilating into society.

According to a government report in 1999, many cannot write Hebrew and the unemployment rate among the Ethiopian community in Israel is at least three times the national average.

Coming from a subsistence economy some found it hard to find work in an industrialised country.

But nearly all young Ethiopian males have been assimilated into the army during national service.

An independent report has said that Jewish people from Ethiopia were "no longer viewed as a curiosity, but as a familiar part of Israel's ethnic mosaic".

In January 2004, the Israeli government announced that it would speed up the removal of 18,000 Jewish people still living in Ethiopia.

The Falasha Mura community, as they are known, say they are the last remaining Jewish community in Ethiopia and have long been persecuted for their beliefs.


Immigration to Israel: Introduction & Overview

Following their expulsion and after the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in 70 CE, the majority of the Jews were dispersed throughout the world. The Jewish national idea, however, was never abandoned, nor was the longing to return to their homeland.

Throughout the centuries, Jews have maintained a presence in the Land, in greater or lesser numbers uninterrupted contact with Jews abroad has enriched the cultural, spiritual and intellectual life of both communities.

Zionism, the political movement for the return of the Jewish people to their homeland, founded in the late 19th century, derives its name from word "Zion," the traditional synonym for Jerusalem and the Land of Israel. In response to continued oppression and persecution of Jews in eastern Europe and disillusionment with emancipation in Western Europe, and inspired by Zionist ideology, Jews immigrated to Palestine toward the end of the nineteenth century. This was the first of the modern waves of aliyah (literally "going up") that were to transform the face of the country.

On May 14, 1948, the State of Israel was proclaimed.

The Proclamation of the Establishment of the State of Israel stated: "The State of Israel will be open for Jewish immigration and the ingathering of the exiles it will foster the development of the country for all its inhabitants it will be based on freedom, justice, and peace as envisaged by the prophets of Israel it will ensure complete equality of social and political rights to all its inhabitants irrespective of religion, race or sex . . . . & quot

This was followed in 1950 by the Law of Return, which granted every Jew the automatic right to immigrate to Israel and become a citizen of the state. With the gates wide open after statehood was declared, a wave of mass immigration brought 687,000 Jews to Israel's shores. By 1951, the number of immigrants more than doubled the Jewish population of the country in 1948. The immigrants included survivors of the Holocaust from displaced persons' camps in Germany, Austria and Italy a majority of the Jewish communities of Bulgaria and Poland, one third of the Jews of Romania, and nearly all of the Jewish communities of Libya, Yemen and Iraq.

The immigrants encountered many adjustment difficulties. The fledgling state had just emerged from the bruising war of independence, was in grievous economic condition, and found it difficult to provide hundreds of thousands of immigrants with housing and jobs. Much effort was devoted toward absorbing the immigrants: ma'abarot &mdash camps of tin shacks and tents &mdash and later permanent dwellings were erected employment opportunities were created the Hebrew language was taught and the educational system was expanded and adjusted to meet the needs of children from many different backgrounds.

Additional mass immigration took place in the late 1950s and early 1960s, when immigrants arrived from the newly independent countries of North Africa, Morocco and Tunisia. A large number of immigrants also arrived during these years from Poland, Hungary and Egypt.

Israel saw a large spike in immigration during 2014, with a 32% increase in general immigration over 2013's numbers. As opposed to 2013's number of 16,968 immigrants making Aliyah to Israel, in 2014 approximately 26,500 individuals made Aliyah. Immigration from the Ukraine increased more than 190% due to the ongoing civil war and social unrest, and for the first time in history immigration from France surpassed immigration from every other country. Looking forward, Israeli officials predicted over 10,000 French individuals to make Aliyah in 2015. During 2014 more people immigrated to Israel from free countries rather than from countries in distress, demonstrating Israel's attractiveness as a place to live and do business. Aliyah from Western Europe in general was up 88% over the previous year's data, and Aliyah from the former Soviet Union was up 50%.

