Agesilaus II, raja Sparta, sekitar 444-360 SM

Agesilaus II, raja Sparta, sekitar 444-360 SM

Agesilaus II, raja Sparta, sekitar 444-360 SM

Agesilaus II, raja Sparta (c.444-360 SM) adalah seorang jenderal yang sukses yang tidak dapat mencegah penurunan perlahan Sparta dari kedudukan dominasi pada akhir Perang Peloponnesia Besar. Dia adalah ahli rumah Eurypontid, salah satu daripada dua keluarga kerajaan Sparta, dan merupakan putera Raja Archidamus II. Dia naik takhta pada tahun 399, setelah kematian Raja Agis II, dengan sokongan Lysander, komandan Spartan yang dominan pada tahun-tahun terakhir Perang Peloponnesia Besar. Dia bukan calon yang jelas untuk takhta, dilahirkan dengan kaki kelab, tetapi orang Spartan memutuskan bahawa anak Agis tidak sah, dan Lysander menyokong tuntutan Agesilaus untuk takhta.

Pada tahun 397 sistem Spartan diancam oleh rencana untuk membunuh seluruh warga Spartan, yang jumlahnya lebih besar oleh unsur-unsur lain dalam populasi Spartan. Agesilaus menekan potensi plot ini, membunuh sebahagian besar perancang.

Pada saat Agesilaus naik takhta, Sparta berperang dengan bekas sekutu Persia (Perang Parsi-Spartan, 400-387). Sparta telah memberikan sokongan terhad kepada pemberontakan Cyrus the Younger, yang telah dikalahkan di Cunaxa pada tahun 401. Selepas pemberontakan ini, orang-orang Persia mula menyerang kota-kota Yunani di Asia Kecil, dan mereka berpaling ke Sparta untuk meminta pertolongan. Orang Spartan memutuskan untuk campur tangan dan menghantar tentera ke Asia Kecil. Pada mulanya pertempuran berlangsung dalam skala yang cukup kecil, tetapi ketika Persia mulai melakukan lebih banyak pasukan, orang Spartan memutuskan untuk mengirim bala bantuan. Agesilaus menawarkan diri untuk memimpin pasukan 30 Spartiate, dua ribu helikopter yang dibebaskan dan enam ribu sekutu ke Asia. Seperti yang telah terjadi sebelumnya dalam perang, Korintus dan Thebes enggan menyumbang pasukan, dan kali ini Athens juga enggan membantu. Thebans selanjutnya mengasingkan Agesilaus dengan mengganggu percubaannya untuk berkorban kepada Artemis di Aulis (menyalin Agamemnon sebelum serangan ke Troy).

Agesilaus tiba di Ephesus pada tahun 396. Tindakan pertamanya adalah untuk merundingkan gencatan senjata selama tiga bulan dengan orang Persia, yang digunakannya untuk menggerakkan Lysander untuk pergi ke teater yang lain. Setelah gencatan senjata berakhir, Agesilaus menyerang Phrygia, setelah meyakinkan satrap Tissaphernes bahawa dia sebenarnya menuju Caria. Salah seorang pegawainya semasa kempen ini adalah sejarawan Xenophon, yang baru-baru ini membantu memimpin '10, 000 'ketika mereka melarikan diri dari pusat Kerajaan Parsi setelah pertempuran Cunaxa. Xenophon sangat kagum dengan Agesilaus, dan kemudian menjadikannya sebagai subjek beberapa bukunya.

Pada tahun 395 Agesilaus menyerang Lydia dan mengalahkan pasukan Parsi di luar Sardis. Dia kemudian menyerang ke Mysia, Phrygia dan Paphlagonia, di mana dia sebentar memenangi sokongan tempatan sebelum kehilangan sebahagian besar lagi. Namun pada tahun yang sama meletusnya Perang Korintus (395-386), yang menyaksikan Sparta menghadapi gabungan negara-negara Yunani yang kuat, termasuk Thebes, Athens, Argos dan Corinth.

Pada tahun 394 Agesilaus merancang ekspedisi besar lain, mungkin dengan harapan untuk maju lebih jauh ke timur melintasi Asia Kecil, tetapi dia kemudian dipanggil untuk bertempur di Yunani setelah pemimpin Spartan Lysander terbunuh dalam pertempuran Nemea (395) semasa menyerang Boeotia. Oleh itu, Agesilaus tidak terlibat dalam kekalahan angkatan laut Spartan di Cnidus (394), di mana armada Parsi yang diperintahkan oleh laksamana Athena Conon menghancurkan kekuatan tentera laut Spartan.

Agesilaus kembali ke Yunani sebagai ketua tentera yang cukup kuat tetapi agak bercampur. Dia tidak punya masalah untuk meyakinkan orang-orang Yunani Asia Kecil untuk bergabung dengan tenteranya, tetapi pasukan dari daratan Yunani (termasuk pasukan helikopter yang dilindungi) kurang berminat untuk memerangi sesama orang Yunani. Agesilaus menggunakan janji hadiah untuk kontinjen terbaik untuk membuat mereka berpindah. Tenteranya juga termasuk satu pasukan selamat dari '10, 000 ', yang diperintah oleh Herippidas.

Agesilaus memilih untuk kembali melalui jalan darat. Dia harus berjuang melewati Thrace, di mana dia mengetahui bahawa orang Spartan telah memperoleh kemenangan yang signifikan di Nemea dekat Korintus, dan sekali lagi ketika dia bergerak ke selatan melalui Thessaly. Di sini dia menggunakan pasukan berkuda sendiri untuk menimbulkan kekalahan pada pasukan berkuda yang terkenal di Thessaly.

Kembali ke Yunani Agesilaus memperoleh kemenangan atas sekutu di Coronea di Boeotia pada tahun 394, mengalahkan tentera yang berusaha menghalang jalannya, tetapi kekalahan di Cnidus bermaksud bahawa kemenangan ini tidak banyak memberi kesan. Berita kekalahan di Cnidus sampai ke Agesilaus sebelum pertempuran Coronea, tetapi dia berbohong kepada anak buahnya, mengatakan kepada mereka bahawa orang Spartan telah menang. Sebilangan besar tentera bersekutu anti-Spartan menunjukkan prestasi buruk dalam pertempuran ini, walaupun pasukan Thebans berjaya mematahkan lawan mereka dan sampai di kem Spartan sebelum mereka menyedari bahawa mereka terasing secara berbahaya. Agesilaus membentuk barisan baru untuk menghentikan mereka mencapai keselamatan, dan cedera dalam pertempuran sengit yang terjadi. Thebans akhirnya menerobos garis Spartan, tetapi hanya setelah mengalami banyak korban jiwa. Namun tentera sekutu tetap utuh, dan Agesilaus terpaksa mundur ke barat menuju Locris, di mana dia membubarkan tenteranya, menyeberangi Teluk Korintus dan kembali ke Sparta.

Pada musim bunga tahun 391 Agesilaus memimpin pencerobohan pertama ke wilayah Argive, kemudian dengan cepat kembali ke Korintus di mana dia merebut kembali Tembok Panjang yang menghubungkan kota itu ke Teluk Korintus. Ini telah diambil oleh orang-orang Sparta sebagai akibat dari perselisihan sipil di Korintus, tetapi kemudian dikuasai oleh tentera sekutu utama. Setelah Agesilaus merebut kembali tembok dan pelabuhan Lechaeum, mereka tetap berada di tangan Spartan selama sisa perang.

Pada tahun 390 Agesilaus menyerang wilayah Korintus, berkempen di semenanjung Piraeum, di mana orang-orang Korintus memiliki kawanan ternak utama mereka. Kejayaannya di sini mendorong Boeotian untuk mencadangkan rundingan damai, tetapi sebelum ini terjadi, rejimen hoplite Spartan mengalami kekalahan besar di luar Lechaeum, ketika mereka terperangkap oleh pelemparan cahaya Iphicrates. Agesilaus terpaksa meninggalkan ekspedisi sementara, dan ketika dia kembali, idea rundingan damai telah hilang.

Pada tahun 389 Agesilaus dipaksa berkempen di Acarnania, di sebelah barat laut Teluk Korintus. Sekutu-sekutu Achaean Sparta telah menguasai Calydon di barat daya Aetolia, tetapi sekarang ini diancam oleh orang Acarnan dan sekutu Boeotian dan Athena mereka. Agesilaus dihantar untuk menyokong orang-orang Achaea. Dia dapat menyerang desa Acarnanian, tetapi gagal merebut salah satu kota mereka dan hampir mengalami kekalahan memalukan ketika dia berusaha mengejar mereka ke pergunungan. Dia pergi pada awal musim luruh, sebelum mengganggu musim penanaman. Argumennya adalah bahawa orang Acarnan cenderung mencari perdamaian jika mereka memiliki tanaman untuk melindungi, dan ketika dia mengumumkan rencananya untuk kembali pada tahun 388 dia terbukti benar ketika mereka menuntut perdamaian.