The rising tide of anti-Semitism and fear of terror attacks prompted the largest immigration of Jews to Israel from Western Europe in history during 2015. The Jewish Agency reported that 9,880 Western European Jews made aliyah to Israel in 2015, the largest annual number ever recorded. The vast majority of these immigrants (7,900) came from France, where there were two large national terror attacks as well as many individual violent attacks against Jews during the year. An estimated 800 of these individuals made aliyah from England. In total, 2015 saw 31,013 Jewish individuals from around the globe make Aliyah to Israel, a 12-year high.

The year 2015 saw 16,700 Israelis leave the country to live overseas long-term, and 8,500 move back after living elsewhere for one year or more the first year since 2009 that more Israelis exited than returned. The number of Israelis returning to Israel in 2015 was the lowest in 12 years. According to the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics, from 1948 through 2015 about 720,000 Israelis moved to live outside Israel and never returned. They estimate that approximately 557,000 to 593,000 Israelis reside outside of Israel currently.

During 2016, 27,000 immigrants made aliyah to Israel, a significant decrease from 2015's total.

Israel welcomed approximately 37,000 new immigrants during 2017, with the most immigrants arriving in Israel from Russia (27%), the Ukraine (25%), France (13%), and the United States (10%).

Immigration from Western Countries

While mass immigrations to Israel have mostly been from countries of distress, immigration of individuals from the free world has also continued throughout the years. Most of these persons are motivated by idealism. This aliyah gained strength after the Six ­Day War, with the awakening feelings of Jewish identity among Diaspora Jewry.

Immigration from the Soviet Union & former Soviet Union

From 1948 to 1967, the relations between Jews in the Soviet Union and the State of Israel were limited. Following the Six­Day War, Jewish consciousness among Soviet Jews was awakened, and increasing numbers sought aliyah. As an atmosphere of detente began to pervade international relations in the early 1970s, the Soviet Union permitted significant number of Jews to immigrate to Israel. At the end of the decade, a quarter of a million Jews had left the Soviet Union 140,000 immigrated to Israel.

Soviet Jews were permitted to leave the Soviet Union in unprecedented numbers in the late 1980s, with President Gorbachev's bid to liberalize the country. The collapse of the Soviet Union in late 1991 facilitated this process. After 190,000 olim reached Israel in 1990 and 150,000 in 1991, the stabilization of conditions in the former Soviet Union and adjustment difficulties in Israel caused immigration to level off at approximately 70,000 per year. From 1989 to the end of 2003, more than 950,000 Jews from the former Soviet Union had made their home in Israel.

Immigration from Ethiopia

The 1980's and 1990's witnessed the aliyah of the ancient Jewish community of Ethiopia. In 1984, some 7,000 Ethiopian Jews walked hundreds of miles to Sudan, where a secret effort known as Operation Moses brought them to Israel. Another 15,000 arrived in a dramatic airlift, Operation Solomon, in May 1991. Within thirty hours, forty­one flights from Addis Ababa carried almost all the remaining community to Israel.

The Israeli government approved the entry of the &ldquolast group&rdquo of Ethiopian Jews in November 2015, aiming to finish what was started by Operation Moses 30 years prior. This announcement comes two years after Israeli government officials claimed that no Jews remained in Ethiopia. There have been several supposedly &ldquolast&rdquo groups of Ethiopian Jews that have made aliyah to Israel, including a group of 450 who arrived in Israel in 2013. It is estimated that this proposal approved the entry into Israel of approximately 9,100 Ethiopian Jews, most of whom were at the time living in refugee camps in Adis Ababa and Gondar. The first group of this new wave of Ethiopian immigration to Israel arrived eleven months after the initial announcement, on October 9, 2016.

Muat turun aplikasi mudah alih kami untuk akses dalam perjalanan ke Perpustakaan Maya Yahudi


The long journey home of Ethiopian Jewry

(January 11, 2021 / JNS) Experts in global Jewish history believe that highlighting minority voices within the Jewish community has the power to honor its nuances and interconnectedness. JNS’s new series highlighting Jewish ethnic minorities aims to elevate their voices, and in turn, celebrate the beautiful mosaic that is the Jewish people.