Pada tahun 387-6 Perang Parsi-Spartan dan Perang Korintus kedua-duanya berakhir oleh Raja Damai. Klausa utama perjanjian ini adalah pemberian autonomi kepada semua kota Yunani. Agesilaus menggunakan ini untuk memaksa Thebes untuk membubarkan Liga Boeotian, meninggalkan Sparta sebagai kekuatan ketenteraan yang dominan di Yunani.

Pada tahun 385 orang Spartan menentang Mantinea, setelah memutuskan bahawa mereka tidak setia selama Perang Korintus. Agesipolis memimpin pasukan Spartan yang merosakkan wilayah Mantine dan mengepung kota, dan akhirnya mengalahkan para pembela dengan mengalihkan aliran sehingga membanjiri kota. Orang-orang Mantina terpaksa meninggalkan kota itu dan kembali ke lima kampung asalnya yang dibentuknya.

Pada tahun 381-380 orang Spartan campur tangan di Phlius, barat laut Argos, menyokong sekumpulan teman-teman diasingkan dari Agesilaus. Dia mengambil alih pengepungan, yang berlangsung selama satu tahun dan lapan bulan. Pada kesempatan ini dia agak lebih penyayang - kota itu dibiarkan utuh dan sekumpulan 50 orang buangan dan 50 pembela diperintahkan untuk membuat perlembagaan baru.

Pada tahun 382 tentera Spartan yang lewat merebut kuasa di Thebes. Ini ternyata merupakan kesilapan yang besar. Sparta segera mendapati dirinya menghadapi sekutu Thebes dan Athens (Perang Theban-Spartan, 379-371). Pada mulanya Sparta memiliki kelebihan, hampir mengepung Thebes pada tahun 378 dan 377. Agesilaus tidak terlibat dalam kempen terawal, tetapi dia mengambil alih komando tentera pada tahun 378. Dia maju hampir ke Thebes, di mana dia dihadapi oleh Boeotian besar dan Tentera Athena, dan akhirnya memutuskan untuk tidak berperang. Dia juga memimpin kempen 377, tetapi kemudian pada tahun itu urat di kakinya pecah, membuatnya terbaring di tempat tidur untuk beberapa waktu.

Akhirnya peristiwa-peristiwa berbalik melawan Sparta dan pada tahun 371 mereka mengadakan rundingan damai. Sekali lagi Agesilaus enggan mengizinkan Thebes untuk berbicara untuk Liga Boeotian, dan Epaminondas, pemimpin Theban, menarik diri dari rundingan. Penguasa bersama Agesilaus, Raja Cleombrotus, memimpin tentera Spartan ke Boeotian, tetapi mengalami kekalahan hebat di Leuctra (371 SM).

Pertempuran ini menandakan berakhirnya masa ketuanan tentera Spartan. Thebes menjadi kuasa Yunani yang dominan untuk dekad berikutnya. Agesilaus dapat mencegah orang-orang Thebans langsung mengancam Sparta, dan memimpin pertahanan kota ketika Epaminondas mengancamnya pada tahun 370, membuat cukup pertahanan untuk mencegah serangan langsung ke kota dan mengalahkan dua ancaman dalaman.

Dia menyelamatkan kota itu untuk kali kedua pada tahun 362 ketika Epaminondas menyerang untuk kali kedua. Dia tidak hadir dalam pertempuran Mantinea (362), kemenangan Theban lain dan kekalahan Spartan. Namun hasil yang paling penting dalam pertempuran ini adalah kematian Epaminondas. Dengan pemimpin besar mereka hilang, hegemoni Theban runtuh. Prestij Spartan juga dihancurkan, dan lapangan terbuka untuk Philip II dari Macedonia.

Agesilaus juga terlibat dalam Pemberontakan Satrap pada tahun 360an, satu siri pemberontakan terhadap pihak berkuasa Artaxerxes II dari Parsi. Dia membantu mengangkat pengepungan Adramyttium, di mana satrap pemberontak Ariobarzanes dikepung oleh Autophradates.

Agesilaus sendiri jauh dari Sparta pada saat ini, bertempur atas nama Firaun Teos (atau Tachos), yang berusaha mendapatkan kembali wilayah Mesir yang telah lama hilang. Agesilaus kemudian bertengkar dengan Tachos setelah Firaun berkeras untuk mengambil komandan peribadi tentera yang berkampanye di Phoenicia, dan menyokong saingannya Nectanbo II (r.360-343), yang naik takhta dengan sokongan Yunani. Agesilaus membantu mengalahkan percubaan untuk menggulingkan Nectanbo dan kemudian berangkat pulang, tetapi meninggal pada tahun 360 sebelum sampai di Sparta.


Agesilaus II

Agesilaus II, atau Agesilaos II (Kuno & # 160Greek: Ἀγησίλαος ) (444–360 SM) adalah raja Eurypontid dari negara kota Sparta Yunani Kuno, yang memerintah dari sekitar 400 SM hingga 360 SM, selama sebagian besar waktu dia, menurut kata-kata Plutarch, "baik sebagai komandan dan raja pemikiran dari seluruh Yunani, "dan secara keseluruhannya sangat dikenali dengan perbuatan dan kekayaan negaranya. & # 911 & # 93 Berukuran kecil dan lumpuh sejak lahir, Agesilaus menjadi pemerintah yang agak tidak dijangka pada pertengahan empat puluhan. Pemerintahan awalnya menyaksikan serangan tentera yang berjaya ke berbagai negeri di Turki sekarang, walaupun beberapa keputusan diplomatik mengakibatkan Sparta semakin terasing sebelum kematiannya pada usia 84 tahun di Cyrenaica (sebahagian dari Libya moden).


Agesilaus

Agesilaus II., Raja Sparta, dari keluarga Eurypontid, adalah anak kepada Archidamus II. dan Eupolia, dan saudara tiri yang lebih muda dari Agis II., yang dia berjaya sekitar 401 SM. Kejayaan Agesilaus sebahagian besarnya disebabkan oleh Lysander, yang berharap dapat menemukan di dalamnya alat yang bersedia untuk memajukan rancangan politiknya dengan harapan ini, namun, Lysander kecewa, dan kekuatan Agesilaus yang semakin meningkat segera menyebabkan kejatuhannya.

GESILAUS DAN P HARNABAZUS

Pada tahun 396 Agesilaus dihantar ke Asia dengan kekuatan 2000 Neodamodes (Helots yang dikuasai) dan 6000 sekutu untuk mengamankan kota-kota Yunani daripada serangan Parsi. Setibanya di Ephesus, gencatan senjata selama tiga bulan diselesaikan dengan Tissaphernes, satrap Lydia dan Caria, tetapi rundingan yang dilakukan pada masa itu terbukti tidak berbuah, dan pada penghentiannya, Agesilaus menyerang Phrygia, di mana dia dengan mudah memenangi harta rampasan besar kerana Tissaphernes telah memusatkan perhatiannya tentera di Caria. Setelah menghabiskan musim sejuk dalam mengatur pasukan berkuda, dia berjaya melakukan serangan ke Lydia pada musim bunga tahun 395. Tithraustes kemudian dihantar untuk menggantikan Tissaphernes, yang membayar dengan nyawanya kerana kegagalannya yang berterusan. Sebuah gencatan senjata telah disimpulkan antara Tithraustes dan Agesilaus, yang meninggalkan satrapi selatan dan sekali lagi menyerang Phrygia, yang dirusaknya hingga musim bunga berikutnya. Dia kemudian membuat perjanjian dengan satrap Pharnabazus dan sekali lagi berpaling ke arah selatan.

Dikatakan bahawa dia merancang kampanye di pedalaman, atau bahkan serangan terhadap Artaxerxes sendiri, ketika dia dipanggil kembali ke Yunani kerana perang antara Sparta dan gabungan pasukan Athena, Thebes, Corinth, Argos dan beberapa negara kecil. Perjalanan pantas melalui Thrace dan Macedonia membawanya ke Thessaly, di mana dia menangkis pasukan berkuda Tesalonika yang berusaha menghalangnya. Dikuatkan oleh tentera Phocian dan Orchomenia dan tentera Spartan, dia bertemu pasukan konfederasi di Coronea di Boeotia, dan dalam pertempuran yang diperjuangkan secara panas berjaya secara teknikal, tetapi kejayaan itu tandus dan dia harus bersara dengan cara Delphi ke Peloponnese . Tidak lama sebelum pertempuran ini, angkatan laut Spartan, yang mana ia telah mendapat perintah tertinggi, dikalahkan sepenuhnya oleh Cnidus oleh armada Parsi yang kuat di bawah Conon dan Pharnabazus.

Selanjutnya Agesilaus mengambil bagian penting dalam perang Korintus, membuat beberapa ekspedisi yang berjaya ke wilayah Korintus dan menangkap Lechaeum dan Piraeum. Akan tetapi, kehilangan mora, yang dihancurkan oleh Iphicrates, meneutralkan kejayaan ini, dan Agesilaus kembali ke Sparta. Pada tahun 389 dia melakukan kampanye di Acarnania, tetapi dua tahun kemudian Peace of Antalcidas, yang disokong oleh Agesilaus, menghentikan permusuhan. Ketika perang meletus kembali dengan Thebes, raja dua kali menyerang Boeotia (378, 377), dan atas nasihatnya, Cleombrotus diperintahkan untuk berarak menentang Thebes pada tahun 371. Cleombrotus dikalahkan di Leuctra dan supremasi Spartan digulingkan. Pada tahun 370 Agesilaus berusaha untuk mengembalikan prestij Spartan dengan menyerang wilayah Mantine, dan kehati-hatian dan kepahlawanannya menyelamatkan Sparta ketika musuhnya, yang dipimpin oleh Epaminondas, menembus Laconia pada tahun yang sama, dan sekali lagi pada tahun 362 ketika mereka semua tetapi berjaya merebut kota dengan perarakan yang pantas dan tidak dijangka. Pertempuran Mantinea (362), di mana Agesilaus tidak mengambil bahagian, diikuti oleh perdamaian umum: Sparta, bagaimanapun, tetap berdiri, berharap masih belum dapat memulihkan kekuasaannya. Untuk mendapatkan wang untuk mengadili perang, Agesilaus telah mendukung satraps yang telah memberontak, dan pada tahun 361 dia pergi ke Mesir sebagai ketua pasukan tentera upahan untuk menolong Tachos melawan Parsi. Dia segera menyerahkan khidmatnya kepada sepupu Tachos dan saingannya Nectanabis, yang, sebagai balasan atas pertolongannya, memberinya sejumlah lebih dari 200 bakat. Dalam perjalanan pulang, Agesilaus meninggal pada usia 84 tahun, setelah memerintah sekitar 41 tahun.

Seorang lelaki bertubuh kecil dan tidak mengesankan, dia agak lumpuh sejak lahir, suatu fakta yang digunakan sebagai argumen terhadap penggantiannya, sebuah oracle telah memberi amaran kepada Sparta untuk menentang "pemerintahan lumpuh." Dia adalah pemimpin yang berjaya dalam perang gerila, berjaga-jaga dan cepat, tetapi berhati-hati & # 8212a, apalagi, yang keberanian peribadinya tidak dapat dipertanyakan. Sebagai seorang negarawan, dia memenangkan dirinya sebagai pengikut yang bersemangat dan musuh yang pahit, tetapi kerana semangat patriotiknya tidak ada keraguan. Dia hidup dengan gaya yang paling hemat di rumah dan di ladang, dan walaupun kempennya banyak dilakukan untuk mendapatkan harta rampasan, dia puas untuk memperkaya negara dan rakan-rakannya dan kembali miskin seperti yang dia tentukan. Sifat terburuk dalam wataknya adalah kebenciannya terhadap Thebes, yang langsung menyebabkan pertempuran Leuctra dan kejatuhan Sparta dari kedudukannya yang unggul.


Petikan terpilih

Ketika seseorang memuji seorang pidato atas kemampuannya untuk memperbesar poin kecil, dia berkata, "Pada pendapat saya, bukan tukang sepatu yang bagus yang memakai kasut besar di kaki kecil."

Lain kali dia melihat seekor tikus ditarik dari lubang oleh seorang budak kecil. Ketika tikus menoleh, menggigit tangan penangkapnya dan melarikan diri, dia menunjukkan hal ini kepada mereka yang hadir dan berkata, "Ketika makhluk terkecil mempertahankan diri seperti ini terhadap penyerang, apa yang harus dilakukan oleh lelaki, menurutmu?"

Tentunya ketika seseorang bertanya apakah keuntungan yang dibawa oleh undang-undang Lycurgus kepada Sparta, dia menjawab, "Menghina kesenangan."

Ketika ditanya sejauh mana batas Sparta membentang, dia mengacungkan tombaknya dan berkata, "Sejauh ini dapat dicapai."

Ketika melihat sebuah rumah di Asia yang dipenuhi balok persegi, dia bertanya kepada pemiliknya apakah kayu tumbuh persegi di kawasan itu. Ketika diberitahu tidak, itu tumbuh bulat, dia berkata, "Lalu bagaimana? Jika itu persegi, adakah anda akan membuatnya bulat?"

Diundang untuk mendengar pelakon yang dapat meniru nightingale dengan sempurna, Agesilaus menolak, mengatakan bahawa dia telah mendengar nightingale itu sendiri.


Kandungan

Orang Yunani kuno menamakan lelaki setelah bapa mereka, menghasilkan patronymic dengan infiks -ID- sebagai contoh, anak lelaki Atreus adalah orang Atreid. Untuk rumah diraja, patronimik dibentuk dari nama pengasas atau tokoh penting dinasti awal. Oleh itu, keluarga yang berkuasa mungkin mempunyai sejumlah nama dinasti, Agis I menamakan Agiad, tetapi dia adalah Heraclid dan juga keturunannya.

Sekiranya keturunan tidak diketahui atau sedikit diketahui, orang Yunani membuat beberapa andaian standard berdasarkan ideologi budaya mereka. Orang-orang Agiad diperlakukan sebagai suku, yang dianggap berasal dari nenek moyang dengan namanya. Dia pasti seorang raja, yang mendirikan dinasti namanya. Mitologi itu meluas bahkan untuk meletakkan nama. Mereka dianggap telah dinamai raja dan dewa. Raja sering menjadi ketuhanan, dalam agama mereka.

Lelegid Edit

Lelegid adalah keturunan Lelex (pembentukan belakang), nenek moyang Leleges, suku Pelasgian yang menghuni lembah Eurotas sebelum orang Yunani, yang, menurut keturunan mitologi, digabungkan dengan orang Yunani

Tahun Lelegid Maklumat penting lain
c. 1600 SM Lelex anak Poseidon atau Helios, atau dia dikatakan autochthonous
c. 1575 SM Myles anak lelaki Lelex
c. 1550 SM Eurotas anak lelaki Myles, bapa Sparta

Lacedaemonids Edit

Lacedaemonids mengandungi orang Yunani dari zaman legenda, sekarang dianggap sebagai Zaman Gangsa di Yunani. Dalam bahasa keturunan mitologi, pemerintahan dilalui dari Leleges ke orang Yunani.

Tahun Lacedaemonid Maklumat penting lain
c. Lacedaemon anak Zeus, suami Sparta
c. Amyklas anak lelaki Lacedaemon. Dia mengasaskan Amyklai
c. Argalus anak kepada Amyklas
c. Kynortas anak kepada Amyklas
c. Perieres anak lelaki Kynortas
c. Oibalos anak lelaki Kynortas
c. Tyndareos (Pemerintahan pertama) anak lelaki Oibalos dan bapa Helen
c. Hippocoon anak lelaki Oibalos dan saudara lelaki Tyndareos
c. Tyndareos (Pemerintahan kedua)
Tahun tanpa tarikh (hanya "c.") tidak diketahui

Atreids Edit

Atreidai (Latin Atreidae) tergolong dalam Zaman Gangsa Akhir, atau Zaman Mycenaean. Dalam mitologi, mereka adalah Perseides. Oleh kerana nama Atreus dibuktikan dalam dokumen Het, dinasti ini mungkin prasejarah.