A total of 930 new Ethiopian olim landed in Israel in 2020, most immigrating as a part of the family reunification initiative “Operation Tzur Israel” (“Operation Rock of Israel”). The immigrants fled malnutrition, poverty, extreme conditions and a tense security situation in Ethiopia—aggravated by the coronavirus pandemic—to fulfill a 2,000-year-old old dream of arriving to the land of Israel and to Jerusalem.

The flights, coordinated by the Jewish Agency for Israel, Israel’s Ministry of Aliyah and Integration, and Israel’s Ministry of Interior, followed the Government of Israel’s decision in October to approve the immigration of 2,000 members of the Ethiopian community, many of whom were left behind after “Operation Solomon” and have been waiting for decades to move to Israel and reunite with their families.

Bringing the immigrants home, said Minister of Aliyah and Integration Pnina Tamano-Shata, is correcting a “horrendous and immoral mistake” by the State of Israel, which “instead of bringing a family—an entire family unit—families were separated, parents from children, grandfathers and grandmothers.”

The complex history of Ethiopian Jews dates back at least 15 centuries. According to Ethiopian Jews, inhabitants of the Jewish kingdom of Beta Israel (later called the kingdom of Gondar) arrived in Ethiopia between the first and sixth centuries, coming to work as merchants and artisans. The community refused to convert to Christianity when Ezana was crowned Emperor in 325 C.E., causing a civil war between the Jewish and Christian populations of the region, and resulting in the Jews creating an independent state so they could continue their Jewish practice. Their practice—based on oral traditions and a nomadic lifestyle that existed until the 20th century—continued through various rulers, wars and forced conversions.

Since the establishment of modern-day Israel in 1948, the government has brought 95,000 immigrants from Ethiopia. In the mid-1980s, 8,000 immigrants arrived with “Operation Moses” through Sudan. As part of “Operation Solomon” conducted in 1991, an airlift brought 14,000 immigrants to Israel. In the summer of 2013, the Jewish Agency concluded “Operation Doves Wings,” which brought 7,000 immigrants from Ethiopia to Israel.

Today, approximately 13,000 Jews currently reside in Addis Ababa, the Ethiopian capital, and in Gondar in the northern part of the African country. According to the Jewish Agency, most live in poverty and are waiting to be taken to Israel, which they consider their homeland.

“My goal is to hasten this aliyah, eventually leading to the closing of the camps in Gondar and in Addis Ababa,” Tamano-Shata told JNS.

The minister, who immigrated to Israel from Ethiopia as a 3-year-old with “Operation Moses,” declared the 2020 operation “one of the greatest deeds and one of the best decisions made by the unity government … a moment that transcends the controversies and debates, a moment of saving lives, and most importantly, a moment of national duty that reminds us who we are as a people, and that we are privileged to return home after thousands of years of exile.”

A drawn-out process

Compared to other immigrant populations of Israel, the Ethiopian community’s immigration has been one of the most drawn out, partially because diverse groups exist within Ethiopia’s Jewish community. Many also believe that there have been economic and religious-based pressures that have kept the government of Israel from bringing the remaining Ethiopians to Israel.

Some 8,000 Falash Mura (a Jewish Ethiopian community whose ancestors converted to Christianity under pressure in the early 1900s) are waiting to make aliyah from Ethiopia with their immigration previously approved in 2015 by a government decision.

But just as soon as their immigration was again approved in 2018, reports surfaced in the Jewish press claiming that because the Falash Mura “remain faithful to Christianity and do not adhere to Jewish law,” they should not be eligible to immigrate under Israel’s Law of Return, which dictates that any individual with one grandparent Jewish may make aliyah with a spouse and children as long as that individual “is not part of another religion.”

“My goal is to hasten this aliyah, eventually leading to the closing of the camps in Gondar and in Addis Ababa,” said Minister of Aliyah and Integration Pnina Tamano-Shata.