Tahun Atreid Maklumat penting lain
c. 1250 SM Menelaus anak Atreus dan suami Helen
c. 1150 SM Orestes anak lelaki Agamemnon dan anak saudara Menelaus
c. Tisamenos anak lelaki Orestes
c. 1100 SM Dion suami Iphitea, anak perempuan Prognaus
Tahun tanpa tarikh (hanya "c.") tidak diketahui

Raja-raja Spartan sebagai Heracleidae mengaku keturunan dari Heracles, yang melalui ibunya keturunan Perseus. Tidak membenarkan Peloponnesus, Hercules menjalani kehidupan mengembara. Heracleidae menjadi pendakian di lembah Eurotas dengan orang-orang Dorian yang, setidaknya dalam legenda, memasukinya semasa invasi yang disebut Return of the Heracleidae yang mengusir Atreid dan setidaknya beberapa penduduk Mycenaean.

Tahun Heraclid Maklumat penting lain
c. Aristodemos anak lelaki Aristomachus dan suami Argeia
c. Theras (bupati) anak lelaki Autesion dan saudara lelaki isteri Aristodemus, Argeia [n 2] berkhidmat sebagai bupati untuk anak saudaranya, Eurysthenes dan Procles.
Tahun tanpa tarikh (hanya "c.") tidak diketahui

Dinasti Agiad Sunting

Dinasti ini dinamai raja keduanya, Agis.

Tahun Agiad Maklumat penting lain
c. 930 SM Eurysthenes Kembalinya Heracleidae
c. 930 - 900 SM [n 3] Agis I Menundukkan Helot
c. 900 - 870 SM Echestratus Mengusir orang Cynurensians [n 4] yang berkuasa.
c. 870 - 840 SM Labotas [n 5]
c. 840 - 820 SM Doryssus
c. 820 - 790 SM Agesilaus I
c. 790 - 760 SM Archelaus
c. 760 - 740 SM Teleklus Dibunuh oleh orang Mesenia
c. 740 - 700 SM Alcamenes Perang Messenia pertama bermula
c. 700 - 665 SM Polydorus Perang Messenia pertama berakhir dibunuh oleh bangsawan Spartan Polemarchus [5]
c. 665 - 640 SM Eurycrates
c. 640 - 615 SM Anaxander
c. 615 - 590 SM Eurycratides
c. 590 - 560 SM Leon
c. 560 - 520 SM Anaxandridas II Pertempuran belenggu
c. 520 - 490 SM Cleomenes I Perang Greco-Persian bermula
c. 490 - 480 SM Leonidas I Pertempuran Thermopylae
c. 480 - 459 SM Pleistarchus Perang Peloponnesia pertama bermula
c. 459 - 445 SM, 426 - 409 SM Pleistoanax Perang Peloponnesia kedua bermula
c. 445 - 426 SM, 409 - 395 SM Pausanias Membantu memulihkan demokrasi dalam hegemoni Spartan Athens
c. 395 - 380 SM Agesipolis I Perang Korintus bermula
c. 380 - 371 SM Cleombrotus I
c. 371 - 369 SM Agesipolis II [n 6]
c. 369 - 309 SM Cleomenes II Perang Suci Ketiga bermula
c. 309 - 265 SM Areus I Dibunuh dalam pertempuran melawan Aristodemus, zalim Megalopolis
c. 265 - 262 SM Acrotatus II
c. 262 - 254 SM Areus II [6]
c. 254 - 242 SM Leonidas II Dijatuhkan sebentar ketika dalam pengasingan mengelakkan perbicaraan
c. 242 - 241 SM Cleombrotus II
c. 241 - 235 SM Leonidas II
c. 235 - 222 SM Cleomenes III Diasingkan selepas Pertempuran Sellasia
Selepas Pertempuran Sellasia, monarki ganda tetap kosong hingga kematian Cleomenes III pada tahun 219.
c. 219 - 215 SM Agesipolis III Agiad terakhir, digulingkan oleh Eurypontid Lycurgus

Dinasti Eurypontid Sunting

Dinasti dinamakan sempena raja ketiganya Eurypon. Tidak ditunjukkan Lycurgus, pengacara, seorang putra bungsu dari Eurypontids, yang melayani kabupaten singkat baik untuk bayi Charilaus (780-750 SM) atau untuk Labotas (870-840 SM) Agiad.


Agesilaus, Panglima Tentera

Dengan kemampuannya sebagai komandan tentera, kempen pertama Agesilaus adalah menentang Parsi di Anatolia, dengan tugas membebaskan negara-negara kota Yunani di sana. Keputusan untuk berperang melawan Parsi sebagian disebabkan oleh niat Lysander untuk menolong rakannya di sana, yang dia telah letakkan di posisi berkuasa. Seperti yang ditulis oleh Plutarch, “Sekarang, Lysander ingin sekali dikirim kembali ke Asia, dan untuk membantu rakan-rakannya di sana. Mereka telah meninggalkan gubernur dan pembesar kota, tetapi karena tindakan mereka yang tidak adil dan ganas, mereka diusir oleh warga, dan bahkan dihukum mati. Oleh itu, dia meyakinkan Agesilaus untuk melakukan ekspedisi dan berperang demi Hellas. "


Agesilaus II, Raja Sparta

Agesilaus adalah putera bongsu Archidamus, salah satu dari dua raja Sparta. Ibunya dipanggil Eupolia. Setelah Archidamus meninggal, kakak Agesilaus, Agis, menggantikannya sebagai salah seorang raja. Oleh kerana Agesilaus tidak diharapkan menjadi raja, dia menjalani latihan yang sama seperti anak-anak Spartan yang lain.

Agis biasanya akan digantikan oleh anaknya, Leotychidas. Namun, ada keraguan mengenai apakah Leotychidas sebenarnya anak lelaki Agis kerana Agis sendiri hanya mengakui dia di ranjang kematiannya (399 SM). Menurut gosip, jeneral Athena Alcibiades, yang pernah berada di Sparta pada waktu yang tepat, adalah bapa kandung Leotychidas. Kontroversi itu disulitkan oleh oracle bahawa kerajaan yang pincang akan menjadi bencana bagi Sparta - dan Agesilaus pincang.

Namun, Agesilaus mendapat sokongan dari Lysander, jenderal Spartan yang telah mengalahkan Athena (404), sehingga mengakhiri perang yang telah lama berlanjutan dan menjadikan Sparta sebagai negara kota terkemuka Yunani yang tidak dipertikaikan. Lysander berpendapat bahawa pemerintahan yang lumpuh di oracle merujuk kepada haramnya Leotychidas dan bukannya kepincangan Agesilaus. Hujah ini diterima oleh orang Spartan, dan Agesilaus menjadi raja.

Segera setelah aksinya, Agesilaus dibujuk oleh Lysander untuk melakukan ekspedisi ke Asia (sekarang Turki Barat), di mana orang-orang Persia berusaha untuk menegaskan kembali kekuasaan mereka (396). Ekspedisi Spartan berlayar dari Aulis - titik keberangkatan yang sama dengan yang digunakan oleh Agamemnon dalam ekspedisi menentang Troy. Ketika Agesilaus ingin melakukan pengorbanan kepada para dewa sebelum pergi, Boeotian mengganggu upacara tersebut, melemparkan paha korban korban dari mezbah, dengan alasan hanya mereka yang dibenarkan berkorban di sana. Agesilaus tidak pernah memaafkan orang-orang Thebans.

Ketika Agesilaus sampai di Efesus, dia mendapati bahawa Lysander sangat dihormati oleh beberapa orang dan sangat ditakuti oleh orang lain. Agesilaus sendiri, raja, diperlakukan dengan senang hati jika dibandingkan dengan keunggulan nominalnya. Dia sekaligus berusaha untuk menjadikan kedudukan atasannya menjadi kenyataan dengan menolak semua permintaan dan rancangan yang dia tahu Lysander tangani dan memihak kepada sesiapa yang menentang Lysander. Hubungan antara keduanya merosot sehingga kematian Lysander di Boeotia pada tahun berikutnya.

Walaupun Tissaphernes, satrap dari Parsi, sepertinya bersedia membantu orang-orang Spartan, dan berjanji untuk melepaskan kota-kota Yunani di Asia dari kerajaan Parsi, ini hanyalah tipu muslihat ketika dia membangun pasukannya. Agesilaus menjawab dengan tipu muslihat lain, berpura-pura dia akan menyerang Caria, sehingga Tissaphernes mengumpulkan pasukannya di sana, pada saat itu sasaran sebenarnya Agesilaus, Phrygia, menjadi jelas.

Terpaksa menarik diri dari Phrygia dengan banyak harta rampasan kerana kekurangan pasukan berkuda, Agesilaus kembali ke Ephesus dan mulai membentuk pasukan berkuda selama musim sejuk, ketika berkempen biasanya berhenti. Pada tahun berikutnya (395), dia menyatakan bahawa dia merancang serangan ke atas Lydia. Tissaphernes takut akan perangkap lain, dan sekali lagi mengumpulkan pasukannya di Caria. Malangnya, kali ini Agesilaus telah mengatakan yang sebenarnya. Setelah berarak dari Caria, Tissaphernes dikalahkan oleh Agesilaus dekat Sardis, dan kemudian dihukum atas perintah raja Parsi.

Agesilaus kemudian menerima komisen dari Sparta untuk mengambil alih komando armada juga. Dia melantik Pisander, kakak iparnya sebagai laksamana dan merancang untuk berarak menentang Pharnabazus, satrap Phrygia. Dalam upaya untuk menyingkirkan Agesilaus, Pharnabazus telah mendorong kota-kota Yunani untuk melancarkan serangan bersama terhadap Sparta. Lysander tidak dapat membawa Pharnabazus ke pertempuran sengit, dan mulai bergerak ke pedalaman melawan kota-kota kerajaan Parsi Ecbatana dan Susa. (394).

Pada saat inilah Agesilaus dipanggil oleh Sparta untuk mengambil alih komando dalam perang yang Pharnabazus berjaya bangkit. Pada perarakan daratnya melalui Yunani dari Hellespont, dia menerima perintah untuk menyerang Boeotia. Di Coronea, dia bertemu dengan tentera gabungan Boeotian-Argive. Agesilaus cedera dalam pertempuran yang terjadi, tetapi orang Spartan menang. Sejarawan Xenophon, yang berada di sana berperang di bawah Agesilaus, mengatakan bahawa tidak ada pertempuran lain pada zamannya seperti itu (Agesilaus II.9). Selepas pertempuran, beberapa pasukan Theban mencari tempat perlindungan di kuil Athena yang berdekatan. Walaupun didesak untuk melakukannya, Agesilaus menolak untuk melanggar tempat perlindungan dengan menyerang mereka dan memberikan mereka tingkah laku yang selamat untuk pergi.

Ketika Agesilaus tiba kembali di Sparta setelah pertempuran Coronea (394), dia mendapat popularitas dengan cepat kembali ke cara hidup Spartan daripada menggunakan tingkah laku asing. Dia memujuk saudaranya Cynisca untuk memasuki pasukan untuk perlumbaan kereta kuda di Olimpik, kali pertama wanita melakukannya - dan dia menang. Agesilaus mengatakan bahawa ini membuktikan bahawa sesiapa sahaja boleh menang di Olimpik sekiranya mereka mempunyai wang yang mencukupi.

Dia juga mulai meningkatkan kekuatan dan pengaruhnya di Sparta dengan melantik lawan-lawannya ke posisi yang tidak sesuai untuk mereka, dan kemudian membela diri ketika mereka diadili, sehingga memenangkan mereka untuk menjadi penyokongnya. Dia juga memenangkan raja Sparta yang lain, Agesipolis, dengan membantunya dalam kehidupan cintanya.

Agesilaus melancarkan ekspedisi menentang Korintus, yang berada di bawah kawalan Argive (391). Dia tiba di Korintus pada waktu permainan Isthmian, yang mana dia membiarkan orang-orang Korintus merayakannya di bawah perlindungannya. Namun, ketika dia menarik pasukannya, Argives kembali menguasai Korintus dan mengulangi permainan. Sebilangan atlet menang lagi, tetapi yang lain menang pada pusingan pertama tetapi tidak dalam permainan ulangan.

Semasa dia berada di Korintus, Agesilaus menerima berita kekalahan besar pembahagian Spartan oleh pasukan Athena di bawah Iphicrates. Agesilaus mengumpulkan mangsa yang selamat dan membawanya kembali ke Sparta dalam siri perarakan malam (390).

Armada Spartan di bawah Pisander, saudara ipar Agesilaus, telah dikalahkan oleh armada gabungan Parsi-Athena, dan Pharnabazus terus menimbulkan masalah bagi orang Spartan dengan membantu orang-orang Athena memperkuat kota mereka. Oleh kerana daerah pesisir mereka rentan terhadap serangan tentera laut, orang Sparta memutuskan untuk berdamai dengan raja Parsi dan mengirim Antalcides, lawan politik Agesilaus untuk berdamai dengan Parsi (386). Antalcides sangat ingin perdamaian dapat diselesaikan kerana dia merasakan bahawa perang menguntungkan Agesilaus. Di bawah syarat-syarat perdamaian, kota-kota Yunani di Asia diserahkan kembali kepada Parsi, dan semua kota Yunani di Yunani dinyatakan bebas dari satu sama lain, suatu tindakan yang ditujukan terhadap orang-orang Thebans yang akan kehilangan kendali mereka terhadap kota-kota lain di Boeotia.

Pada tahun 382, ​​Phoebidas, seorang komandan Spartan dengan pasukan dalam perjalanan ke Thrace, memanfaatkan undangan dari beberapa orang Theban yang tidak puas hati untuk menguasai Cadmeia, benteng Theban. Diduga Phoebidas bertindak di bawah arahan Agesilaus. Sudah pasti, Agesilaus menyokong Phoebidas sepenuhnya setelah kenyataan itu. Ketika Thebans memberontak melawan rejim Spartan dan mengusir pasukan Spartan, Agesilaus mengisytiharkan perang melawan Thebes (379).

Diilhamkan oleh teladan Phoebidas, Spartan lain yang bernama Sphodrias, salah satu penentang politik Agesilaus, melakukan serangan mengejut pada waktu malam ke atas Piraeus dalam usaha untuk memotong akses orang Athena ke laut, tetapi fajar mendapati dia masih dalam perjalanan ke Piraeus , dan setelah itu, setelah menyerang desa, dia berundur kembali ke Thespiae di perbatasan Boeotian-Athena. Orang-orang Athena menghantar delegasi ke Sparta untuk memprotes, tetapi ketika rombongan itu sampai di sana, mereka mendapati Sphodrias telah didakwa. Namun, anak lelaki Sphodrias adalah kekasih anak lelaki Agesilaus, dan keluarga merasa tidak setuju dengan percanggahan politik dan kemarahan antarabangsa, dan Sphodrias dibebaskan.

Agesilaus memutuskan bahawa Cleombrotus, yang sekarang menjadi raja Spartan yang lain, tidak meneruskan perang melawan Thebes dengan cukup kuat dan pergi ke lapangan sendiri (378). The Thebans were learning from their frequent wars against Sparta, and so the war did not go as well as Agesilaus hoped. While on campaign, Agesilaus seems to have suffered from a blood clot in his leg, and lost a lot of blood when the doctors tried to relieve his symptoms by bleeding him (377). He was taken back to Sparta and was unable to undertake military expeditions for a long time.

While Agesilaus was out of action, Sparta suffered serious defeats from the Thebans. A peace conference was held at Sparta, with delegates from all over Greece (371). There was a major row between Agesilaus and the leader of the Theban delegation, Epaminondas, which resulted in Agesilaus dismissing the rest of the delegates and declaring war on Thebes again. Cleombrotus, who was in Phocis at the time, led his forces to attack Thebes. The Spartans suffered a crushing defeat at the battle of Leuctra, with the loss of a thousand men. Sparta’s time as a major military power was over, and Theban ascendancy began.

When the news of Leuctra reached Sparta (371), the relatives of the fallen were full of pride while the relatives of the survivors behaved as if they were in mourning. The survivors were in grave danger of being declared cowards and subject to various legal and social penalties. However, Agesilaus declared that the laws should be suspended for one day so that the survivors would not have to stand trial. Morale in Sparta was very low and many remembered the oracle about the lame king. However, Agesilaus was still popular and the Spartans continued to trust him as a leader in war and in international relations. To help restore confidence, Agesilaus led an expedition into Arcadia, where the Spartans captured a small town (370).

In the winter of 370-369, however, Epaminondas led an invasion of Spartan territory reaching the outskirts of Sparta itself. The Thebans were unable to dislodge Agesilaus from his defensive position in the centre of the city and proceeded to lay waste the countryside. Within Sparta itself there was an attempted coup, and the insurgents took control of a easily defensible spot called the Issorium. Agesilaus persuaded the majority of those involved to disband and take up positions elsewhere. Then he arrested the ringleaders and put them to death.