Most Israelis consider these allegations to be ignorant and outright false.

“There is no question that they are Jewish by law and practice,” said Aaron (A.Y.) Katsof, director of the Heart of Israel, an organization that is working with the Binyamin Fund to raise money to resettle these Ethiopian Jews in the biblical heartland. “There was very little intermarriage among the Falash Mura,” Katsof, who travels to Addis Ababa and Gondar on a monthly basis to report on their extreme poverty and living conditions, previously told JNS.

“Almost all of them go to shul, go to the mikvah, keep Shabbat—eating cold food and sometimes losing their jobs because they do not work on Shabbat. Most have not touched meat or chicken in nine years, as there is no kosher meat available there,” he said, while “observant Jews in Israel and the U.S. have trouble not eating meat for just nine days during the month of Av.”

According to Katsof, when the Falash Mura immigrate, most continue as Torah-observant Jews and send their children to religious schools at a rate higher than the rest of the Israeli Jewish population. The Falash Mura, he argued, are not accepted because of a mix of racist, financial and political excuses.

“How can people say they are not Jews?” he pondered. “The Falash Mura are more Jewish than many of us are.”

Tamano-Shata explained that in regard to the new immigrants who came with “Operation Tzur Israel,” many of these families were perceived as if “they decided to leave Beta Israel, the Jewish community, that decision applied extreme pressure on the community. Meanwhile, it needs to be known that in fact, most of them did not strike roots with others and are Jewish from their fathers. This is why there was a delay.”

Tamano-Shata added that in addition to the misconceptions about their status as Jews, Israel was guided by economic considerations that has stalled their immigration. “I believe that it is time to look at these people in the eye and not through an economic prism which is what was done for many years,” she said. “On my part, as a member of this community, I will help stop their suffering and do everything to lead to an end to this humane and painful saga.”

“It is very difficult for people to understand that the Ethiopian community are descendants of Avraham, Isaac and Yaakov,” said Rabbi Dr. Sharon Shalom, an Orthodox rabbi and captain in the Israel Defense Forces’ Reserves. “My friend at Princeton, Professor Ephraim Isaac, who is Yemenite and Ethiopian, once gave a speech about Ethiopian Jews, and many were in shock. An Ashkenazi Jew from Poland questioned the connection between Jews and Ethiopia, so Ephraim said to take the Bible and look for the word Ethiopia. At least 50 times, Ethiopia appears in the Bible. Now, he said, look for the world Poland. Tiada. But the question isn’t about if there is any connection between Poland and Jews.”

According to Shalom, Ethiopian Jews descend from the 10 tribes of Israel. "Halachically and historically, there is no doubt in our Jewishness,” he said.

Shalom expressed his challenges with hypocrisy to his being an Ethiopian Orthodox rabbi. When he suggested in his book, From Sinai to Ethiopia, that Ethiopian Jews should be allowed to continue their Jewish traditions and heritage, “immediately, I became a heretic [among haredi circles]. From their perspective, I was not authentic, but here I was talking to an Ashkenazi Jew wearing a shtreimel—yang shtreimel came from Poland! It rose from the culture of Polish people, not Jews. Polish Jews adopted this tradition,” he said.

“They put me on the blacklist,” he quipped. “How can you put an Ethiopian rabbi on the blacklist?”

Preparing for aliyah

According to Shay Felber, director general of the Jewish Agency Integration and Aliyah Unit, the absorption of Ethiopian Jews begins even before they arrive, as “the Jewish Agency staff meets with the olim regularly and prepares them for the entire process—from the paperwork, to medical checkups, to the quarantine and then absorption. They learn about life in Israel, the absorption centers, the education system, employment prospects and what happens during their first year. A special team of volunteers is also set to travel to Ethiopia to work with the youth through a variety of informal educational programs aimed at preparing them for life in Israel.”