Eventually the Thebans left and went back to Boeotia (369), although it is not clear why. One explanation given is that the weather turned nasty. Plutarch quotes a writer called Theopompus, who said that Agesilaus bribed the Thebans into leaving (Agesilaus 32). However, the Spartans had lost control of the territory of Messene, which had financially underpinned their whole way of life. Agesilaus refused to accept this loss and so continued the war against Thebes.

The Spartans sent an army to the aid of Mantinea, which was rebelling against the Thebans (362). While the Spartans under Agesilaus were on their way to Mantinea, Epaminondas and the Thebans marched against Sparta. Agesilaus was warned of what was happening and hastily returned to Sparta, where he fought off the Thebans. Two days later the Spartans and Thebans fought again at Mantinea, and in this battle Epaminondas was killed. A peace conference was held, but Agesilaus and the Spartans still refused to recognise Messenian independence, and so the war continued.

Sparta was getting seriously short of funds, and so, even though he was now over 80, Agesilaus hired himself out as a military commander to Tachos of Egypt, who was rebelling against Artaxerxes of Persia (361). Agesilaus was expecting to be put in command of the whole army, but in fact he was only put in charge of the mercenaries. Tachos’ cousin, Nectanebis was planning a coup against Tachos. Both sides sent delegations to Sparta asking for help, but the Spartans left the question of which to support to discretion of Agesilaus as the man on the spot. He duly switched sides and joined Nectanebis. Tachos fled and took refuge with Artaxerxes.

However, Necatanebis’ hold over Egypt was not secure, and another claimant for the throne rose up in Mendes. The Mendesian made approaches to Agesilaus with the result that Nectanebis grew suspicious. Agesilaus stayed with Nectanebis and after being besieged by the enemy, he defeated them. Agesilaus decided that his work in Egypt was finished and wanted to return to Sparta. He died on the way home at the age of 83 (359), and his body was transported back to Sparta embalmed in wax. He was succeeded as king by his son, Archidamus.

When the news reached Sparta, the relatives of the fallen were full of pride while the relatives of the survivors behaved as if they were in mourning. The survivors were in grave danger of being declared cowards and subject to various legal and social penalties. However, Agesilaus declared that the laws should be suspended for one day so that the survivors would not have to stand trial. Morale in Sparta was very low and many remembered the oracle about the lame king. However, Agesilaus was still popular and the Spartans continued to trust him as a leader in war and in international relations. To help restore confidence, Agesilaus led an expedition into Arcadia, where the Spartans captured a small town (370).

In the winter of 370-369, however, Epaminondas led an invasion of Spartan territory reaching the outskirts of Sparta itself. The Thebans were unable to dislodge Agesilaus from his defensive position in the centre of the city and proceeded to lay waste the countryside. Within Sparta itself there was an attempted coup, and the insurgents took control of a easily defensible spot called the Issorium. Agesilaus persuaded the majority of those involved to disband and take up positions elsewhere. Then he arrested the ringleaders and put them to death.

Eventually the Thebans left and went back to Boeotia (369), although it is not clear why. One explanation given is that the weather turned nasty. Plutarch quotes a writer called Theopompus, who said that Agesilaus bribed the Thebans into leaving (Agesilaus 32). However, the Spartans had lost control of the territory of Messene, which had financially underpinned their whole way of life. Agesilaus refused to accept this loss and so continued the war against Thebes.

The Spartans sent an army to the aid of Mantinea, which was rebelling against the Thebans (362). While the Spartans under Agesilaus were on their way to Mantinea, Epaminondas and the Thebans marched against Sparta. Agesilaus was warned of what was happening and hastily returned to Sparta, where he fought off the Thebans. Two days later the Spartans and Thebans fought again at Mantinea, and in this battle Epaminondas was killed. A peace conference was held, but Agesilaus and the Spartans still refused to recognise Messenian independence, and so the war continued.

Sparta was getting seriously short of funds, and so, even though he was now over 80, Agesilaus hired himself out as a military commander to Tachos of Egypt, who was rebelling against Artaxerxes of Persia (361). Agesilaus was expecting to be put in command of the whole army, but in fact he was only put in charge of the mercenaries. Tachos’ cousin, Nectanebis was planning a coup against Tachos. Both sides sent delegations to Sparta asking for help, but the Spartans left the question of which to support to discretion of Agesilaus as the man on the spot. He duly switched sides and joined Nectanebis. Tachos fled and took refuge with Artaxerxes.

However, Necatanebis’ hold over Egypt was not secure, and another claimant for the throne rose up in Mendes. The Mendesian made approaches to Agesilaus with the result that Nectanebis grew suspicious. Agesilaus stayed with Nectanebis and after being besieged by the enemy, he defeated them. Agesilaus decided that his work in Egypt was finished and wanted to return to Sparta. He died on the way home at the age of 83 (359), and his body was transported back to Sparta embalmed in wax. He was succeeded as king by his son, Archidamus.

When the news reached Sparta, the relatives of the fallen were full of pride while the relatives of the survivors behaved as if they were in mourning. The survivors were in grave danger of being declared cowards and subject to various legal and social penalties. However, Agesilaus declared that the laws should be suspended for one day so that the survivors would not have to stand trial. Morale in Sparta was very low and many remembered the oracle about the lame king. However, Agesilaus was still popular and the Spartans continued to trust him as a leader in war and in international relations. To help restore confidence, Agesilaus led an expedition into Arcadia, where the Spartans captured a small town (370).

In the winter of 370-369, however, Epaminondas led an invasion of Spartan territory reaching the outskirts of Sparta itself. The Thebans were unable to dislodge Agesilaus from his defensive position in the centre of the city and proceeded to lay waste the countryside. Within Sparta itself there was an attempted coup, and the insurgents took control of a easily defensible spot called the Issorium. Agesilaus persuaded the majority of those involved to disband and take up positions elsewhere. Then he arrested the ringleaders and put them to death.

Eventually the Thebans left and went back to Boeotia (369), although it is not clear why. One explanation given is that the weather turned nasty. Plutarch quotes a writer called Theopompus, who said that Agesilaus bribed the Thebans into leaving (Agesilaus 32). However, the Spartans had lost control of the territory of Messene, which had financially underpinned their whole way of life. Agesilaus refused to accept this loss and so continued the war against Thebes.

The Spartans sent an army to the aid of Mantinea, which was rebelling against the Thebans (362). While the Spartans under Agesilaus were on their way to Mantinea, Epaminondas and the Thebans marched against Sparta. Agesilaus was warned of what was happening and hastily returned to Sparta, where he fought off the Thebans. Two days later the Spartans and Thebans fought again at Mantinea, and in this battle Epaminondas was killed. A peace conference was held, but Agesilaus and the Spartans still refused to recognise Messenian independence, and so the war continued.

Sparta was getting seriously short of funds, and so, even though he was now over 80, Agesilaus hired himself out as a military commander to Tachos of Egypt, who was rebelling against Artaxerxes of Persia (361). Agesilaus was expecting to be put in command of the whole army, but in fact he was only put in charge of the mercenaries. Tachos’ cousin, Nectanebis was planning a coup against Tachos. Both sides sent delegations to Sparta asking for help, but the Spartans left the question of which to support to discretion of Agesilaus as the man on the spot. He duly switched sides and joined Nectanebis. Tachos fled and took refuge with Artaxerxes.

However, Necatanebis’ hold over Egypt was not secure, and another claimant for the throne rose up in Mendes. The Mendesian made approaches to Agesilaus with the result that Nectanebis grew suspicious. Agesilaus stayed with Nectanebis and after being besieged by the enemy, he defeated them. Agesilaus decided that his work in Egypt was finished and wanted to return to Sparta. He died on the way home at the age of 83 (359), and his body was transported back to Sparta embalmed in wax. He was succeeded as king by his son, Archidamus.


Further Reading

Ancient sources on Agesilaus II are Xenophon's Agesilaus and Hellenica "Life of Agesilaus" in Plutarch's Lives and "Agesilaus" in The Lives of Cornelius Nepos. Modern works which discuss Agesilaus II include J. B. Bury, A History of Greece to the Death of Alexander the Great (1900 3d rev. ed. 1951) M.L.W. Laistner, A History of the Greek World from 479 to 323 B.C. (1936 3d rev. ed. 1957) N.G.L. Hammond, A History of Greece to 322 B.C. (1959 2d ed. 1967) and A. H. M. Jones, Sparta (1967).


Agesilaus II

Agesilaus II (444/443-359): king of Sparta (r.400-359).

Agesilaus was born in the Eurypontid family, one of the two royal dynasties of Sparta, in 444/443, as the second son of king Archidamus II (477-426). Agesilaus' elder half-brother was Agis II, whose reign started in 426 and lasted until 400.

Agis' normal successor would have been his son Leotychidas, but he was generally considered to be a child of Alcibiades, an Athenian adventurer who had stayed at Sparta as an exile. For some time, there was a lot of quarreling going on. Agesilaus objected to Leotychidas' reign, saying that he was a mere bastard the prince replied by saying that there was an oracle that warned against a 'lame king' - and wasn't Agesilaus lame? The debate was concluded when Lysander, Sparta's best commander and a personal friend (and former lover) of Agesilaus, declared that the true meaning of the oracle had been that the 'lame king' was the king who was a bastard. So, in 400, Agesilaus was accepted as king by the Spartans.

Of course, the new king had to pay a prize. Lysander was the proponent of a militant and aggressive foreign policy, and from now on Agesilaus had to follow this policy too. In the year of his accession, he sent a general named Thibron to what is now Turkey in order to protect the Greek towns against oppression by the Persian satrap Tissaphernes. The expeditionary force consisted of some 5,000 members of the Spartan alliance, 300 Athenians, and the 6,000 surviving Greek mercenaries of the army that had been used by the Persian pretender Cyrus the Younger to attack his brother, king Artaxerxes II Mnemon. Extra power was added to Thibron's force by an alliance with Egypt, which had once been a Persian satrapy but had recently become independent under Amyrtaeus, a new pharaoh.

The size of the expeditionary force was considerable, but the army's movements were not well coordinated with that of the navy. Thibron and (after 399) his successor Dercyllidas wasted their time in Hellespontine Phrygia, fighting against the forces of satrap Pharnabazus. Finally, Dercyllidas' army moved to the south and invaded Caria, where it could have united with the Spartan navy and might have expelled the Persian navy from the Aegean, but now Pharnabazus and the satrap of Lydia, Tissaphernes, united their forces and lured the Spartans to the north. Shortly before the two armies joined battle, an armistice was concluded near Magnesia (397).

The two governments might have concluded a peace treaty on the terms agreed by Dercyllidas and Tissaphernes: Sparta would evacuate Asia, and Persia would recognize the independence of the Greek towns in Ionia. However, during the negotiations, the Persians continued to build a large navy in Phoenicia, and king Agesilaus concluded that the Persian peace offer was not seriously meant. (In fact, it is possible that the navy was to be directed against Egypt.) Now, Agesilaus decided to invade Asia personally. Lysander would be his assistant. They took 8,000 soldiers with him.

In the spring of 396, Agesilaus sacrificed at Aulis in Boeotia, praying for a safe crossing of the Aegean Sea. The site was well chosen: this was the place where, according to well-known legends, the Mycenaean king Agamemnon had once sacrificed before he went to Troy. Unfortunately, Agesilaus' sacrifice was soiled by the behavior of Boeotian cavalry men, and reinforcements that had been promised by Sparta's Greek allies did not turn up. The omens were bad.

Nevertheless, Agesilaus' campaign started successfully. He first sailed to Ephesus and concluded a truce with satrap Tissaphernes, which gave him a free hand to attack Pharnabazus. Lysander did the job. (Tissaphernes agreed to the truce because he expected reinforcements.)

The citadel of Sardes

In the winter of 396/395, Agesilaus recruited extra soldiers among the Ionian Greeks, and in the spring, he defeated Tissaphernes in the neighborhood of Sardes. The spoils were very large, and Tissaphernes was killed by one Tithraustes, who was sent as the new satrap of Caria and Ionia. He was a clever diplomat, who paid a large amount of money to Agesilaus, under the condition that he went back to the north and attacked Pharnabazus.

When Agesilaus was marching to the north again, he received new instructions from the Spartan government: he had to sail to and attack Caria -which was suffering from the change of satrap- and continue to the east, to Cilicia. This strategy made sense. It had been employed by the Athenians in the fifth century, and was a better way to expel the Persians from the Aegean region than fighting against the satraps of Hellespontine Phrygia and Caria/Ionia. Alexander the Great was to do the same thing in 333.

Unfortunately, Agesilaus was unable to do this. He raided the satrapy of Pharnabazus (as he had promised to Tithraustes) and acquired large spoils. But the satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia did not come to terms, and therefore, the naval offensive had to be postponed. Agesilaus decided on a march to the interior of Asia along the Royal road. However, his progress was slow because he was unable to capture the towns - the Spartans were famous for their inability to conduct siege warfare. This gave the Persians opportunity to build up a new navy, and -even worse to the Spartan case- to find a capable admiral, the Athenian Conon.

In 395, Conon and the Persian navy captured Rhodes, which was to be their base for operations in the Aegean Sea. (A large grain fleet that Egypt had sent to Sparta was captured, because its admiral did not know of the capture of Rhodes.) Next year, Conon was ready to strike. But so was Agesilaus, who had by now reached Gordium. However, the summer of 395 had seen several risings against the Spartan hegemony in the mainland of Greece, especially in Boeotia. This forced the Spartan government to recall Agesilaus in the spring of 394.

We may speculate what would have happened if the Spartan hegemony in Greece had remained unchallenged. In that case, the situation would have been more or less identical to that of the year 333, when the Macedonian king Alexander the Great raided the interior of Asia and the Persian admiral Pharnabazus conducted operations in the Aegean Sea. The result was a Macedonian victory, and the same may have been true for Agesilaus. On the other hand, Alexander knew how to conduct a siege, something that the Spartan king did not.

However this may be, Agesilaus was forced to return to the Greek mainland -he carried 1,000 talents of loot with him- where he defeated the Boeotians on 14 August 394, near Coronea.

By now, the Corinthian War had started: Sparta had to fight against the Boeotians, Corinthians, Athenians, and the Persian navy. They had gathered at Corinth to invade the Peloponnese, but the Spartans had defeated the invaders in June or July. Agesilaus' victory at Coronea was a further Spartan success. Twenty-three years were to pass until a Greek army dared to oppose the Spartans.

In 392-390, Agesilaus was the most important Spartan general in an inconclusive war that concentrated on the region surrounding Corinth. In 389, he was fighting in Acarnania in the west, which he forced into surrender. However, the Spartans were unable to break their opponents' strength, and the enemy coalition was incapable of pushing back the Spartans. Both sides used mercenaries, which marked the beginning of a professionalisation of the conduct of war.

Meanwhile, Conon and the Persian navy were master of the Aegean Sea and ravaged the coasts of the Peloponnese. Persian gold sponsored Thebes and Corinth. The Spartans understood that Persia was their real enemy, and opened negotiations with Tiribazus, who had succeeded Tithraustes as satrap of Ionia and Caria. At a peace congress, the Spartan envoy Antalcidas suggested the cession of all Greek towns in Asia and requested the independence and autonomy of the Greek towns in Europe.

By now, Athens had become dangerous for the Persian king Artaxerxes: it had rebuilt parts of its empire and was threatening Cyprus. Besides, it had concluded an alliance with the Egyptian king Achoris. Therefore, the king agreed to Antalcidas' proposal. He was to side with Sparta for such time as Athens refused to sign a peace treaty. Antalcidas now seized the Athenian possessions near the Hellespont and a second Spartan fleet blockaded Athens. Ultimately, Athens gave in, and the King's Peace was concluded: all Greek towns were to be independent and autonomous, and the common peace was to be guaranteed by Sparta (387/386). In other words, the war-weary towns on the Greek mainland accepted Sparta as their leader, and the Greek towns in Asia were sacrificed to the great king.

For almost a decade, Greece remained more or less at peace. However, in the last week of 379, Thebes revolted and expelled its Spartan garrison. At Sparta, the conduct of the war was entrusted to Agesilaus. He took his task very seriously, improved the recruiting system of the Spartan army, and invaded Boeotia in the autumn of 378. However, he was unable to conduct a siege, the Thebans did not offer battle, and he was forced to return to Sparta, having looted the country. The same happened in 377. The garrisons that he left behind in Boeotia, were expelled one by one by the Thebans.

The Theban successes in Boeotia covered Athens, which reorganized its empire in the Second Athenian Confederacy. The Athenians were just as successful as the Thebans (377). When Athens had regained its former naval superiority, it concluded a peace treaty with Sparta, which grudgingly gave in to have its hands free in Boeotia (July 374).