Once in Israel, Felber told JNS, they are transported to an absorption center, where staff there speak Amharic and are familiar with the culture. “All staff involved with absorption undergo special training to ensure they are sensitive to the needs of the olim. While the staff at the absorption centers teach the new olim about life in Israel, they also take measures to ensure their existing traditions are preserved,” he said.

“In addition to providing them with items like winter clothing and radiators for the cold weather, there is also a sensitivity to the food supplies provided—making sure to first begin with familiar foods like fruits, vegetables and legumes. Residents of the absorption centers welcome new arrivals with homemade injera and other Ethiopian foods.”

A challenging absorption in Israel

All immigrants find some level of difficulty integrating into the Israeli culture and systems however, Ethiopians often experience even greater challenges because of the disparities between culture, language and, some believe, because of their skin color.

“I believe that the specific challenge of Ethiopian Jews is firstly the disparities between the two countries. I remember when we made aliyah to Israel in the 1980s, the challenges were much larger. Today, I think that olim that arrive are much more prepared, and yet, there are still gaps between the two countries that we have to bridge. We must remember that many of them arrive from villages,” related Tamano-Shata.

“I can say that the challenge of the difference in skin color also poses a struggle with racism and discrimination this is an issue that I’ve been dealing with for many years,” she added.

The topic of racism within Israeli society has been prevalent for decades, though came to a head last year following the shooting of a young Israeli-Ethiopian man by an off-duty police officer. The violence of the riots, along with accusations that Israel’s police and government are racist, surprised many across Israel, raising concerns that organizations with political agendas were inflaming the protests for political gain.

While most are quick to call any parallels between racism in Israel versus the United States “absurd,” when Ethiopian immigrants do arrive in Israel, continued the minister, they struggle with poverty, as they are “paved to specific cities and neighborhoods in these cities,” which Tamano-Shata said is detrimental to their absorption into Israeli society and equal opportunity to succeed.

Moreover, she said, “the data shows that Ethiopian Jews are objectively living in higher rates of poverty and are subject to additional challenges. To my regret, this includes suicide rates the rate of those committing suicide is higher.

Halachically and historically, there is no doubt in our Jewishness,” said Rabbi Dr. Sharon Shalom, an Orthodox rabbi and captain in the Israel Defense Forces’ Reserves.

Though Shalom acknowledges that he doesn’t know why there is such misunderstanding and discrimination when it comes to Ethiopian Jews, he emphasized, “the roots are not around racism.”

He further stressed that the challenges that Ethiopians face in Israel are significantly different than the challenges they would face in the United States, and their main struggle is not because of the color of their skin but because of misperceptions of who is Jewish.

“Here in Israel, the question isn’t around racism,” he declared, calling the equating the experience of black people in Israel to black people in America “very superficial.”

“You cannot compare the tension and challenges of Ethiopian Jews as what exists in America. In the States, the issue is racism,” he said, adding that within Israeli society, there is at present a 12 percent intermarriage rate between Ashkenazi and Ethiopian Jews (of course, it wasn’t that way in prior decades), whereas in the United States there is just a 6 percent intermarriage rate.

There is widespread awareness that Ethiopian Jews who immigrate to Israel are in need of larger comprehensive government support compared to other olim. “The different local authorities and the state bodies do everything in order to ease their landing into Israeli society. Even after they leave the absorption centers, of course, it doesn’t end,” said Tamano-Shata. “The local authorities receive support for absorption. They are accompanied, there are professionals who work in the local authorities on all matters to assist them, even with education, welfare and the comprehensive support that they need.”

“In Israel, there’s a different education system, family structures change in Israel, and the economic situation is different. We take all this into consideration when preparing the olim so they can more easily adjust to life in Israel,” added Felber.

One major breakthrough has been in the military. Ethiopian Jews, like the rest of the population, serve in the IDF, with many having risen to leadership positions, including Shalom.

According to Isaac Herzog, chairman of the Jewish Agency, it accompanied the new olim on their journey—from pre-aliyah preparations in Ethiopia to the absorption centers spread throughout Israel—and will continue for two years to assist in their integration into Israeli society, including Hebrew learning and preparing for the Israeli education system and workforce.