In the summer of 371, the Spartan king Cleombrotus, Agesilaus' younger colleague, invaded Boeotia with a large army that was to settle all accounts. At Leuctra, it met the Theban army of Epaminondas, which was perhaps half the size of the Spartan army. However, the Thebans placed their troops at an angle with the Spartan troops, and were able to concentrate their forces on one section of the Spartan battle line. They broke through the Spartan lines, and their victory was complete. For the first time, the Spartans had been defeated by an army smaller than their own. Even worse, it had hardly any soldiers left, and the next decades it was to look for money to buy mercenaries

Immediately, the Spartan coalition began to disintegrate. The Spartans gave Agesilaus, now 73 or 74 years old, full powers to reform the constitution and strengthen the army, but he did not have the imagination to find new ways.

In the winter of 370/369, the Boeotians again did the impossible: they invaded the Peloponnese and attacked Sparta at home. The Spartan populace wanted to attack the army of Epaminondas, but Agesilaus convinced them that they were no match for the Thebans. However, he managed to defend Sparta itself - or so it seemed. Probably, Epaminondas knew that looting Sparta was unnecessary, because there was nothing to take away from this poor village. Meanwhile, Agesilaus renewed the peace treaty with Athens.

In 368, Sparta was really defeated - without a battle. This time, the Thebans managed to liberate the helots of Messenia, which had always been the work force of the Spartans. This meant the economic collapse of Sparta. Agesilaus sent envoys to Persia, but they did not obtain the money Sparta needed to buy mercenaries. On the contrary, the great king wanted the King's Peace to be renewed, with Thebes as supreme Greek power. To Athens and Sparta, this was unacceptable.

Agesilaus now started a career as a mercenary leader. In 367, he joined forces with Ariobarzanes, a satrap revolting against the great king. In this way, he hoped to earn the money Sparta needed. He was not unsuccessful, and when the Thebans again invaded the Peloponnese in 362, he managed to prevent the capture of Sparta. However, when the Spartans and Athenians attacked the Theban expeditionary force at Mantinea, they were defeated.

The result was a stalemate, because the Theban leader Epaminondas died in action. In the winter, a League of Greek City-States was formed, which swore to observe a general peace. Unfortunately, Sparta was unable to join. It could not accept the loss of Messenia and would try to force its inhabitants back into servitude.

However, it lacked the financial means to reorganize its army. Therefore, Agesilaus again became a mercenary leader, this time siding with the Egyptian king Teos, who was preparing an attack on the Persian territories in Syria. However, when his expeditionary force had reached Phoenicia, news arrived that Teos' brother Tjahapimu, the governor of Egypt, had revolted and had offered the throne to Nectanebo II (360). Almost immediately, Agesilaus sided with the new pharaoh.

One of the problems the new king had to cope with, was another would-be king at Mendes in the eastern Delta, but the mercenaries of Agesilaus made quick work of him. It was the last victory of the old man. Nectanebo no longer needed him, and sent him back with a bonus of 250 talents. When Agesilaus reached Cyrene, he fell ill and died. Nectanebo kindly ordered that the corpse would be royally embalmed before it would be sent to Sparta.

This was the end of Agesilaus. He had been a courageous and disciplined soldier, whose bad fortune it was that he had survived the era in which courage and discipline were the road to success. In the fourth century, generals had to be more creative, and this was precisely the quality he was lacking. Agesilaus also lacked the imagination to reform the Spartan constitution after the defeat at Leuctra. In spite of his personal courage, he was the wrong man to lead Sparta after 371.


Agis II

Agis II (Greek: Ἄγις died c. 401 BC) was the 18th Eurypontid king of Sparta, the eldest son of Archidamus II by his first wife, and half-brother of Agesilaus II. [1] He ruled with his Agiad co-monarch Pausanias. [2]

Agis II
King of Sparta
Reign427–401/400 BC
PredecessorArchidamus II
SuccessorAgesilaus II
BornSparta
Died401 BC
Sparta
SpouseTimaea, Queen of Sparta
IssueLeotychides (possibly illegitimate)
DynastyEurypontid
FatherArchidamus II

Agis succeeded his father Archidamus II in 427 BC, and reigned a little more than 26 years. In the summer of 426 BC, he led an army of Peloponnesians and their allies as far as the isthmus, with the intention of invading Attica but they were deterred from advancing farther by a succession of earthquakes. [3] In the spring of the following year he led an army into Attica, but ceased his advance fifteen days after he had entered Attica. [4] In 419 BC, the Argives, at the instigation of Alcibiades, attacked Epidaurus and Agis with a large force from Lacedaemon set out and marched to the frontier city of Leuctra. No one, Thucydides tells us, knew the purpose of this expedition. It was probably to make a diversion in favour of Epidaurus. [5]

At Leuctra the unfavourable outcome of various sacrifices deterred Agis from proceeding. He therefore led his troops back, and sent around a notice to the allies to be ready for an expedition at the end of the sacred month of the Carnean festival. When the Argives repeated their attack on Epidaurus, the Spartans again marched to the frontier town, Caryae, and again turned back, supposedly on account of the aspect of the victims. In the middle of the following summer of 418 BC the Epidaurians being still hard pressed by the Argives, the Lacedaemonians with their whole force and some allies, under the command of Agis, invaded Argolis. By a skilful manoeuvre he succeeded in intercepting the Argives, and posted his army advantageously between them and the city. But just as the battle was about to begin, the Argive generals Thrasyllus and Alciphron met with Agis and prevailed on him to conclude a truce for four months.

Agis, without disclosing his motives, pulled his army back. On his return he was severely censured in Sparta for having thus thrown away the opportunity of reducing Argos, especially as the Argives had seized the opportunity afforded by his return and taken Orchomenus. It was proposed to pull down his house, and inflict on him a fine of 100,000 drachmas. But on his earnest entreaty they contented themselves with appointing a council of war, consisting of 10 Spartans, who needed to be present before he could lead an army out of the city. [6] Shortly afterwards they received intelligence from Tegea, that, if not promptly reinforced, the party favourable to Sparta in that city would be compelled to surrender. The Spartans immediately sent their whole force under the command of Agis. He restored stability at Tegea, and then marched to Mantineia. By turning the waters to flood the lands of Mantineia, he succeeded in drawing the army of the Mantineans and Athenians down to the level ground. A battle ensued, in which the Spartans were victorious. The Battle of Mantinea was reckoned one of the most important battles ever fought between the Grecian states. [7]

In 417 BC, when the news reached Sparta of the counter-revolution at Argos, in which the oligarchical and Spartan faction was overthrown, an army was sent there under Agis. He was unable to restore the defeated party, but he destroyed the long walls which the Argives had begun to extend down to the sea, and took Hysiae. [8] In the spring of 413 BC, Agis entered Attica with a Peloponnesian army, and fortified Decelea [9] and in the winter of the same year, after the news of the disastrous fate of the Sicilian expedition had reached Greece, he marched northwards to levy contributions on the allies of Sparta, for the purpose of constructing a fleet. While at Decelea he acted largely independent of the Spartan government, and received embassies from the disaffected allies of the Athenians, as from the Boeotians and other allies of Sparta. [10] He seems to have remained at Decelea until the end of the Peloponnesian War. In 411 BC, during the administration of the Four Hundred, he made an unsuccessful attempt on Athens itself. [11] Afterwards the focus of the Peloponnesian War shifted to Asia Minor, and Lysander assumed a greater role in the siege of Athens. After victory was secured, Agis voted to charge his Agiad co-monarch Pausanias with treason, but Pausanias was acquitted. [12]

In 401 BC, the command of the war against the notoriously disloyal Elis was entrusted to Agis, who in the third year compelled the Eleans to sue for peace, acknowledge the freedom of their Perioeci (Triphylians and others), and allow Spartans to take part in the Olympic Games and sacrifices. [2] As he was returning from Delphi, where he had gone to consecrate a tenth of the spoil, he fell sick at Heraea in Arcadia, and died a few days after he reached Sparta. [13] He was buried in Sparta, with unparalleled solemnity and pomp. [2]

Agis left a son, Leotychides. However, he was excluded from the throne, as there was some suspicion with regard to his legitimacy. A common legend states that while Alcibiades was in Sparta, Agis II suspected that Alcibiades had slept with his queen, Timaea (and that Alcidbiades had fathered Leotychides). [14] [15] It was probably at the suggestion of Agis that orders were sent out to Astyochus to put him to death. Alcibiades, however, received warning (according to some accounts from Timaea herself), and evaded the Spartans. [16] [17] However, others claim that, judging from the sources, Leotychides was a man at the time of Agis' death, and Alcibiades as his father was a later replacement for a now unknown lover. [18]


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