In Ethiopia, alongside preparing the olim for life in Israel and flying them to Israel, the Jewish Agency continues to operate in the humanitarian field among the community waiting in Ethiopia, including medical care and daily nutrition programs for children and pregnant or nursing women.

The future of Ethiopian Jewry

Tamano-Shata and Shalom are but two examples of many Ethiopian Israelis succeeding within society.

Hundreds of programs exist in Israel to improve the lot of Ethiopian Jews. The minister, for one, has led a program of urban renewal in impoverished neighborhoods where members of the community live in order to enable young couples to receive subsidized mortgages, subsidized after-school activities and supervised the education for Ethiopian immigrants.

“We still have a long way to go, but I am sure that you are able to see the achievements,” she said.

“There are many breakthroughs in many fields in all spheres of life: medicine, law, entertainment, television and politics. It is a huge privilege for me to be the first Ethiopian minister sitting at the government table, and I always say that is a seat of honor for the members of my community, but not only. I want that each and every child will see and know that they can achieve and reach any arena they dream of,” she said.

According to Tamano-Shata, what began with approximately 500 new Ethiopian immigrants in the fall will continue to “2,000 olim until the end of January.”

Currently, she reported, there are approximately 10,000 potential olim in Ethiopia—“maybe a little more—and we need to answer to them.”

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The Last Jews of Ethiopia

The last community synagogue in Gondar, in the north of Ethiopia, is in a rented building cordoned off from the street by large metal sheets. Several men passively stand guard in front. From the outside, a Jewish Agency for Israel sign is the main indication of what lies within.

“You,” two men in frayed jeans and rubber sandals shouted as I paused at the wide street where they loitered. “Beta Israel?”

“There,” they said, gesturing in the synagogue’s direction.

Beta Israel, or House of Israel, is the term for Ethiopia’s indigenous Jewish community. The Jews are also called Falasha, or “outsiders” in Ge’ez, the liturgical language of Ethiopian Christians and Jews. It is here, in the rolling green hills of Gondar, that a distinctive Ethiopian Jewish community of craftsmen and shepherds once thrived. They claimed to derive from the tribe of Dan, one of the lost 10 biblical tribes, although this claim remains historically disputed.

The typical Jewish or American travelers rarely reach Ethiopia, a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa where infrastructure is poor and poverty rampant. But Ethiopia is a desirable destination for travelers seeking new heights, as well as beautiful nature preserves and ancient religious sites. Several Jewish groups, such as Jewish Journeys Ltd., have organized sightseeing or fundraising trips to Gondar and to other areas in the north, like the Simien Mountains and Bahir Dar, where Jews were once populous. Others, like myself, make it their own way.

Travelers, however, will not be coming to this synagogue much longer.

On a Saturday in May, I entered the synagogue with a parade of Falasha children. They enthusiastically grasped my hand and, chattering, led me into the main hall. It is a large space filled with benches and divided by a thin cloth mechitzah, to separate the men from the women. The service is in Ge’ez, which shares the same Semitic roots as Hebrew, Arabic and local Amharic. Only the Kaddish is in recognizable Aramaic.

About 25 women sit in front, most of them dressed in white and wrapped in white shawls, common prayer attire for Christian, Muslim and Jewish women in Ethiopia. The men at this service wear the more distinctively Jewish talitot.

On the synagogue’s walls are posters chronicling the waves of aliyah. Over the years, Israelis have helped thousands of Falasha escape the hardships of Ethiopia to move to Israel.

The children around me have known only Gondar, and they told me that they want to go to Israel, too. They asked for my name in Hebrew, and they told me their respective names. They study the language at Gondar’s only Jewish day school. My American-accented Hebrew confused them.

One little girl, 10 years old and with an overbite and wide eyes, squeezed in beside me on the bench. She began to count in Hebrew, concentrating hard. She counted higher and higher, her recitation mixing with the murmurs of men on the other side of the mechitzah.

Near the service’s end, she grew impatient.

“I want a present,” she said to me in Hebrew. Then she repeated over and over, “Ani yafa [I am beautiful].” She persisted, her voice more deflated: “I am beautiful. Why no present?”

At the service’s conclusion, the children squealed. Then quiet wishes of “Shabbat Shalom” were shared. The Kiddush was recited, and baskets of torn Ethiopian sourdough bread were passed around. A few moments later, the community dispersed into the streets, blending into the crowds of brightly dressed Ethiopians.

The modern history of the Beta Israel is not one to romanticize. It is a complicated and oft-disputed story of competing political, religious and humanitarian interests — a portion of Jewish and world history often overlooked.

In 1975, the Israeli Rabbinate officially extended the Law of Return to the Beta Israel. This meant that the Falasha, like all Jews according to Israeli law, now had the right to Israeli citizenship. While some Israelis supported Ethiopian aliyah for humanitarian reasons, others simply wanted more Jews to populate the country.

Jewish Ethiopians were eager to leave their home country. For years Ethiopians suffered under the infamous despot Haile Selassie. Famine devastated the north, while fighting raged along the country’s borders with Eritrea, Somalia and the Sudan. During these troubling times, communities grew insular and hostile toward outsiders. The Falasha, for years largely unable to possess their own land, often became a target of Christian ill will.

In the 1980s, a series of devastating famines raged in Ethiopia’s rebellious north. Hundreds of thousands, including Falasha, left their villages for a treacherous trek to refugee camps at the Sudanese border, their only route for escape. In the covert Operation Moses (1984–85), the Israelis rescued nearly 7,000 Jews from the camps and brought them to refuge in Israel. Thousands more never made it.

Over the next decade, a civil war simmered. The Soviet-bloc kept Ethiopia’s quasi-socialist leader, Mengistu Haile Mariam, propped up against encroaching Eritrean and Tigrean rebels. Facing pressure from several Jewish Diaspora organizations, the Americans and Israelis pushed to accelerate the Falasha emigration. In response, the Mengistu government reportedly offered to leverage Falasha aliyah for Israeli arms. Mengistu’s eventual defeat loomed. In their most daring campaign, in May 1991, the Israelis airlifted more than 14,000 Falasha — most of whom had never seen a plane before — to Israel from Addis Ababa in just 36 hours. The event was dubbed Operation Solomon.

The Israeli Bureau of Statistics estimates that 78,000 Falasha have immigrated to Israel since 1980. There they have greater political freedoms and personal opportunities, but they also face racism and economic marginalization, a stain on the Ethiopian exodus story.

Today, a Jewish cemetery still exists in the forest on the outskirts of Gondar. Adjacent to the forest is an old Falasha village of brown huts. There, an aging woman, who claims she is the last Jew in the village, speaks of the suffering of her family members, now all dead or gone to Israel, and of the joy she finds in creating pottery. In the street outside, neighbors sell crafts they say come from the Falasha village, though it’s been years since a viable Falasha community lived here.

In another part of a city is a compound belonging to the Jewish Agency. The organization facilitates the aliyah process and provides some health and employment services to the Falasha. Inside the compound, Ethiopians patiently sit in rows, waiting for their cases to be heard by Jewish Agency officials, hoping that they will be granted permission to go to Israel.

Gondar’s only Jewish day school, run by the Jewish Agency, is a bumpy drive away. Here the children learn Hebrew in preparation for their relocation. On a tour in May, the headmaster told me that the school — decorated with Jewish stars and flanked by high fences — is the best in the area. Inside, the school provides free lunches of chicken and fruit. There is a sanctuary, a laboratory, a library, a computer room, and even health and family planning services. Boys in uniform play soccer in a large field next to the school’s one-story buildings. In Ethiopia, statistically more children work than read, making the school an impressive feat.

But in Gondar, the Jewish people and places to visit are dwindling fast.

In June the Jewish Agency announced that by September it plans to fly out the remaining 400 Falasha already approved by the Israeli government for aliyah. In the years since the major operations, small numbers of people of have been emigrating each month. The rest of the applicants the Jewish Agency will assess on a case-by-case basis.

The Jewish Agency has announced the end of the Falasha aliyah several times before. But this time, the Jewish Agency’s Ethiopia emissary, Asher Seyum, says it will really happen. In 2011 the Jewish Agency took over aliyah-related operations from the North American Conference on Ethiopian Jewry in order to streamline the process.

I met Seyum at the Florida International Hotel in Gondar, a popular gathering point for Jews and Israelis visiting the city. At age 12, Seyum was part of Operation Moses after he fled, with his family, a small village outside Gondar and headed to the Jewish camp at the Sudanese border. Now, he is back in Ethiopia as a representative for Israel.

Seyum explained that by the summer’s end, the Jewish Agency plans to conclude its operations, including the synagogue and school.

This is not to say that Ethiopia will be emptied of Jews entirely: thousands of Falash Mura, or descendants of Christian converts from Judaism, are to remain behind in Gondar and its surrounding area. Seyum explained that most Falash Mura, also called Zera Israel, converted in the 19th and 20th century, when Jewish relations with Christian rulers soured. Regardless, many kept ties with their Jewish brethren and were never fully accepted into the Christian communities. When word spread about the aliyah, many thousands of Falash Mura left their villages for Gondar and Addis Ababa, assuming they counted.

Then came the complications.

Today, both Israeli and Ethiopian groups dispute the Falash Mura’s religious and political status. It was not until after Operation Moses that the Israelis became aware of this subgroup that, up until then, had emigrated with the others. Israeli officials became wary of opportunists. Today, Falash Mura who move to Israel must undergo conversion on arrival. Under the Israeli Law of Entry, Falash Mura with family in Israel may apply to make aliyah to reunite with their family members.

Seyum explained that as a Falasha, he empathizes with the people whose lives and futures hang in the balance of Israeli policy regarding emigration.

“It’s not an easy decision,” he admitted of the Jewish Agency’s choice to wind down its operation and evaluate further emigration on a case-by-case basis. “When I talk about the final aliyah, I say it is like an operation: You do the operation and it’s very, very difficult. But if you don’t do the operation, it’s so dangerous.”

For decades, several American and Israeli organizations have been in Gondar to support the community that remains. With the Jewish Agency leaving, these organizations worry that the Jewish community will forget people here. I visited one organization, Meketa, that sponsors children and helps adults left in limbo in Gondar find jobs. In a modest shack beside the Jewish Agency compound, five men, aged 30 to 80, worked intently at looms, weaving blue-and-white talitot to sell.

Antehunegh, 38, told me that he left his village and came to Gondar eight years ago in order to make aliyah. Other weavers have been waiting in Gondar to go to Israel for twice as long. He has five children and is not happy in Gondar, where the rent is too high (400–500 birr, or $21–$27 a month), and both land and jobs are scarce. Many of his family members have already gone to Israel. With hard economic times and limited resources, people are loath to give jobs or sell land to outsiders, he claimed. “Even when there is work in the nearby villages, they won’t let you buy land or build your own house,” he said.

“We see hope in a future in Israel,” explained Antehunegh, who has five children, “If I go to Israel I’ll have the opportunities like every Israeli citizen. I’m thinking of my family and children.”

He was happy, he added, that foreigners had come to see Ethiopia.

Days later, and 100 miles away in Bahir Dar by Lake Tana, the source of the Blue Nile River, I met two Israeli Falasha who had returned to Ethiopia for the first time since they left with their families in Operation Solomon. We toured the muddied Blue Nile Falls together.

“I told myself that I need to do this trip for myself and my identity,” said Beny Fareda, 24, who wore an IDF T-shirt and greeted passing Ethiopians in Amharic. He waved his hand at the cow-plowed fields and wooden huts. “My parents grew up in a place that looked just like this.”

Tomorrow he would head to Gondar to visit what remained.

Miriam Berger is a freelance journalist usually based in the Middle East.


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